Why Is Exercise Underutilized in Clinical Practice Despite Evidence It Is Effective? Lessons in Pragmatism From the Inclusion of Exercise in Guidelines for the Treatment of Depression in the British National Health Service

in Kinesiology Review
View More View Less
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $41.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $55.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $79.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $105.00

Exercise remains greatly underutilized in clinical practice for reasons that are only partly understood. This critical review situates the problem within the broader political and economic context. It focuses on depression, the leading cause of disability worldwide, and the processes that followed the inclusion of exercise as a treatment option in clinical practice guidelines in the British National Health Service. The review highlights previously unaddressed phenomena, including antiexercise lobbying by primary care physicians and efforts to present the evidence for the antidepressant effects of exercise as weak, nonexistent, or methodologically flawed. Notably, the field of kinesiology remained silent while these processes unfolded. This information suggests that the path from research evidence to implementation in clinical settings remains dependent on factors beyond the amount and quality of research evidence. The review underscores the need to vigilantly monitor, critically appraise, and actively participate in the clinical research literature and the development of guidelines.

The author (ekkekaki@iastate.edu) is with the Dept. of Kinesiology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

  • Adlington, K. (2018). Pop a million happy pills? Antidepressants, nuance, and the media. British Medical Journal, 360, k1069. PubMed ID: 29523579 doi:10.1136/bmj.k1069

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American Psychological Association Guideline Development Panel for the Treatment of Depressive Disorders. (2019). Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of depression across three age cohorts. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AuYoung, M., Linke, S.E., Pagoto, S., Buman, M.P., Craft, L.L., Richardson, C.R., … Sheinfeld Gorin, S. (2016). Integrating physical activity in primary care practice. American Journal of Medicine, 129(10), 10221029. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.02.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baghai, T.C., Blier, P., Baldwin, D.S., Bauer, M., Goodwin, G.M., Fountoulakis, K.N., … Möller, H.-J. (2011). General and comparative efficacy and effectiveness of antidepressants in the acute treatment of depressive disorders: A report by the WPA section of pharmacopsychiatry. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 261(suppl 3), 207245. doi:10.1007/s00406-011-0259-6

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bailey, A.P., Hetrick, S.E., Rosenbaum, S., Purcell, R., & Parker, A.G. (2018). Treating depression with physical activity in adolescents and young adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Psychological Medicine, 48(7), 10681083. PubMed ID: 28994355 doi:10.1017/S0033291717002653

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barbui, C., Cipriani, A., Patel, V., Ayuso-Mateos, J.L., & van Ommeren, M. (2011). Efficacy of antidepressants and benzodiazepines in minor depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 198(1), 1116. PubMed ID: 21200071 doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.076448

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartram, M. (2019). Expanding access to psychotherapy in Canada: Building on achievements in Australia and the United Kingdom. Healthcare Management Forum, 32(2), 6367. PubMed ID: 30700162 doi:10.1177/0840470418818581

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baxter, H., Winder, R., Chalder, M., Wright, C., Sherlock, S., Haase, A., … Lewis, G. (2010). Physical activity as a treatment for depression: The TREAD randomised trial protocol. Trials, 11(1), 105. PubMed ID: 21073712 doi:10.1186/1745-6215-11-105

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bell, S., Clark, D.M., Knapp, M., Layard, R., Meacher, M.C., Priebe, S., … Wright, B. (2006). The depression report: A new deal for depression and anxiety disorders. London, UK: Mental Health Policy Group, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Binnie, J. (2015). Do you want therapy with that? A critical account of working within IAPT. Mental Health Review Journal, 20(2), 7983. doi:10.1108/MHRJ-11-2014-0044

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blumenthal, J.A., Babyak, M.A., Doraiswamy, P.M., Watkins, L., Hoffman, B.M., Barbour, K.A., … Sherwood, A. (2007). Exercise and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(7), 587596. PubMed ID: 17846259 doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e318148c19a

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blumenthal, J.A., Sherwood, A., Babyak, M.A., Watkins, L.L., Smith, P.J., Hoffman, B.M., … Hinderliter, A.L. (2012). Exercise and pharmacological treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with coronary heart disease: Results from the UPBEAT (Understanding the Prognostic Benefits of Exercise and Antidepressant Therapy) study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 60(12), 10531063. PubMed ID: 22858387 doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2012.04.040

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bridle, C., Spanjers, K., Patel, S., Atherton, N.M., & Lamb, S.E. (2012). Effect of exercise on depression severity in older people: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Psychiatry, 201(3), 180185. PubMed ID: 22945926 doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.095174

