Recess Enjoyment, Affect, and Preferences by Gender and Developmental Level in Elementary School

in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education
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  • 1 Brock University
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Purpose: This study assessed students’ levels and associations between recess enjoyment, positive affect, environmental factors, and activity preferences overall and as a function of gender and developmental level. Methods: An online survey was used to gather data from 464 students in Grades 4–8 from nine elementary schools in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Results: When the variance explained by gender and developmental level was controlled for in this study, both recess environment and activity preferences accounted for a significant portion of the variability related to affect and enjoyment of recess. Having equipment and space and preference for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, organizing and playing games, and free time predicted both affect and enjoyment. Conclusion: These and other findings enable educators to progress in understanding how they might adjust approaches to recess to facilitate more enjoyment and positive affect in elementary school students especially by gender and developmental level.

Lodewyk is with the Department of Kinesiology, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada. McNamara is with the Department of Child and Youth Studies, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.

Lodewyk (klodewyk@brocku.ca) is corresponding author.
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