Peer-to-Peer Learning: The Impact of Order of Performance on Learning Fundamental Movement Skills Through Video Analysis With Middle School Children

in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education
View More View Less
  • 1 Faculty of Kinesiology, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
Restricted access

Purpose: Through video analysis, this paper explores the impact that order of performance has on middle school students’ performance of fundamental movement skills within a peer-to-peer learning model. Order of performance refers to the order in which a student performed a skill while paired up with a peer. Method: Using a mobile application, Move Improve®, 18 students (eight males and 10 females) completed a standing jump and hollow body roll in partners assigned to order of performance (evaluator/performer). An independent samples t test was conducted to evaluate the differences in the mean scores between students who performed first and those who performed second for each skill. Results: There was a significant difference in standing jump scores (p < .01), where students who performed second had a higher average score than their peers who went first. Although not statistically significant (p = .293), results for hollow body roll also showed a similar performance pattern for students who went second compared with those who performed first. Conclusion: The order of performance within a peer-to-peer learning model may have a significant effect on performance scores for standing jump but not for hollow body roll. Reasons for the discrepancy may be due to a combination of skill familiarity, skill complexity, and training of observational learning.

  • Al-Abood, S.A., Davids, K., & Bennett, S.J. (2001). Specificity of task constraints and effects of visual demonstrations and verbal instructions in directing learner’ search during skill acquisition. Journal of Motor Behaviour, 33(3), 295305. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222890109601915

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andrieux, M., & Proteau, L. (2014). Mixed observation favors motor learning through better estimation of the model’s performance. Experimental Brain Research, 232(10), 31213132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-014-4000-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andrieux, M., & Proteau, L. (2016). Observational learning: Tell beginners what they are about to watch and they will learn better. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(51), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00051

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Van Beurden, E., Morgan, P.J., Brooks, L.O., & Beard, J.R. (2009). Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(3), 252259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.07.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, C.B., & Wright, D.L. (2000). Can observational practice facilitate error recognition and movement production? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(4), 331339. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2000.10608916

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blandin, Y., & Proteau, L. (2000). On the cognitive basis of observational learning: Development of mechanisms for the detection and correction of errors. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53A(3), 846867. https://doi.org/10.1080/713755917

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buchanan, J.J., & Dean, N.J. (2010). Specificity in practice benefits learning in novice models and variability in demonstration benefits observational practice. Psychological Research, 74, 313326. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-009-0254-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cairncross, S., & Mannion, M. (2001). Interactive multimedia and learning: Realizing the benefits. Innovations in Education & teaching International, 38(2), 156164. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703290110035428

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cappella, E. (2000). What children think about computers. The Future of Children, 10(2), 189191.

  • Casey, A., Goodyear, V.A., & Armour, K.M. (2017). Rethinking the relationship between pedagogy, technology and learning in health and physical education. Sport, Education and Society, 22(2), 288304. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2016.1226792

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Routledge Academic.

  • Cross, E.S., Kraemer, D.J.M., Hamilton, A.F.C., Kelley, W.M., & Grafton, S.T. (2009). Sensitivity of the action observation network to physical and observational learning. Cerebral Cortex, 19(1), 315326. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhn083

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ernst, M., & Byra, M. (1998). Pairing learners in the reciprocal style of teaching: Influence on student skill, knowledge, and socialization. Physical Educator, 55(1), 2437.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fisher, A., Reilly, J.J., Kelly, L.A., Montgomery, C., Williamson, A., Paton, J.Y., & Grant, S. (2005). Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 37(4), 684688. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000159138.48107.7d

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gallahue, D., & Ozmun, J. (2006). Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill.

  • Goldberger, M., Gerney, P., & Chamberlain, J. (1982). The effects of three styles of teaching on the psychomotor performance and social skill development of fifth grade children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 53(2), 116124. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1982.10605237

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hancox, R.J., Milne, B.J., & Poulton, R. (2005). Association of television viewing during childhood with poor educational achievement. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 159(1), 614618. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.159.7.614

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardy, L.L., Reinten-Reynolds, T., Espinel, P., Zask, A., & Okely, A.D. (2012). Prevalence and correlates of low fundamental movement skill competency in children. Pediatrics, 130(2), 390398. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-0345

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hayes, S.J., Elliott, D., & Bennett, S.J. (2010). General motor representations are developed during action-observation. Experimental Brain Research, 204(2), 199206. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-010-2303-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Higgs, C. (2010). Physical literacy—Two approaches, one concept. Physical & Health Education Journal, 76(1), 67.

