Social–Ecological Considerations in Sustaining Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: A Follow-Up Study

in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education
View More View Less
  • 1 Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  • | 2 College of Education, University of Nebraska, Kearney, NE, USA
Restricted access

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perspective of school personnel regarding the impact of social–ecological factors and to identify salient ways to support school personnel in sustaining Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Methods: In this mixed-methods longitudinal study, stakeholders were surveyed at two points in time (n = 67) and interviewed in semistructured interviews (n = 41) using card sorting to understand the influence of social–ecological factors on Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs sustainability. Results: Across time, the perceived influence of social–ecological levels varied considerably: individual, t(78.86) = −4.22, p < .001, d = 0.52, interpersonal, t(88.20) = −2.32, p = .023, d = 0.09, organizational, t(80.56) = −2.38, p = .02, d = 0.29, and the community factor, t(83.24) = −3.05, p = .003, d = 0.30. Stakeholders rated ecological levels from greatest to least influential as individual, organizational, interpersonal, community, and policy. Themes within levels provided a deeper understanding of these influences. Conclusion: To successfully sustain Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in schools, balanced support from all social–ecological levels may be needed.

  • Allar, I., Elliott, E., Jones, E., Kristjansson, A.L., Taliaferro, A., & Bulger, S.M. (2017). Involving families and communities in CSPAP development using asset mapping. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 88(5), 714. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2017.1280439

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, T., & Shattuck, J. (2012). Design-based research: A decade of progress in education research? Educational Researcher, 41(1), 1625. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X11428813

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bauman, A.E., Reis, R.S., Sallis, J.F., Wells, J.C., Loos, R.J., Martin, B.W., & Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. (2012). Correlates of physical activity: Why are some people physically active and others not? The Lancet, 380(9838), 258271.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brunette, C. (2017). Feeling healthy: How teacher personal health beliefs influence roles for promoting student health. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 55(5–6), 243258. https://doi.org/10.1080/14635240.2017.1372692

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carson, R., & Webster, C.A. (Eds.). (2019). Comprehensive school physical activity programs: Putting evidence-based research into practice. Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013). Comprehensive school physical activity program guide for schools. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/physicalactivity/cspap.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chaput, J.-P., Willumsen, J., Bull, F., Chou, R., Ekelund, U., Firth, J., Jago, R., Ortega, F.B., & Katzmarzyk, P.T. (2020). 2020 WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour for children and adolescents aged 5-17 years: Summary of the evidence. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17(1), 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-01037-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cipriani, K., Richardson, C., & Roberts, G. (2012). Family and community involvement in the comprehensive school physical activity program. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 83(7), 2026. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2012.10598807

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Creswell, J.W., & Clark, V.L.P. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage publications.

  • Dauenhauer, B., Carson, R.L., Krause, J., Hodgin, K., Jones, T., & Weinberger, C. (2018). Cultivating physical activity leadership in schools: A three-tiered approach to professional development. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 89(9), 5157. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2018.1512916

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doolittle, S.A., & Rukavina, P.B. (2014). Case study of an institutionalized urban comprehensive school physical activity program. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33(4), 528557. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2014-0073

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Economos, C.D., Mueller, M.P., Schultz, N., Gervis, J., Miller, G.F., & Pate, R.R. (2018). Investigating best practices of district-wide physical activity programmatic efforts in US schools—A mixed-methods approach. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 114. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5889-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Egan, C.A., Webster, C.A., Stewart, G.L., Weaver, R.G., Russ, L.B., Brian, A., & Stodden, D.F. (2019). Case study of a health optimizing physical education-based comprehensive school physical activity program. Evaluation and Program Planning, 72, 106117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2018.10.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Griffin, D., & Farris, A. (2010). School counselors and collaboration: Finding resources through community asset mapping. Professional School Counseling, 13(5), 248256. https://doi.org/10.5330/PSC.n.2010-13.248

