On the Shoulders of Little Giants: A Testimonial of Otherfathering and Social Capital in PETE

in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $63.00

1 year subscription

USD  $84.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $119.00

2 year subscription

USD  $156.00

In this autoethnography, I utilized the concepts of otherfathering, social capital, and testimonio (i.e., testimonial) to explicate the need for and value of Black male mentors in physical education teacher education (PETE). To do so, I describe how three of my mentors operated as otherfathers by imbuing me with the social capital needed to be successful in academia. I conclude by arguing for specific intersectional efforts to support Black men and Black women in PETE, along with the establishment of organizational efforts, to meet the needs of Black professionals in PETE.

The author is with The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX.

Clark (Langston.Clark@utsa.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Antrop-González, R., & Jesús, A.D. (2006). Toward a theory of critical care in urban small school reform: Examining structures and pedagogies of caring in two Latino community-based schools. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 19(4), 409–433. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Auburn University. (2013). Future scholars summer research bridge program. Retrieved from http://www.education.auburn.edu/academic_departments/kine/diversity/bridge.html.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bell, D.A.J. (1992). The space traders. In Faces at the bottom of the well (pp. 158–194). New York, NY: Basic Books.

  • Bell, D.A.J. (1995). Who’s afraid of critical race theory. University of Illinois Law Review, 893–910.

  • Bernal, D.D. (1998). Using a Chicana feminist epistemology in educational research. Harvard Educational Review, 68(4), 555–583. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berry, T.R. (2010). Engaged pedagogy and critical race feminism. Educational Foundations, 24(3/4), 19–26.

  • Bimper, A.Y., Harrison, L., & Clark, L. (2012). Diamonds in the rough: Examining a case of successful Black male student athletes in college sport. Journal of Black Psychology, 39(2), 107–130. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biondi, M. (2014). The Black revolution on campus. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

  • Black graduate and professional student Caucus: Find a student organization: Student activities. (2019, February 27). Retrieved from https://activities.osu.edu/involvement/student_organizations/find_a_student_org?i=334&l=B&page=2

    • Export Citation
  • Bourdieu, P. (2011). The forms of capital (1986). In I. Szeman & T. Kaposy (Eds.), Cultural theory (1st ed., pp. 81–93). United Kingdom: John Wiley and Sons.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brayboy, B.M.J. (2005). Toward a tribal critical race theory in education. The Urban Review, 37(5), 425–446. doi:

  • Brockenbrough, E. (2015). “The Discipline Stop”: Black male teachers and the politics of urban school discipline. Education and Urban Society, 47(5), 499–522. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, A.L. (2009). “Brothers gonna work it out:” Understanding the pedagogic performance of African American male teachers working with African American male students. The Urban Review, 41(5), 416–435. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, M.C., & Davis, J.E. (2001). The historically Black college as social contract, social capital, and social equalizer. Peabody Journal of Education, 76(1), 31–49. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Case, K.I. (1997). African American othermothering in the urban elementary school. The Urban Review, 29(1), 25–39. doi:

  • Cazers, G., & Curtner-Smith, M. (2013). Legacy of a pioneer African American educator. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 84(1), 39–51. PubMed ID: 23611007 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, L. (2019). The way they care: An ethnography of social justice physical education teacher education. The Teacher Educator, 54(2), 145–170. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, L., Harrison, L., Jr., & Bimper, A.Y. (2015). Generations: Academic and athletic integration of a southern PWI basketball program. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 86(3), 281–291. PubMed ID: 25751736 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, L.D., Tanner, N., & Logan, A.D., Jr. (2015). Sport, step shows, and social justice: A framework for educating Black men. Race, Gender & Class, 22(1/2), 9–22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collins, P.H. (2000). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crase, D., & Walker, H. (1988). The Black physical educator—An endangered species. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 59(8), 65–69. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crenshaw, K. (2011). Twenty years of critical race theory: Looking back to move forward. Connecticut Law Review, 43(5), 1253–1352.

  • Culp, B. (2013). Using archetypes to introduce social justice in PETE. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 84(2), 17–19. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delgado, R. (1990). When a story is just a story: Does voice really matter? Virginia Law Review, 76(1), 95–111. doi:

  • DiGiacinto, K. (2014). Diversifying kinesiology: Untapped potential of historically Black colleges and universities. Quest, 66(2), 181–190. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ellis, C., Adams, T.E., & Bochner, A.P. (2011). Autoethnography: An overview. Historical Social Research, 36(4), 273–290.

