PETE Faculty Preferences and Responsibilities for Research, Teaching, and Service in the United States

in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $63.00

1 year subscription

USD  $84.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $119.00

2 year subscription

USD  $156.00

Purpose: Grounded in occupational socialization theory, the purpose of this investigation was to examine U.S. physical education teacher education faculty members’ work role preferences, how their actual work role responsibilities compare to institutional expectations, and differences in these preferences and responsibilities based on gender and institution type (i.e., bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral institutions). Methods: Participants included 323 physical education teacher education faculty members (188 females and 135 males) from 230 institutions of higher education who completed an online survey. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a series of 3 × 2 (Institution Type × Gender) factorial analysis of variances. Results: There was relative alignment between what faculty members are expected to do, what they prefer to do, and how they actually spend their time. There are, however, some important differences based on gender and institutional classification. Discussion/Conclusion: Results are discussed within the framework of occupational socialization theory and with reference to faculty role expectations and the propensity for role conflict.

The authors are with the Department of Kinesiology & Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.

Graber (kgraber@illinois.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Antony, J.S., & Taylor, E. (2004). Theories and strategies of academic career socialization: Improving paths to the professoriate for black graduate students. In D.H. Wulff & A.E. Austin (Eds.), Paths to the professoriate: Strategies for enhancing the preparation of future faculty (pp. 92–114). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • August, L., & Waltman, J. (2004). Culture, climate, and contribution: Career satisfaction among female faculty. Research in Higher Education, 45, 177–192. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Austin, A.E. (2002). Preparing the next generation of faculty: Graduate school as socialization to the academic career. The Journal of Higher Education, 73, 94–121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bracken, S.J., Allen, J.K., & Dean, D.R. (Eds.). (2006). Gendered perspectives in faculty roles and work lives. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

  • Brew, A., Boud, D., Namgung, S.U., Lucas, L., & Crawdford, K. (2016). Research productivity and academics’ conceptions of research. Higher Education, 71, 681–697. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, W. (2015). Undoing the demos: Neoliberalism’s stealth revolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Bulger, S., Hannon, J.C., & Jones, E.M. (2016). Stepping off the dance floor for a view from the balcony: Observations for physical education teacher education programs in interesting times. Quest, 68, 475–490. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burke-Smalley, L.A., Rau, B.L., Neely, A.R., & Evans, W.R. (2017). Factors perpetuating the research-teaching gap in management: A review and propositions. The International Journal of Management Education, 15, 501–512. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bylsma, P.E. (2015). The teleological effect of neoliberalism on American higher education. College Student Affairs Leadership, 2(2). Retrieved from https://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/csal/vol2/iss2/3/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Calleson, D.C., Jordan, C., & Seifer, S.D. (2005). Community-engaged scholarship: Is faculty work in communities a true academic enterprise? Academic Medicine, 80, 317–321. PubMed ID: 15793012 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carson, R.L., Weiss, H.M., & Templin, T.J. (2010). Ecological momentary assessment: A research method for studying the daily lives of teachers. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 33(2), 165–182. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, S.M., & Corcoran, M. (1986). Perspectives on the professional socialization of women faculty: A case of accumulative disadvantage? The Journal of Higher Education, 57, 20–43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Curtner-Smith, M. (2017). Acculturation, recruitment, and the development of orientations. In K.A.R. Richards & K.L. Gaudreault (Eds.), Teacher socialization in physical education: New Perspectives (pp. 33–46). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Egan, M.K., & Cavey, J.C. (2015). Stressing out: Connecting race, gender, and stress with faculty productivity. The Journal of Higher Education, 86, 923–954. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eisner, S. (2015). Onboarding the faculty: A model for win-win mentoring. American Journal of Business Education, 8(1), 7–22.

  • Gardiner-Walsh, S., Kemmery, M., & Compton, M.V. (2014). First steps in the journey from consumers to producers of research in deaf education. American Annals of the Deaf, 159, 59–74. PubMed ID: 25051883 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Golde, C.M., & Walker, G. E. (Eds.). (2006). Envisioning the future of doctoral education: Preparing stewards of the discipline—Carnegie essays on the doctorate. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gormley, D.K. (2003). Factors affecting job satisfaction in nursing faculty: A meta-analysis. Journal of Nursing Education, 42, 174–178. PubMed ID: 12710809

