Chapter 2: Reversing Policy Neglect in U.S. Physical Education: A Policy-Focused Primer

in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education
View More View Less
  • 1 Arizona State University
  • | 2 University at Albany, SUNY
  • | 3 University of South Carolina
  • | 4 The Ohio State University
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $64.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $86.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $122.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

Notwithstanding the contributions of a few policy experts, overall physical education is constrained by policy illiteracy and neglect. A brief historical perspective on physical education policy provides a foundation for “a policy primer” founded on three recurring needs: (a) antecedent and corequisite factors meriting attention in support of policy improvement, (b) field-wide capacity-building in support of policy advocacy and improvement, and (c) specialized policy courses and seminars in physical education teacher education and doctoral physical education teacher education programs. Recommendations for policy-focused research and development structure a new agenda that merits attention and action.

van der Mars is with Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ, USA. Lawson is with the University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY, USA. Mitchell is with the University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA. Ward is with The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Ward (Ward.116@osu.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Belansky, E.S., Cutforth, N., Gilbert, L., Litt, J., Reed, H., Scarbro, S., & Marshall, J.A. (2013). Local wellness policy 5 years later: Is it making a difference for students in low-income, rural Colorado elementary schools? Preventing Chronic Disease, 10, E184. PubMed ID: 24199737 doi:10.5888/pcd10.130002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burson, S.L., Mulhearn, S.C., Castelli, D.M., & van der Mars, H. (2021). Essential components of physical education: Policy and environment. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. doi:10.1080/02701367.2021.1884178

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carlson, J.A., Sallis, J.F., Chriqui, J.F., Schneider, L., McDermid, L.C., & Agron, P. (2013). State policies about physical activity minutes in physical education or during school. Journal of School Health, 83(3), 150156. PubMed ID: 23343315 doi:10.1111/josh.12010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Increasing physical activity: A report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(RR-18), 114. PubMed ID: 11699650

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and SHAPE America-Society of Health and Physical Educators. (2017). Strategies for recess in schools. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/physicalactivity/pdf/2019_04_25_SchoolRecess_strategies_508tagged.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fullan, M. (2016). The elusive nature of whole system improvement in education. Journal of Educational Change, 17(4), 539544. doi:10.1007/s10833-016-9289-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garcia, D. (in press). Teach truth to power: How to engage in education policy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Georgia House Bill 229. (2009). Student health and physical education act. Retrieved from http://www.legis.ga.gov/Legislation/20092010/87826.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardman, K. (2013). W(h)ither school physical education provision in Europe: Two decades of research evidence. Journal of the International Federation of Physical Education, 83, 115119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kahan, D., & McKenzie, T.L. (2015). The potential and reality of physical education in controlling overweight and obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 105(4), 653659. PubMed ID: 25713972 doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302355

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kahan, D., & McKenzie, T.L. (2017a). Energy expenditure estimates during school physical education: Potential vs. reality? Preventive Medicine, 95, 8288. PubMed ID: 27979706 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.12.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kahan, D., & McKenzie, T.L. (2017b). Physical education policies and practices in California private secondary schools. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 14(2), 130137. PubMed ID: 27918685 doi:10.1123/jpah.2016-0171

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Killian, C.M., Kern, B.D., Ellison, D.W., Graber, K.C., & Woods, A.M. (2020). State lawmaker’s views on childhood obesity and related school wellness legislation. Journal of School Health, 90(4), 257263. PubMed ID: 31984511 doi:10.1111/josh.12871

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lambert, K., & Penney, D. (2020). Curriculum interpretation and policy enactment in health and physical education: Researching teacher educators as policy actors. Sport, Education and Society, 25(4), 378394. doi:10.1080/13573322.2019.1613636

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawson, H.A. (2016). Stewarding the discipline with cross-boundary leadership. Quest, 68(2), 91115. doi:10.1080/00336297.2016.1151449

  • Lawson, H.A. (2017). Reproductive, reformist, and transformative socialization. In K.A.R. Richards & K.L. Gaudreault (Eds.), New perspectives on teacher socialization in physical education (pp. 243261). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawson, H.A. (2018). Physical education in the industrial age school: An institutional perspective. In H.A. Lawson (Ed.), Redesigning physical education: An equity agenda in which every child matters (pp. 2140). Philadelphia, PA: Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawson, H.A. (2020). Professional socialization and mode 2 knowledge in the neo-liberal university prototype. Quest, 72, 123.