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Busch, A.M., Ciccolo, J.T., Puspitasari, A.J., Nosrat, S., Whitworth, J.W., & Stults-Kolehmainen, M. (2016). Preferences for exercise as a treatment for depression. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 10, 6872. PubMed ID: 27453730 doi:10.1016/j.mhpa.2015.12.004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cameron, I.M., Cardy, A., Crawford, J.R., du Toit, S.W., Hay, S., Lawton, K., … Reid, I.C. (2011). Measuring depression severity in general practice: Discriminatory performance of the PHQ-9, HADS-D, and BDI-II. British Journal of General Practice, 61(588), e419e426. PubMed ID: 21722450 doi:10.3399/bjgp11X583209

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carneiro, L.F., Mota, M.P., Schuch, F., Deslandes, A., & Vasconcelos-Raposo, J. (2017). Portuguese and Brazilian guidelines for the treatment of depression: Exercise as medicine. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 40(2), 210211. PubMed ID: 28876380 doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2017-2272

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carney, R.M., & Freedland, K.E. (2017). Depression and coronary heart disease. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 14(3), 145155. PubMed ID: 27853162 doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.181

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chalder, M., Wiles, N.J., Campbell, J., Hollinghurst, S.P., Haase, A.M., Taylor, A.H., … Lewis, G. (2012). Facilitated physical activity as a treatment for depressed adults: Randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 344, e2758. PubMed ID: 22674921 doi:10.1136/bmj.e2758

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chekroud, A.M., & Trugerman, A. (2019). The opportunity for exercise to improve population mental health. JAMA Psychiatry, 76(11), 12061207. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.2282

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cherbuin, N., Kim, S., & Anstey, K.J. (2015). Dementia risk estimates associated with measures of depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 5(12), e008853. PubMed ID: 26692556 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008853

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cipriani, A., Furukawa, T.A., Salanti, G., Chaimani, A., Atkinson, L.Z., Ogawa, Y., … Geddes, J.R. (2018). Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 21 antidepressant drugs for the acute treatment of adults with major depressive disorder: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. The Lancet, 391(10128), 13571366. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32802-7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cipriani, A., Salanti, G., Furukawa, T.A., Egger, M., Leucht, S., Ruhe, H.G., … Geddes, J.R. (2018). Antidepressants might work for people with major depression: Where do we go from here? Lancet Psychiatry, 5(6), 461463. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30133-0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, D.M. (2018). Realizing the mass public benefit of evidence-based psychological therapies: The IAPT program. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 14(1), 159183. PubMed ID: 29350997 doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050817-084833

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, D.M., Layard, R., Smithies, R., Richards, D.A., Suckling, R., & Wright, B. (2009). Improving access to psychological therapy: Initial evaluation of two UK demonstration sites. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(11), 910920. PubMed ID: 19647230 doi:10.1016/j.brat.2009.07.010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooney, G., Dwan, K., & Mead, G. (2014). Exercise for depression. Journal of the American Medical Association, 311(23), 24322433. PubMed ID: 24938566 doi:10.1001/jama.2014.4930

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooney, G.M., Dwan, K., Greig, C.A., Lawlor, D.A., Rimer, J., Waugh, F.R., … Mead, G.E. (2013). Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 9, CD004366. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd004366.pub6

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, M., & Shurlock, J. (2015). Is general practice engaged with physical activity promotion? British Journal of General Practice, 65(640), 573. PubMed ID: 26500302 doi:10.3399/bjgp15X687289

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cosgrove, L., Bursztajn, H.J., Erlich, D.R., Wheeler, E.E., & Shaughnessy, A.F. (2013). Conflicts of interest and the quality of recommendations in clinical guidelines. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 19(4), 674681. PubMed ID: 23731207 doi:10.1111/jep.12016

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cosgrove, L., Erlich, D., & Shaughnessy, A.F. (2019). No magic pill: A prescription for enhanced shared decision-making for depression treatment. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 32(1), 69. PubMed ID: 30610135 doi:10.3122/jabfm.2019.01.180182

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cosgrove, L., Shaughnessy, A.F., Wheeler, E.E., Austad, K.E., Kirsch, I., & Bursztajn, H.J. (2012). The American Psychiatric Association’s guideline for major depressive disorder: A commentary. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 81(3), 186188. PubMed ID: 22433532 doi:10.1159/000335523

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cosgrove, L., & Vaswani, A. (2019). The influence of pharmaceutical companies and restoring integrity to psychiatric research and practice. In S. Steingard (Ed.), Critical psychiatry: Controversy and clinical implications (pp. 7196). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-02732-2_3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cromarty, P., Drummond, A., Francis, T., Watson, J., & Battersby, M. (2016). NewAccess for depression and anxiety: Adapting the UK improving access to psychological therapies program across Australia. Australasian Psychiatry, 24(5), 489492. PubMed ID: 27034440 doi:10.1177/1039856216641310

