Higher-Order Factors and Measurement Equivalence of the Spectrum of Teaching Styles’ Questionnaire Across Two Cultures

in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education
View More View Less
  • 1 University of Thessaly
  • 2 Pamukkale University
  • 3 University of Wyoming
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $64.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $86.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $122.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

Purpose: This study aimed to test the invariance of perceptions of the Spectrum teaching styles across Turkish and Greek preservice physical education teachers and to examine whether the styles could be classified into two clusters through self-determination theory. Greek (n = 298) and Turkish (n = 300) preservice teachers participated. Method: Cothran, Kulinna, and Ward’s questionnaire based on teachers’ use of and beliefs about teaching styles was used to examine their perceptions of the styles. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis revealed 11 factor indices and parameter estimates, suggesting that the 11-factor model fit the data. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis established metric measurement invariance across samples. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that, for all higher-order models, the minimum requirement for invariance factor loading was met. The model comparison revealed that the styles could be categorized into four clusters from less to more autonomy-oriented. Conclusion: These findings might be useful to practitioners who want to use teaching styles in the promotion of students’ motivation in physical education.

Syrmpas, Papaioannou, and Digelidis are with the Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece. Erturan is with the Faculty of Sport Sciences, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey. Byra is with the Kinesiology and Health Faculty, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA.

Papaioannou (sakispap@uth.gr) is corresponding author.
  • Brislin, R.W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185216. doi:

  • Byrne, B.M. (2008). Testing for multigroup equivalence of a measuring instrument: A walk through the process. Psicothema, 20(4) 872882. PubMed ID: 18940097

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chatzipanteli, A., Digelidis, N., & Papaioannou, A.G. (2015). Self-regulation, motivation and teaching styles in physical education classes: An intervention study. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 34(2), 333344. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, F.F. (2008). What happens if we compare chopsticks with forks? The impact of making inappropriate comparisons in cross-cultural research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 10051018. PubMed ID: 18954190 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheung, G.W., & Rensvold, R.B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233255. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cothran, D., Kulinna, P.H., & Ward, E. (2000). Students’ experiences with and perceptions of teaching styles. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 34(1), 93103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cothran, D.J., Kulinna, P.H., Banville, D., Choi, E., Amade-Escot, C., MacPhail, A., . . . Kirk, D. (2005). A cross-cultural investigation of the use of teaching styles. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 76(2), 193201. PubMed ID: 16128486 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garn, A., & Byra, M. (2002). The spectrum of teaching styles. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 13(2), 813.

  • Goudas, M., Biddle, S., Fox, K., & Underwood, M. (1995). It ain’t what you do, it’s the way that you do it! Teaching style affects children’s motivation in track and field lessons. The Sport Psychologist, 9(3), 254264. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hellenic Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs (HMERA). (1990). The high school’s physical education curriculum program. [in Greek]. Retrieved from http://www.pi-schools.gr/content/index.php?lesson_id=3&ep=3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hellenic Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs (HMERA). (2003). Cross-curricular thematic framework and curricula of primary and secondary education. [in Greek]. Retrieved from http://www.pi-schools.gr/programs/depps/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, L.T., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 155. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaakkola, T., & Watt, A. (2011). Finnish physical education teachers’ self-reported use and perceptions of Mosston and Ashworth’s teaching styles. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 30(3), 248262. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kulinna, P.H., & Cothran, D.J. (2003). Physical education teachers’ self-reported use and perceptions of various teaching styles. Learning and Instruction, 13(6) 597609. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marsh, H.W., Balla, J.R., & Hau, K.T. (1996). An evaluation of incremental fit indices: A clarification of mathematical and empirical properties. In G.A. Marcoulides& R.E. Schumacker (Eds.), Advanced structural equation modeling techniques (pp. 315353). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mawer, M. (1999). Teaching styles and teaching approaches in physical education: Research developments. In C. Hardy& M. Mawer (Eds.), Learning and teaching in physical education (pp. 8192). London, UK: Falmer Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Metzler, M. (2011). Instructional models in physical education. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Ministry of National Education Secondary School General Directorate (MoNE). (2009). Secondary school physical education curriculum (grades 9–12). Bursa, Turkey: Ministry of National Education. [in Turkish]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, K., Kingston, K., & Sproule, J. (2005). Effects of different teaching styles on the teacher behaviours that influence motivational climate and pupils’ motivation in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 11(3), 257285. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (2008). Teaching physical education (1st ed.). Spectrum Institute for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved from http://www.spectrumofteachingstyles.org/e-book-download.php

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mouratidis, A.A., Vansteenkiste, M., Sideridis, G., & Lens, W. (2011). Vitality and interest-enjoyment as a function of class-to-class variation in need-supportive teaching and pupils’ autonomous motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 353366. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Papaioannou, A., Laparidis, K., Serbezis, V., Mihalopoulou, M., Pilianidis, T., Karipidis, A., . . . Siskos, V. (2007). Physical education 2nd grade of junior high school: Teachers’ book. Athens, Greece: Greek Ministry of Education. [in Greek]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Papaioannou, A., Theodorakis, I., & Goudas, M. (2011). For a better physical education. Thessaloniki, Greece: Kyriakidis Publishing.

  • Papaioannou, A., Theodosiou, A., Pashali, M., & Digelidis, N. (2012). Advancing task involvement, intrinsic motivation and metacognitive regulation in physical education classes: The self-check style of teaching makes a difference. Advances in Physical Education, 2(3), 110118. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rink, J. (1996). Effective instruction in physical education. In S. Silvermann& C. Ennis (Eds.), Student learning in physical education (pp. 171198). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. New York, NY: Guilford.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sanchez, B., Byra, M., & Wallhead, T.L. (2012). Students’ perceptions of the command, practice, and inclusion styles of teaching. Physical Education and Sports Pedagogy, 17(3), 317330. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Syrmpas, I., Digelidis, N., & Watt, A. (2016). An examination of Greek physical educators’ implementation and perceptions of Spectrum teaching styles. European Physical Education Review, 22(2), 201214. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

  • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2000). For a commitment toward the delivery of quality physical education to school children/youth, worldwide. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001291/129124eo.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zimmerman, B.J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts& P.R. Pintrich (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 1339). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 205 205 24
Full Text Views 14 14 4
PDF Downloads 7 7 1