  • Locke, L.F. (1974). The ecology of the gymnasium: What the tourists never see. Paper presented at Proceedings of the Southern Association for Physical Education of Southern Women (SAPECW), Gatlinburg, TN, ERIC Document ED 104 823.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lorusso, J., Hargreaves, S., Morgan, A., & Lawson, H.A. (2020). The public policy challenge: Preparing and supporting teacher educators and teachers as change agents and policy entrepreneurs. In A. MacPhail & H.A. Lawson (Eds.), School physical education and teacher education: Collaborative redesign for the 21st Century (pp. 153164). New York, NY & London, UK: Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lounsbery, M.A.F. (2017). School physical activity: Policy matters. Kinesiology Review, 6, 5159.

  • Lounsbery, M.A., Holt, K.A., Monnat, S.M., Funk, B., & McKenzie, T.L. (2014). JROTC as a substitute for PE: Really? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 85(3), 414419. PubMed ID: 25141093 doi:10.1080/02701367.2014.930408

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lounsbery, M.A., McKenzie, T.L., & Smith, N. (2019). Prioritizing physical activity in schools: Educational leaders’ perspectives. Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, 4(22), 248256. doi:10.1249/TJX.0000000000000108

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lounsbery, M.A., McKenzie, T.L., Trost, S.G., & Smith, N.J. (2011). Facilitators and barriers to adopting evidence-based physical education in elementary schools. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 8(Suppl. 1), S17S25. PubMed ID: 21350258 doi:10.1123/jpah.8.s1.s17

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCullick, B.A., Baker, T., Tomporowski, P.D., Templin, T.J., Lux, K., & Isaac, T. (2012). An analysis of state physical education policies. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 31(2), 200210. doi:10.1123/jtpe.31.2.200

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mintrom, M. (2019). So you want to be a policy entrepreneur? Policy Design and Practice, 2(4), 307323. doi:10.1080/25741292.2019.1675989

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, M., & Bott, T. (2012). Program advocacy: Parent night with a purpose. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 83(5), 4246. doi:10.1080/07303084.2012.10598779

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Academy of Sciences. (2017). The challenge of treating obesity and overweight: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from https://www.nap.edu/download/24830

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Association for Sport and Physical Education & American Heart Association. (2006). 2006 shape of the nation report: Status of physical education in the USA. Reston, VA: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Association for Sport and Physical Education & American Heart Association. (2010). 2010 shape of the nation report: Status of physical education in the USA. Reston, VA: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Association for Sport and Physical Education & American Heart Association. (2012). 2012 shape of the nation report: Status of physical education in the USA. Reston, VA: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NPR/Robert Wood Johnson Foundation/Harvard School of Public Health (2013). Education and health in schools: A survey of parents. Retrieved from https://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2013/12/education-and-health-in-american-schools-2013.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, M., & Patton, K. (2016). What research tells us about effective continuing professional development for physical education teachers. In M. Parker & K. Patton (Eds.), Routledge handbook of physical education pedagogies (pp. 465478). Philadelphia, PA: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prusak, K.A., Pennington, T., Graser, S.V., Beighle, A., & Morgan, C.F. (2010). Systemic success in physical education: The East Valley phenomenon. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29(1), 85106. doi:10.1123/jtpe.29.1.85

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rice, E.A., & Hutchinson, J.L. (1952). A brief history of physical education. New York, NY: A.S. Barnes and Company.