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cuijpers, P., Turner, E.H., Mohr, D.C., Hofmann, S.G., Andersson, G., Berking, M., & Coyne, J. (2014). Comparison of psychotherapies for adult depression to pill placebo control groups: A meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 44(4), 685695. doi:10.1017/S0033291713000457

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cuijpers, P., Vogelzangs, N., Twisk, J., Kleiboer, A., Li, J., & Penninx, B.W. (2014). Comprehensive meta-analysis of excess mortality in depression in the general community versus patients with specific illnesses. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(4), 453462. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.13030325

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Curbach, J., Apfelbacher, C., Knoll, A., Herrmann, S., Szagun, B., & Loss, J. (2018). Physicians’ perspectives on implementing the prevention scheme “Physical Activity on Prescription”: Results of a survey in Bavaria. Zeitschrift fur Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualitat im Gesundheitswesen, 131–132, 6672. doi:10.1016/j.zefq.2018.02.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dalal, F. (2019). CBT, the cognitive behavioural tsunami: Managerialism, politics and the corruptions of science. New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daley, A., & Jolly, K. (2012). Exercise to treat depression. British Medical Journal, 344, e3181. PubMed ID: 22674923 doi:10.1136/bmj.e3181

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Camargo, K.R., Jr. (2012). How to identify science being bent: The tobacco industry’s fight to deny second-hand smoking health hazards as an example. Social Science and Medicine, 75(7), 12301235. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.03.057

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Din, N.U., Moore, G.F., Murphy, S., Wilkinson, C., & Williams, N.H. (2015). Health professionals’ perspectives on exercise referral and physical activity promotion in primary care: Findings from a process evaluation of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales. Health Education Journal, 74(6), 743757. PubMed ID: 26527835 doi:10.1177/0017896914559785

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dorow, M., Löbner, M., Pabst, A., Stein, J., & Riedel-Heller, S.G. (2018). Preferences for depression treatment including internet-based interventions: Results from a large sample of primary care patients. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 181. PubMed ID: 29867605 doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00181

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dumesnil, H., Cortaredona, S., Verdoux, H., Sebbah, R., Paraponaris, A., & Verger, P. (2012). General practitioners’ choices and their determinants when starting treatment for major depression: A cross sectional, randomized case-vignette survey. PLoS One, 7(12), e52429. PubMed ID: 23272243 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052429

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ebrahim, S., Bance, S., Athale, A., Malachowski, C., & Ioannidis, J.P. (2016). Meta-analyses with industry involvement are massively published and report no caveats for antidepressants. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 70, 155163. PubMed ID: 26399904 doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2015.08.021

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P. (2015). Honey, I shrunk the pooled SMD! Guide to critical appraisal of systematic reviews and meta-analyses using the Cochrane review on exercise for depression as example. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 8(1), 2136doi:10.1016/j.mhpa.2014.12.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P. (2019). Physical activity and mental health in the era of evidence-based medicine. In T. S. Horn& A. L. Smith (Eds.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology (4th ed., pp. 353373). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., Hartman, M.E., & Ladwig, M.A. (2018). Mass media representations of the evidence as a possible deterrent to recommending exercise for the treatment of depression: Lessons five years after the extraordinary case of TREAD-UK. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(16), 18601871. PubMed ID: 29350586 doi:10.1080/02640414.2018.1423856

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., Hartman, M.E., & Ladwig, M.A. (2019). Conceptual foundations of exercise psychology: Facilitators, inhibitors, and a road map toward establishing societal relevance. In M.H. Anshel (Ed.), APA handbook of sport and exercise psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 2756). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/0000124-002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., & Murri, M.B. (2017). Exercise as antidepressant treatment: Time for the transition from trials to clinic? General Hospital Psychiatry, 49, A1A5. doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2017.11.004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ernst, E., & Lee, M.S. (2008). A trial design that generates only “positive” results. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 54(3), 214216. doi:10.4103/0022-3859.41806

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Every-Palmer, S., & Howick, J. (2014). How evidence-based medicine is failing due to biased trials and selective publication. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 20(6), 908914. PubMed ID: 24819404 doi:10.1111/jep.12147

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farah, W.H., Alsawas, M., Mainou, M., Alahdab, F., Farah, M.H., Ahmed, A.T., … LeBlanc, A. (2016). Non-pharmacological treatment of depression: A systematic review and evidence map. Evidence-Based Medicine, 21(6), 214221. PubMed ID: 27836921 doi:10.1136/ebmed-2016-110522