  • Hodges, N.J., Chua, R., & Franks, I.M. (2003). The role of video in facilitating perception and action of a novel coordination movement. Journal of Motor Behaviour, 35(3), 247260. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222890309602138

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hodges, N.J., Williams, A.M., Hayes, S.J., & Breslin, G. (2007). What is modelled during observational learning? Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(5), 531545. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410600946860

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houston-Wilson, C., Dunn, J.M., van der Mars, H., & McCubbin, J. (1997). The effect of peer tutors on motor performance in integrated physical education classes. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 14(4), 298313. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.14.4.298

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hung, H.C., Young, S.S.C., & Lin, K.C. (2018). Exploring the effects of integrating the iPad to improve students’ motivation and badminton skills: A WISER model for physical education. Technology, Pedagogy, and Education, 27(3) 265278. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2017.1384756

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jenkinson, K.A., Naughton, G., & Benson, A.C. (2014). Peer-assisted learning in school physical education, sport and physical activity programmes: A systematic review. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19(3), 253277. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2012.754004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jennings, C.T., Reaburn, P., & Rynne, S.B. (2013). The effect of a self-modelling video intervention on motor skill acquisition and retention of a novice track cyclist’s standing start performance. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 8(3), 467480. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.8.3.467

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, R. (2004). Peer assessments in physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 75(8), 3340. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2004.10607287

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katz, L. (2003). Multimedia and the internet for sport sciences: Applications and innovations. International Journal of Computer Science in Sport, 2(1), 418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katz, L., & Kelly, P. (2016). Comparing peer-to-peer and individual learning: Teaching basic computer skills to disadvantaged adults. International Journal of Adult Vocational Education and Technology, 7(4), 115. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJAVET.2016100101

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koekoek, J., & Knoppers, A. (2015). The role of perceptions of friendships and peers in learning skills in physical education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 20(3), 231249. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2013.837432

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kolovelonis, A., Goudas, M., & Gerodimos V. (2011). The effects of the reciprocal and the selfcheck styles on pupils’ performance in primary physical education. European Physical Education Review, 17(1) 3550. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X11402265

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krause, J., & Sanchez, Y. (2014). Meeting the national standards: There’s an app for that! Strategies, 27(4), 312. https://doi.org/10.1080/08924562.2014.917997

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lago-Rodriguez, A., Cheeran, B., Koch, G., Hortobagyi, T., & Fernandez-del-Olmo, M. (2014). The role of mirror neurons in observational learning: An integrative review. European Journal of Human Movement, 32, 82103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, J.E., & Gao, Z. (2020). Effects of the iPad and mobile application-integrated physical education on children’s physical activity and psychosocial beliefs. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 25(6), 567584. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2020.1761953

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, T.D., Swinnen, S.P., & Verschueren, S. (1995). Relative phase alterations during bimanual skill acquisition. Journal of Motor Behaviour, 27(3), 263274. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222895.1995.9941716

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leight, J., Banville, D., & Polifko, M.F. (2009). Using digital video recorders in physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(1), 1721. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2009.10598262

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leser, R., Baca, A., & Uhlig, J. (2011). Effectiveness of multimedia-supported education in practical sports courses. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 10(1), 184192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mas, F.G., Plass, J., Kane, W.M., & Papenfuss, R.L. (2003). Health education and multimedia learning: Connecting theory and practice (part 2). Health Promotion Practice, 4(4), 464469. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524839903255411

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, R., & Rennie, F. (2006). E-learning: The key concepts. Routledge.

  • Mayer, R. (1997). Multimedia learning: Are we asking the right questions? Educational Psychologist, 32(1), 119. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep3201_1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCullagh, P., & Meyer, K.N. (1997). Learning versus correct models: Influence of model type on the learning of a free-weight squat lift. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68(1), 5661. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1997.10608866

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCullagh, P., & Weiss, M. (2001). Modelling: Considerations for motor skill performance and psychological responses. In R.N. Singer, H.A. Hausenblas, & C.M Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (2nd ed., pp. 205238). Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCullagh, P., Weiss, M.R., & Ross, D. (1989). Modeling considerations in motor skill acquisition and performance: An integrated approach. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 17, 475513.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDermid, F., Peters, K., Jackson, D., & Daly, J. (2014). Conducting qualitative research in the context of pre-existing peer and collegial relationships. Nurse Researcher, 21(5), 2833. https://doi.org/10.7748/nr.21.5.28.e1232

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Metzler, M. (2017). Instructional models in physical education (3rd ed.). Routledge.

  • Mohnsen, B.S. (2012). Using technology in physical education. Bonnie’s Fitware, Inc.