  • Richardson, V. (2006). Stewards of a field, stewards of an enterprise: The doctorate in education. In C.M. Golde & G.E. Walker (Eds.), Envisioning the future of doctoral education: Preparing stewards of the discipline (pp. 251268). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rink, J., & Mitchell, M. (2002) High stakes assessment: A journey into unknown territory. Quest, 54(3), 205223. doi:10.1080/00336297.2002.10491775

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sallis, J.F. (2010). We do not have to sacrifice children’s health to achieve academic goals. The Journal of Pediatrics, 156(5), 696697. PubMed ID: 20304427 doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.01.011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sallis, J.F., & McKenzie, T.L. (1991). Physical education’s role in public health. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62(2), 124137. PubMed ID: 1925034 doi:10.1080/02701367.1991.10608701

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sallis, J.F., McKenzie, T.L., Beets, M.W., Beighle, A., Erwin, H., & Lee, S. (2012). Physical education’s role in public health: Steps forward and backward over 20 Years and HOPE for the future. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83(2), 125135. PubMed ID: 22808697 doi:10.1080/02701367.2012.10599842

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siedentop, D., & Locke, L.F. (1997). Making a difference for physical education; what professors and practitioners must build together. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 68(4), 2533. doi:10.1080/07303084.1997.10604923

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siedentop, D., & van der Mars H. (2012). Introduction to physical education, fitness, and sport (8th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Slater, S.J., Nicholson, L., Chriqui, J., Turner, L., & Chaloupka, F. (2012). The impact of state laws and district policies on physical education and recess practices in a nationally representative sample of U.S. public elementary schools. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 166(4), 311316.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Society of Health and Physical Educators of America and the American Heart Association. (2016). 2016 Shape of the nation: Status of physical education in the USA. Reston, VA: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • State of Arizona. (2018). Chapter 130-Senate Bill 1083. Retrieved from https://www.azleg.gov/legtext/53leg/2R/laws/0130.pdf

  • Tannehill, D., van der Mars, H., & MacPhail, A. (2015). Building effective physical education programs. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

  • Turner, K. (2020). Personal communication (program supervisor, health and physical education). Olympia, WA: Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Congress. (2001). H.R. 1, No child left behind act of 2001 (NCLB). Retrieved from https://www.congress.gov/bill/107th-congress/house-bill/1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Congress. (2010). Healthy, hunger-free kids act of 2010. Retrieved from https://fns-prod.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/PL_111-296.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Congress. (2015). Public Law 114-95, Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). Retrieved from https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/senate-bill/1177/text

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). Physical activity guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: Author.

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2018). Physical activity guidelines for Americans (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. (2019). The classification of laws associated with school students (CLASS). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://class.cancer.gov

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van der Mars, H. (2011). Reflecting on the state of U.S. doctoral PETE Programs … “Houston, we’ve had a problem.” Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 30(2), 189208. doi:10.1123/jtpe.30.2.189

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van der Mars, H. (2018). Policy development in physical education… Our last best chance. Quest, 70(2), 169190. doi:10.1080/00336297.2018.1439391

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van der Mars, H. (2019, October). “Physical education being treated like other school subjects”… Did he really say that? Is that even possible? Keynote address presented at the SHAPE Washington State Convention, Seattle, WA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van der Mars, H., & Lorenz, K.A. (2020). CSPAPs: History, foundations, possibilities, and barriers. In R.L. Carson & C.A. Webster (Eds.), Comprehensive school physical activity programs: Putting research into evidence-based practice (pp. 318; 333337). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, M.C., Haertel, G.D., & Walberg, H.J. (1993). Toward a knowledge base for school learning. Review of Educational Research, 63(3), 249294. doi:10.3102/00346543063003249

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ward, P., Parker, M., Sutherland, S., & Sinclair, C. (2011). A critical examination of the curriculum of doctoral-physical education teacher education-programs. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 30(2), 145156. doi:10.1123/jtpe.30.2.145

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Washington State Legislature. (2017). RCW 28A.230.055, Physical education programs-Annual review. Retrieved from https://app.leg.wa.gov/RCW/default.aspx?cite=28A.230.055

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weible, C.M., & Ingold, K. (2018). Why advocacy coalitions matter and practical insights about them. Policy & Politics, 46(2), 325343. doi:10.1332/030557318X15230061739399

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, X., Ramesh, M., Howlett, M., & Fritzen, S.A. (2018). The public policy primer: Managing the policy process (2nd ed.). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 51 51 51
Full Text Views 12 12 12
PDF Downloads 7 7 7