Affective Learning in Physical Education: A Systematic Review

in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education
View More View Less
  • 1 The University of Strathclyde
  • 2 Keio University
  • 3 Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of South of Minas Gerais—IFSULDEMINAS
  • 4 São Paulo State University
  • 5 The University of Queensland
  • 6 Ghent University
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $64.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $86.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $122.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $162.00

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to carry out a systematic review of intervention programs that have addressed affective learning outcomes within physical education and to explore pedagogical practices in alignment with teaching, lesson content, and learning outcomes. Method: The literature search was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Included were 26 peer-reviewed pedagogical studies of physical education programs that addressed affective outcomes and reported fidelity of implementation. Results and Discussion: Affective outcomes were grouped into four themes: motivation, emotional responses, self-concept, and resilience. The findings showed that offering choice, encouraging peer feedback, asking deductive questions, focusing on personal improvement, and differentiating are effective teaching strategies that were widely used to support affective learning in children and adolescents. This review highlights the importance of fidelity of implementation to understand how intervention programs are delivered.

Teraoka, Kirk, and Bardid are with the School of Education, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Teraoka is now with the Institute of Physical Education, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan. Ferreira is with the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of South of Minas Gerais—IFSULDEMINAS, Poços de Caldas, Brazil; and with Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University, Rio Claro, Brazil. Kirk is also with the School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Bardid is also with the Department of Movement and Sports Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Teraoka (eishin.teraoka@keio.jp) is corresponding author.
  • Abós, Á., Sevil, J., Julián, J.A., Abarca-Sos, A., & García-González, L. (2017). Improving students’ predisposition towards physical education by optimizing their motivational processes in an acrosport unit. European Physical Education Review, 23(4), 444460. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aelterman, N., Vansteenkiste, M., Haerens, L., Soenens, B., Fontaine, J.R., & Reeve, J. (2019). Toward an integrative and fine-grained insight in motivating and demotivating teaching styles: The merits of a circumplex approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(3), 497521. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bailey, R., Armour, K., Kirk, D., Jess, M., Pickup, I., & Sandford, R. BERA Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy Special Interest Group. (2009). The educational benefits claimed for physical education and school sport: An academic review. Research Papers in Education, 24(1), 127.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barkoukis, V., Tsorbatzoudis, H., & Grouios, G. (2008). Manipulation of motivational climate in physical education: Effects of a seven-month intervention. European Physical Education Review, 14(3), 367387. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bortoli, L., Bertollo, M., Vitali, F., Filho, E., & Robazza, C. (2015). The effects of motivational climate interventions on psychobiosocial states in high school physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 86(2), 196204. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bunker, D., & Thorpe, R. (1982). A model for the teaching of games in secondary schools. Bulletin of Physical Education, 18(1), 58.