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fountoulakis, K.N., & Möller, H.-J. (2011). Efficacy of antidepressants: A re-analysis and re-interpretation of the Kirsch data. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 14(3), 405412. PubMed ID: 20800012 doi:10.1017/S1461145710000957

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fountoulakis, K.N., & Möller, H.-J. (2012). Antidepressant drugs and the response in the placebo group: The real problem lies in our understanding of the issue. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 26(5), 744750. PubMed ID: 21926425 doi:10.1177/0269881111421969

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fountoulakis, K.N., Samara, M.T., & Siamouli, M. (2014). Burning issues in the meta-analysis of pharmaceutical trials for depression. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 28(2), 106117. PubMed ID: 24043723 doi:10.1177/0269881113504014

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fountoulakis, K.N., Veroniki, A.A., Siamouli, M., & Möller, H.J. (2013). No role for initial severity on the efficacy of antidepressants: Results of a multi-meta-analysis. Annals of General Psychiatry, 12(1), 26. PubMed ID: 23941527 doi:10.1186/1744-859X-12-26

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fournier, J.C., DeRubeis, R.J., Hollon, S.D., Dimidjian, S., Amsterdam, J.D., Shelton, R.C., & Fawcett, J. (2010). Antidepressant drug effects and depression severity: A patient-level meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(1), 4753. PubMed ID: 20051569 doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1943

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freeman, M.P., Fava, M., Lake, J., Trivedi, M.H., Wisner, K.L., & Mischoulon, D. (2010). Complementary and alternative medicine in major depressive disorder: the American Psychiatric Association task force report. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71(6), 669681. PubMed ID: 20573326 doi:10.4088/JCP.10cs05959blu

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Friedrich, M.J. (2017). Depression is the leading cause of disability around the world. Journal of the American Medical Association, 317(15), 1517. PubMed ID: 28418491 doi:10.1001/jama.2017.3826

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gandré, C., Rosenberg, S., Coldefy, M., & Or, Z. (2019). Experimenting locally with a stepped-care approach for the treatment of mild to moderate mental disorders in France: Challenges and opportunities. Health Policy, 123(11), 10211027. PubMed ID: 31495560 doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2019.08.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gaynes, B.N., Rush, A.J., Trivedi, M.H., Wisniewski, S.R., Spencer, D., & Fava, M. (2008). The STAR*D study: Treating depression in the real world. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 75(1), 5766. PubMed ID: 18236731 doi:10.3949/ccjm.75.1.57

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geddes, J.R., & Cipriani, A. (2015). Time to abandon placebo control in pivotal phase III trials? World Psychiatry, 14(3), 306307. PubMed ID: 26407783 doi:10.1002/wps.20246

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gelenberg, A.J., Freeman, M.P., Markowitz, J.C., Rosenbaum, J.F., Thase, M.E., Trivedi, M.H., & Van Rhoads, R.S. (2010). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (3rd ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glowacki, K., Weatherson, K., & Faulkner, G. (2019). Barriers and facilitators to health care providers’ promotion of physical activity for individuals with mental illness: A scoping review. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 16, 152168. doi:10.1016/j.mhpa.2018.10.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grabovac, I., Stefanac, S., Smith, L., Haider, S., Cao, C., Jackson, S.E., … Yang, L. (2020). Association of depression symptoms with receipt of healthcare provider advice on physical activity among US adults. Journal of Affective Disorders, 262, 304309. PubMed ID: 31733918 doi:10.1016/j.jad.2019.11.023

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gratzer, D., & Goldbloom, D. (2016). Making evidence-based psychotherapy more accessible in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(10), 618623. PubMed ID: 27310234 doi:10.1177/0706743716642416

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greenblatt, D.J., Harmatz, J.S., & Shader, R.I. (2018). Update on psychotropic drug prescribing in the United States: 2014–2015. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 38(1), 14. PubMed ID: 29215384 doi:10.1097/JCP.0000000000000831

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Griffiths, S., & Steen, S. (2013). Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme: Scrutinising IAPT cost estimates to support effective commissioning. Journal of Psychological Therapies in Primary Care, 2(2), 142156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gyani, A., Shafran, R., Layard, R., & Clark, D.M. (2013). Enhancing recovery rates: Lessons from year one of IAPT. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51(9), 597606. PubMed ID: 23872702 doi:10.1016/j.brat.2013.06.004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hallgren, M., Stubbs, B., Vancampfort, D., Lundin, A., Jääkallio, P., & Forsell, Y. (2017). Treatment guidelines for depression: Greater emphasis on physical activity is needed. European Psychiatry, 40, 13. PubMed ID: 27837666 doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2016.08.011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harrison, R.A., McNair, F., & Dugdill, L. (2005). Access to exercise referral schemes: A population based analysis. Journal of Public Health, 27(4), 326330. PubMed ID: 16207736 doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdi048