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hales, C.M., Carroll, M.D., Fryar, C.D., & Ogden, C.L. (2017). Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2015–2016. NCHS Data Brief, 288, 18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hernandez, R., Thompson, D., Cheng, T., & Serwint, J. (2012). Early-childhood obesity: How do low-income parents of preschoolers rank known risk factors? Clinical Pediatrics, 51(7), 663670. https://doi.org/10.1177/0009922812440841

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunt, K. (2017). A descriptive study of the factors influencing adoption of the comprehensive school physical activity program in P-12 schools [Unpublished manuscript]. Georgia State University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Irby, S.M., Phu, A.L., Borda, E.J., Haskell, T.R., Steed, N., & Meyer, Z. (2016). Use of a card sort task to assess students’ ability to coordinate three levels of representation in chemistry. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 17(2), 337352. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5RP00150A

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelder, S.H., Karp, G.G., Scruggs, P.W., & Brown, H. (2014). Setting the stage: Coordinated approaches to school health and physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33(4), 440448. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2014-0087

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuhn, A.P., Carson, R.L., Beighle, A., & Castelli, D.M. (2020). Changes in psychosocial perspectives among physical activity leaders: Teacher efficacy, work engagement, and affective commitment. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 40(3), 484492. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2019-0274

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kulinna, P.H. (2016). School staff perceptions of factors influencing participation in a Whole-of-School initiative in an indigenous community. Health Education Journal, 75(7), 869881. https://doi.org/10.1177/0017896916644099

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kulinna, P.H., Stylianou, M., Lorenz, K., Mulhearn, S., Taylor, T., Orme, S. & Everett, A. (2020). Comprehensive school physical activity programs in rural settings. In C. Webster & R. Carson (Eds.), Comprehensive school PA programs: Handbook of research and practice. Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lohrmann, D.K. (2010). A complementary ecological model of the coordinated school health program. Public Health Reports, 123(6), 695703. https://doi.org/10.1177/003335490812300605

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murillo-Pardo, B., Camacho-Miñano, M.J., Julián Clemente, J.A., & Generelo Lanaspa, E. (2020). Analysis of the involvement of participants in a school-based physical activity promotion programme in adolescence. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 58(6), 347358. https://doi.org/10.1080/14635240.2019.1696218

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhodes, R.E., Janssen, I., Bredin, S.S., Warburton, D.E., & Bauman, A. (2017). Physical activity: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions. Psychology & Health, 32(8), 942975. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2017.1325486

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richard, L., Gauvin, L., & Raine, K. (2011). Ecological model revisited: Their uses and evolution in health promotion over two decades. Annual Review of Public Health, 32(1), 307326. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031210-101141

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sallis, J.F., Owen, N., & Fisher, E.B. (2008). Ecological model of health behavior. In K. Glanz, B.K. Rimer, & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (4th ed., pp. 465485). Jossey-Bass.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos, G.J. (2006). Card sort technique as a qualitative substitute for quantitative exploratory factor analysis. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 11(3), 288302. https://doi.org/10.1108/13563280610680867

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saunders, M., & Thornhill, A. (2011). Researching sensitively without sensitizing: Using a card sort in a concurrent mixed methods design to research trust and distrust. International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 5(3), 334350. https://doi.org/10.5172/mra.2011.5.3.334

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Society of Health and Physical Educators. (2015). The essential components of physical education [Guidance Document]. http://www.shapeamerica.org/upload/TheEssentialComponentsOfPhysicalEducation.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Society of Health and Physical Educators. (2016). Physical activity leader (PAL) learning system and training. http://www.shapeamerica.org/prodev/workshops/lmas/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, C.A., Rink, J.E., Carson, R.L., Moon, J., & Gaudreault, K.L. (2020). The comprehensive school physical activity program model: A proposed illustrative supplement to help move the needle on youth physical activity. Kinesiology Review, 9(2), 112121. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2019-0048

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, H., Kulinna, P.H., & Mulhearn, S.C. (2021). The effectiveness of equipment provisions on rural middle school students’ physical activity during lunch recess. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 18(3), 287295.https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2019-0661

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 124 124 18
Full Text Views 8 8 0
PDF Downloads 9 9 0