  • Burns, R.D., Fu, Y., & Podlog, L.W. (2017). School-based physical activity interventions and physical activity enjoyment: A meta-analysis. Preventive Medicine, 103, 8490. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cale, L., & Harris, J. (2013). “Every child (of every size) matters” in physical education! Physical education’s role in childhood obesity. Sport, Education and Society, 18(4), 433452. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chatzipanteli, A., Digelidis, N., & Papaioannou, A.G. (2015). Self-regulation, motivation and teaching styles in physical education classes: An intervention study. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 34(2), 333344. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chu, T.L., & Zhang, T. (2018). Motivational processes in Sport Education programs among high school students: A systematic review. European Physical Education Review, 24(3), 372394. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corbin, C.B. (2012). CH McCloy Lecture: Fifty years of advancements in fitness and activity research. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83(1), 111. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cuevas, R., García-López, L.M., & Serra-Olivares, J. (2016). Sport Education model and self-determination theory: An intervention in secondary school children. Kinesiology: International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology, 48(1), 3038.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Demetriou, Y., & Höner, O. (2012). Physical activity interventions in the school setting: A systematic review. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(2), 186196. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Falco, M., & Hansen, W.B. (2003). A review of research on fidelity of implementation: Implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings. Health Education Research, 18(2), 237256. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Epstein, J. (1989). Family structure and students motivation: A development perspective. In C. Ames & R. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education (Vol. 3, pp. 259295). New York, NY: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Escartí, A., Gutiérrez, M., Pascual, C., & Llopis, R. (2010). Implementation of the personal and social responsibility model to improve self-efficacy during physical education classes for primary school children. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 10(3), 387402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Escartí, A., Llopis-Goig, R., & Wright, P.M. (2018). Assessing the implementation fidelity of a school-based teaching personal and social responsibility program in physical education and other subject areas. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 37(1), 1223. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Estevan, I., & Barnett, L.M. (2018). Considerations related to the definition, measurement and analysis of perceived motor competence. Sports Medicine, 48(12), 26852694. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fernandez-Rio, J., & Menendez-Santurio, J.I. (2017). Teachers and students’ perceptions of a hybrid sport education and teaching for personal and social responsibility learning unit. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 36(2), 185196. doi:.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fernandez-Rio, J., Sanz, N., Fernandez-Cando, J., & Santos, L. (2017). Impact of a sustained Cooperative Learning intervention on student motivation. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 22(1), 89105. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fritz, C.O., Morris, P.E., & Richler, J.J. (2012). Effect size estimates: Current use, calculations, and interpretation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(1), 218. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gil-Arias, A., Harvey, S., Cárceles, A., Práxedes, A., & Del Villar, F. (2017). Impact of a hybrid TGfU-Sport Education unit on student motivation in physical education. PLoS One, 12(6), e0179876. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • González-Cutre, D., Sicilia, Á., Sierra, A.C., Ferriz, R., & Hagger, M.S. (2016). Understanding the need for novelty from the perspective of self-determination theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 102, 159169. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray, S., Sproule, J., & Morgan, K. (2009). Teaching team invasion games and motivational climate. European Physical Education Review, 15(1), 6589. doi:.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haerens, L., Aelterman, N., Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B., & Van Petegem, S. (2015). Do perceived autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching relate to physical education students’ motivational experiences through unique pathways? Distinguishing between the bright and dark side of motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16(3), 2636. doi:.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, J.D., Quatman, C.E., Manring, M.M., Siston, R.A., & Flanigan, D.C. (2014). How to write a systematic review. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(11), 27612768. doi:.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harvey, S., Gil-Arias, A., Smith, M.L., & Smith, L.R. (2017). Middle and elementary school students’ changes in self-determined motivation in a basketball unit taught using the tactical games model. Journal of Human Kinetics, 59(1), 3953. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harvey, S., & Jarrett, K. (2014). A review of the game-centred approaches to teaching and coaching literature since 2006. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19(3), 278300. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harwood, C.G., Keegan, R.J., Smith, J.M., & Raine, A.S. (2015). A systematic review of the intrapersonal correlates of motivational climate perceptions in sport and physical activity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 18, 925. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hastie, P.A., & Casey, A. (2014). Fidelity in models-based practice research in sport pedagogy: A guide for future investigations. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33(3), 422431. doi:.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hastie, P.A., de Ojeda, D.M., & Luquin, A.C. (2011). A review of research on Sport Education: 2004 to the present. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 16(2), 103132. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hellison, D. (1995). Teaching responsibility through physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Hellison, D., & Wright, P.M. (2003). Retention in an urban extended day program: A process-based assessment. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22(4), 369381. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • İlker, G.E., & Demirhan, G. (2013). The effects of different motivational climates on students’ achievement goals, motivational strategies and attitudes toward physical education. Educational Psychology, 33(1), 5974. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inchley, J., Currie, D., Young, T., Samdal, O., Torsheim, T., Auguston, L., Mathison, F.Barnekow, V. (2016). Growing up unequal: Gender and socioeconomic differences in young people’s and well-being. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study: International Report from the 2013/2014 Survey. WHO Regional Office for Europe. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/abstracts/growing-up-unequal.-hbsc-2016-study-20132014-survey

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kerner, C., Haerens, L., & Kirk, D. (2018). Understanding body image in physical education: Current knowledge and future directions. European Physical Education Review, 24(2), 255265. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kirk, D. (2020). Precarity, critical pedagogy and physical education. London, UK: Routledge.

  • Lang, C., Feldmeth, A.K., Brand, S., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., Pühse, U., & Gerber, M. (2016). Stress management in physical education class: An experiential approach to improve coping skills and reduce stress perceptions in adolescents. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 35(2), 149158. doi:.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lang, C., Feldmeth, A.K., Brand, S., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., Pühse, U., & Gerber, M. (2017). Effects of a physical education-based coping training on adolescents’ coping skills, stress perceptions and quality of sleep. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 22(3), 213230. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leptokaridou, E.T., Vlachopoulos, S.P., & Papaioannou, A.G. (2016). Experimental longitudinal test of the influence of autonomy-supportive teaching on motivation for participation in elementary school physical education. Educational Psychology, 36(7), 11381159. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lüdtke, O., Köller, O., Marsh, H.W., & Trautwein, U. (2005). Teacher frame of reference and the big-fish–little-pond effect. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30(3), 263285. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mandigo, J., Holt, N., Anderson, A., & Sheppard, J. (2008). Children’s motivational experiences following autonomy-supportive games lessons. European Physical Education Review, 14(3), 407425. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marsh, H.W., & Shavelson, R. (1985). Self-concept: Its multifaceted, hierarchical structure. Educational Psychologist, 20(3), 107123. doi:

  • Masten, A.S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227238. doi:.