  • Gasman, M., & Jennings, M.E. (2006). New research, new questions: Social foundations scholarship on historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Educational Foundations, 20(1–2), 3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guiffrida, D. (2005). Othermothering as a framework for understanding African American students’ definitions of student-centered faculty. Journal of Higher Education, 76(6), 701–723. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hill Collins, P. (1997). The meaning of motherhood in Black culture and Black mother/daughter relationships. In M.M. Gergen & S.N. Davis (Eds.), Toward a New Psychology of Gender. New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hirt, J.B., Amelink, C.T., McFeeters, B.B., & Strayhorn, T.L. (2008). A system of othermothering: Student affairs administrators’ perceptions of relationships with students at historically Black colleges. NASPA Journal. Retrieved from http://www-tandfonline-com.libweb.lib.utsa.edu/doi/abs/10.2202/1949-6605.1948

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hodge, S.R., Cervantes, C.M., Vigo-Valentín, A.N., Canabal-Torres, M.Y., & Ortiz-Castillo, E.M. (2012). The Hispanic experience in physical education programs and departments. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 11(4), 366–387. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hodge, S.R., & Wiggins, D.K. (2010). The African American experience in physical education and kinesiology: Plight, pitfalls, and possibilities. Quest, 62(1), 35–60. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huber, L. (2008). Building critical race methodologies in educational research: A research note on critical race testimonio. FIU Law Review, 4(1), 159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huber, L.P., & Cueva, B.M. (2012). Chicana/Latina testimonios on effects and responses to microaggressions. Equity & Excellence in Education, 45(3), 392–410. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, W.B. (2015). On being a mentor: A guide for higher education faculty (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. doi:

  • Kelly, D.D. (2018). Staying engaged: Faculty mentoring student-athletes. In M.R. Council III, S.R. Hodge, & R.A. Bennett III (Eds.), The collegiate athlete at risk: Strategies for academic support and success (pp. 109–129). Charlotte, NC: IAP.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, D.D., & Dixon, M.A. (2014). Successfully navigating life transitions among African American male student-athletes: A review and examination of constellation mentoring as a promising strategy. Journal of Sport Management, 28(5), 498–514. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, D.D., Smith, M.P., & McCoy, C. (2018). ‘We are AAMRI’ redefining Black male excellence at the University of Texas at Austin. In L.A. Castenel, T.C. Grantham, & B.J. Hawkins (Eds.), Recruiting, retaining, and engaging African-American Males at Selective Public Research Universities: Challenges and opportunities in academics and sports (pp. 197–210). USA: IAP.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • King, J.E. (2006). Black education: A transformative research and action agenda for the new century. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Ladson-Billings, G. (2013). Critical race theory—What it is not! In M. Lynn & A.D. Dixson (Eds.), Handbook of critical race theory in education (pp. 33–47). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ladson-Billings, G., & Tate, W.F. (1995). Toward a critical race theory of education. Teachers College Record, 97(1), 47–65.

  • Lin, N., & Smith, J. (2001). Social capital: A theory of social structure and action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

  • Lynn, M. (2006). Education for the community: Exploring the culturally relevant practices of Black male teachers. Teachers College Record, 108(12), 2497–2522. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marable, M. (2000). Black studies and the racial mountain. Souls, 2(3), 17–36. doi:

  • Mawhinney, L. (2011). Othermothering: A personal narrative exploring relationships between Black female faculty and students. Negro Educational Review, 62/63(1–4), 213–232, 266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Bryant, C. (2015). Who we are: (In)Visible African American women setting traditions of excellence and paving paths for transformation. Quest, 67(2), 139–160. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Palmer, R., & Gasman, M. (2008). ‘It Takes a Village to Raise a Child’: The role of social capital in promoting academic success for African American men at a Black college. Journal of College Student Development, 49(1), 52–70. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patton, L.D., & Harper, S.R. (2003). Mentoring relationships among African American women in graduate and professional schools. New Directions for Student Services, 2003(104), 67–78. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petchauer, E., & Mawhinney, L. (Eds.). (2017). Teacher education across minority-serving institutions: Programs, policies, and social justice. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reddick, R.J., & Young, M.D. (2012). Mentoring graduate students of color. In S. Fletcher & C. Mullen (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of mentoring and coaching in education (1st ed., pp. 414–429). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogers, I. (2012). The Black campus movement: Black students and the racial reconstitution of higher education, 1965–1972 (2012th ed.). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, M.M., & Jamieson, K.M. (2017). The way we never were: Postracial kinesiology and America. Kinesiology Review, 6(2), 167–177. doi:

  • Solórzano, D.G., & Bernal, D.D. (2001). Examining transformational resistance through a critical race and LatCrit theory framework Chicana and Chicano students in an urban context. Urban Education, 36(3), 308–342. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Solórzano, D.G., & Yosso, T.J. (2002). Critical race methodology: Counter-storytelling as an analytical framework for education research. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 23–44. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spearman, J., & Harrison, L., Jr. (2010). Real role models: Successful African Americans beyond pop culture. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strauss, A.L., & Corbin, J.M. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verbrugge, M.H. (2012). Active bodies: A history of women’s physical education in twentieth-century America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vincent, G.J. (2014, July 3). Addressing the crisis among men of color in higher education. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 31(11), 18. PubMed ID: 31385909

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Washington, H.A. (2008). Medical apartheid: The dark history of medical experimentation on Black Americans from colonial times to the present. New York, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webb, D., & Hodge, S.R. (2003). Factors that influence career choice of African American students to enter the adapted physical education profession. Physical Educator, 60(3), 134–149. PubMed ID: 31369488

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiggins, D.K., & Wiggins, B.P. (2011). Striving to be in the profession and of it: The African American experience in physical education and kinesiology. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(2), 320–333. PubMed ID: 31403896

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 62 62 15
Full Text Views 6 6 1
PDF Downloads 5 5 0