  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (2008). Teaching physical education. (1st ed.). Spectrum Institute for Teaching and Learning. https://spectrumofteachingstyles.org/assets/files/book/Teaching_Physical_Edu_1st_Online.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Brien, W., Belton, S., & Issartel, J. (2016). Fundamental movement skill proficiency amongst adolescent youth. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 21(6), 557571. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2015.1017451

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Loughlin, J., Chróinín, D.N., & O’Grady, D. (2013). Digital video: The impact on children’s learning experiences in primary physical education. European Physical Education Review, 19(2), 165182. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X13486050

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Palao, J.M., Hastie, P.A., Cruz, P.G., & Ortega, E. (2015). The impact of video technology on student performance in physical education. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 24(1), 5163. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2013.813404

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ParticipACTION. (2018). The brain + body equation: Canadian kids need active bodies to build their best brains. The 2018 ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Payne, G., & Isaacs, L.D. (2020). Human motor development: A lifespan approach. Routledge.

  • Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(6), 16.

  • Rizzolatti, G., & Fogassi, L. (2014). The mirror mechanism: Recent findings and perspectives. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 369(1644). https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0420

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, T.N. (2001). Television viewing and childhood obesity. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 48(4), 10171025. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-3955(05)70354-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rohbanford, H., & Proteau, L. (2011). Learning through observation: A combination of expert and novice models favors learning. Experimental Brain Research, 215(3–4), 183197. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-011-2882-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shea, C.H., Wright, D.L., Wulf, G., & Whitacre, C. (2000). Physical and observational practice afford unique learning opportunities. Journal of Motor Behaviour, 32(1), 2736. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222890009601357

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sinelnikov, O.A. (2012). Using the iPad in a sport education season. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 83(1), 3945.

  • Ste-Marie, D.M., Law, B., Rymal, A.M., Jenny, O., Hall, C., & McCullagh, P. (2012). Observation interventions for motor skill learning and performance: An applied model for the use of observation. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5(2), 145176. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2012.665076

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stodden, D., Langendorfer, S., & Roberton, M.A. (2009). The association between motor skill competence and physical fitness in young adults. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80(2), 223229. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2009.10599556

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tanaka, C., Tanaka, M., & Tanaka, S. (2018). Objectively evaluated physical activity and sedentary time in primary school children by gender, grade and types of physical education lessons. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 948958. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5910-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Topping, K., & Ehly, S. (1998). Peer-assisted learning. Taylor & Francis. https://books.google.ca/books?id=i76aRj-xC2cC

  • Vandewater, E.A., Bickham, D.S., & Lee, J.H. (2006). Time well spent? Relating television use to children’s free-time activities. Pediatrics, 117(2), e181e191. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-0812

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vandewater, E.A., Bickham, D.S., Lee, J.H., Cummings, H.M., Wartella, E.A., & Rideout, V.J. (2005). When the television is always on: Heavy television exposure and young children’s development. American Behavioural Scientist, 48(5), 562577. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764204271496

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vogt, S., & Thomaschke, R. (2007). From visuo-motor interactions to imitation learning: Behavioural and brain imaging studies. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(5), 497517. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410600946779

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ward, P., & Lee, M.A. (2005). Peer-assisted learning in physical education: A review of theory and research. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 24(3), 205225. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.24.3.205

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watterson, T. (2012). Changes in attitudes and behaviours toward physical activity, nutrition, and social support for middle school students using AFIT app as a supplement to instruction in a physical education class [Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weir, T., & Connor, S. (2009). The use of digital video in physical education. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 18(2), 155171. https://doi.org/10.1080/14759390902992642

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wulf, G., Shea, C., & Lewthwaite, R. (2010). Motor skill learning and performance: A review of influential factors. Medical Education, 44(1), 7584. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03421.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoncalik, O., Yetim, A.A., & Senel, Ö. (2010). Effects of teaching with Mosston’s command, practice, and reciprocal styles on affective reactions of sixth-grade students toward physical education lessons. International Journal of Educational Reform, 18(4), 311326. https://doi.org/10.1177/105678790901800404

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, X., & Dragon, L.A. (2016). Physical activity and situational interest in mobile technology integrated physical education: A preliminary study. Acta Gymnica, 46(2), 5967. https://doi.org/10.5507/ag.2016.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Živčić-Marković, K., Krističević, T., & Aleksić-Veljković, A. (2015). A suggested model of handstand teaching method. Physical Culture, 69(2), 138149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 915 915 84
Full Text Views 21 21 1
PDF Downloads 27 27 1