  • Mitchell, F., Gray, S., & Inchley, J. (2015). “This choice thing really works … ” Changes in experiences and engagement of adolescent girls in physical education classes, during a school-based physical activity programme. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 20(6), 593611. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, S., Oslin, J., & Griffin, L. (2006). Teaching sport concepts and skills: A tactical games approach (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D.G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000097. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moher, D., Schulz, K.F., & Altman, D.G.(2001). The CONSORT statement: Revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomised trials. The Lancet, 357(9263), 11911194. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moksnes, U.K., & Reidunsdatter, R.J. (2019). Self-esteem and mental health in adolescents-level and stability during a school year. Norsk Epidemiologi, 28(1–2), 5967. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neumark-Sztainer, D.R., Friend, S.E., Flattum, C.F., Hannan, P.J., Story, M.T., Bauer, K.W., Feldman, S.B., & Petrich, C.A. (2010). New moves—Preventing weight-related problems in adolescent girls: A group-randomized study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 39(5), 421432. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oliver, K.L., Hamzeh, M., & McCaughtry, N. (2009). “Girly girls can play games/las niñas pueden jugar tambien”: Co-creating a curriculum of possibilities with 5th grade girls. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 28(1), 90110. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oliver, K.L., & Kirk, D. (2015). Girls, gender and physical education: An activist approach. London, UK: Routledge.

  • Pardo, B.M., Bengoechea, E.G., Clemente, J.A.J., & Lanaspa, E.G. (2016). Motivational outcomes and predictors of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time for adolescents in the sigue la huella intervention. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23(2), 135142. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patel, V., Flisher, A.J., Hetrick, S., & McGorry, P. (2007). Mental health of young people: A global public-health challenge. The Lancet, 369(9569), 13021313. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perlman, D.J. (2010). Change in affect and needs satisfaction for amotivated students within the Sport Education model. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29(4), 433445. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perlman, D.J. (2011). Examination of self-determination within the Sport Education model. Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, 2(1), 7992. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perlman, D.J., & Caputi, P. (2017). Examining the influence of Sport Education on the precursors of amotivation. European Physical Education Review, 23(2), 212222. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perlman, D.J., & Goc Karp, G. (2010). A self-determined perspective of the sport education model. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 15(4), 401418. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pozo, P., Grao-Cruces, A., & Pérez-Ordás, R. (2018). Teaching personal and social responsibility model-based programmes in physical education: A systematic review. European Physical Education Review, 24(1), 5675. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 6878. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, L.E. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. New York, NY: Guildford Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmidt, M., Valkanover, S., Roebers, C., & Conzelmann, A. (2013). Promoting a functional physical self-concept in physical education: Evaluation of a 10-week intervention. European Physical Education Review, 19(2), 232255. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siedentop, D. (1994). Sport education: Quality PE through positive sport experiences. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Van den Berghe, L., Vansteenkiste, M., Cardon, G., Kirk, D., & Haerens, L. (2014). Research on self-determination in physical education: Key findings and proposals for future research. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19(1), 97121. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vandenbroucke, J.P., von Elm, E., Altman, D.G., Gøtzsche, P.C., Mulrow, C.D., Pocock, S.J., … Eggar, M. (2007). Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and elaboration. PLoS Medicine, 4(10), e297. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallhead, T.L., Garn, A.C., & Vidoni, C. (2014). Effect of a Sport Education program on motivation for physical education and leisure-time physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 85(4), 478487. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallhead, T.L., Hagger, M., & Smith, D.T. (2010). Sport Education and extracurricular sport participation: An examination using the trans-contextual model of motivation. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81(4), 442455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wright, P.M., & Burton, S. (2008). Implementation and outcomes of a responsibility-based physical activity program integrated into an intact high school physical education class. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 27(2), 138154. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 622 622 146
Full Text Views 24 24 11
PDF Downloads 18 18 8