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graber, K.C., Erwin, H., Woods, A.M., Rhoades, J.L., & Zhu, W. (2011). A national profile of teacher education faculty: The construction of an online survey. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 15, 245–256. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graber, K.C., Killian, C.M., & Woods, A.M. (2017). Professional socialization, teacher education programs, and dialectics. In K.A.R. Richards & K.L. Gaudreault (Eds.), Teacher socialization in physical education: New perspectives (pp. 63–78). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graber, K.C., Woods, A.M., Killian, C.M., Richards, K.A.R., & Rhoades, J. (in press). My, how you have changed, PETE: An updated demographic profile of U.S. teacher education faculty. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guarino, C.M., & Borden, V.M.H. (2017). Faculty service loads and gender: Are women taking care of the academic family? Research in Higher Education, 58, 672–694. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henderson, B.B. (2011). Publishing patterns at state comprehensive universities: The changing nature of faculty work and the quest for status. The Journal of the Professoriate, 5(2), 35–66.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research. (2015). The Carnegie classification of institutions of higher education, 2015 edition. Bloomington, IN: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Judge, T.A., & Colquitt, J.A. (2004). Organizational justice and stress: The mediating role of work-family conflict. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 395–404. PubMed ID: 15161400 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lackritz, J.R. (2004). Exploring burnout among university faculty: Incidence, performance, and demographic issues. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 713–729. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawson, H.A. (1983a). Toward a model of teacher socialization in physical education: Entry into schools, teachers’ role orientations, and longevity in teaching (part 2). Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 3(1), 3–15. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawson, H.A. (1983b). Toward a model of teacher socialization in physical education: The subjective warrant, recruitment, and teacher education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 2(3), 3–16. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawson, H.A. (1991). Future research on physical education teacher education professors. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 10, 229–248. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawson, H.A. (2016). Stewarding the discipline with cross-boundary leadership. Quest, 68, 91–115. doi:

  • Lease, S.H. (1999). Occupational role stressors, coping, support, and hardiness as predictors of strain in academic faculty: An emphasis on new and female faculty. Research in Higher Education, 40, 285–307. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, H.M., & Curtner-Smith, M. (2011). Impact of occupational socialization on the perspectives and practices of sport pedagogy doctoral students. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 30, 296–313. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lortie, D.C. (1975). Schoolteacher: A sociological study. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

  • McEvoy, E., MacPhail, A., & Heikinaro-Johansson, P. (2015). Physical education teacher educators: A 25-year scoping review of literature. Teaching and Teacher Education, 51, 162–181. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merrem, A.M., & Curtner-Smith, M.D. (2018). Occupational socialization of sport pedagogy faculty: Two German case studies. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 37, 154–163. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Metzler, M.W., & Freedman, M.S. (1985). Here’s looking at you, PETE: A profile of physical education teacher education faculty. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 4, 123–133. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monroe, K., Ozyurt, S., Wrigley, T., & Alexander, A. (2008). Gender equality in academia: Bad news from the trenches, and some possible solutions. Perspectives on Politics, 6, 215–233. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Office for Faculty Development and Diversity Harvard University. (2013). Faculty climate survey 2013. Cambridge, MA: Author.

  • Padilla, M.A., & Thompson, J.N. (2016). Burning out faculty at doctoral research universities. Stress and Health, 32, 551–558. PubMed ID: 26620490 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, K.A.R., & Fletcher, T. (2018). Learning to work together: Conceptualizing doctoral supervision as a critical friendship. Sport, Education and Society. Advance online publication. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, K.A.R., & Levesque-Bristol, C. (2016). Role conflict in the academy: A faculty development perspective. The Journal of Faculty Development, 30(1), 7–14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, K.A.R., McLoughlin, G.M., Ivy, V.N., & Gaudreault, K.L. (2017). Understanding physical education doctoral students’ perceptions of socialization. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 36, 510–520. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, K.A.R., Templin, T.J., & Graber, K.C. (2014). The socialization of teachers in physical education: Review and recommendations for future works. Kinesiology Review, 3, 113–134. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Russell, J., Gaudreault, K.L., & Richards, K.A.R. (2016). Doctoral student socialization: Developing stewards of the physical education profession. Quest, 68, 439–456. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schempp, P.G., & Graber, K.C. (1992). Teacher socialization from a dialectical perspective: Pretraining through induction. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 11, 329–348. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

  • Taylor, J.R., & Van Every, E.J. (2000). The emergent organization: Communication as its site and surface. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

  • Templin, T.J., & Schempp, P.G. (Eds.). (1989). Socialization into physical education: Learning to teach. Indianapolis, IN: Benchmark Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tierney, W.G., & Bensimon, E.M. (1996). Community and socialization in academe. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

  • Vazquez, E.M., & Levin, J.S. (2018). The tyranny of neoliberalism in the American academic profession. American Association of University Professors. Retrieved from https://www.aaup.org/article/tyranny-neoliberalism-american-academic-profession#.XHuIQcR7laQ

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ward, P. (2016). Policies, agenda and practices influencing doctoral education in physical education teacher education. Quest, 68, 420–438. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warner, R.M. (2012). Applied statistics: From bivariate through multivariate techniques (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

  • Weidman, J.C., & Stein, E.L. (2003). Socialization of doctoral students to academic norms. Research in Higher Education, 44, 641–656. doi:

  • Woods, M.L., Goc Karp, G., & Judd, M.R. (2011). Search chair and physical education teacher perceptions about filling PETE positions. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 30, 129–144. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 86 86 9
Full Text Views 21 21 3
PDF Downloads 15 15 1