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harrop, C., Read, J., Geekie, J., & Renton, J. (2018). An independent audit of pharma influence in public mental health trusts in England. Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 20(3), 156168. doi:10.1891/1559-4343.20.3.156

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Härter, M., Klesse, C., Bermejo, I., Schneider, F., & Berger, M. (2010). Unipolar depression: Diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations from the current S3/National Clinical Practice Guideline. Deutsches Arzteblatt International, 107(40), 700708. PubMed ID: 21031129 doi:10.3238/arztebl.2010.0700

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hébert, E.T., Caughy, M.O., & Shuval, K. (2012). Primary care providers’ perceptions of physical activity counselling in a clinical setting: A systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(9), 625631. PubMed ID: 22711796 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090734

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heinzel, S., Lawrence, J.B., Kallies, G., Rapp, M.A., & Heissel, A. (2015). Using exercise to fight depression in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. GeroPsych: The Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(4), 149162. doi:10.1024/1662-9647/a000133

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hengartner, M.P. (2018). What is the threshold for a clinical minimally important drug effect? BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine, 23(6), 225227. doi:10.1136/bmjebm-2018-111056

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hengartner, M.P., Jakobsen, J.C., Sørensen, A., & Plöderl, M. (2020). Efficacy of new-generation antidepressants assessed with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the gold standard clinician rating scale: A meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials. PLoS One, 15(2), e0229381. PubMed ID: 32101579 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0229381

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hengartner, M.P., & Plöderl, M. (2018). Statistically significant antidepressant-placebo differences on subjective symptom-rating scales do not prove that the drugs work: Effect size and method bias matter! Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 517. PubMed ID: 30386270 doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00517

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hengartner, M.P., Plöderl, M., Braillon, A., Jakobsen, J.C., & Gluud, C. (2020). Sertraline in primary care: Comments on the PANDA trial. Lancet Psychiatry, 7(1), 17. PubMed ID: 31860449 doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30381-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hepgul, N., King, S., Amarasinghe, M., Breen, G., Grant, N., Grey, N., … Cleare, A.J. (2016). Clinical characteristics of patients assessed within an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service: Results from a naturalistic cohort study (Predicting Outcome Following Psychological Therapy; PROMPT). BMC Psychiatry, 16(1), 52. PubMed ID: 26920578 doi:10.1186/s12888-016-0736-6

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hermens, M.L., Muntingh, A., Franx, G., van Splunteren, P.T., & Nuyen, J. (2014). Stepped care for depression is easy to recommend, but harder to implement: Results of an explorative study within primary care in the Netherlands. BMC Family Practice, 15(1), 5. PubMed ID: 24400701 doi:10.1186/1471-2296-15-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hieronymus, F., Emilsson, J.F., Nilsson, S., & Eriksson, E. (2016). Consistent superiority of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors over placebo in reducing depressed mood in patients with major depression. Molecular Psychiatry, 21(4), 523530. PubMed ID: 25917369 doi:10.1038/mp.2015.53

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holland, R. (2009). Improving access to psychological therapies: The intention. London Journal of Primary Care, 2(1), 5051. PubMed ID: 26042167 doi:10.1080/17571472.2009.11493243

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horder, J., Matthews, P., & Waldmann, R. (2011). Placebo, Prozac and PLoS: Significant lessons for psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(10), 12771288. PubMed ID: 20571143 doi:10.1177/0269881110372544

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houle, J., Villaggi, B., Beaulieu, M.D., Lespérance, F., Rondeau, G., & Lambert, J. (2013). Treatment preferences in patients with first episode depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 147(1–3), 94100. PubMed ID: 23167975 doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.10.016

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huijg, J.M., Gebhardt, W.A., Verheijden, M.W., van der Zouwe, N., de Vries, J.D., Middelkoop, B.J., & Crone, M.R. (2015). Factors influencing primary health care professionals’ physical activity promotion behaviors: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22(1), 3250. PubMed ID: 24788314 doi:10.1007/s12529-014-9398-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iacobucci, G. (2013). Better care for elderly will replace some “box ticking” under new GP contract. British Medical Journal, 347, f6909. PubMed ID: 24246841 doi:10.1136/bmj.f6909

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ioannidis, J.P. (2008). Effectiveness of antidepressants: An evidence myth constructed from a thousand randomized trials? Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine, 3(1), 14. PubMed ID: 18505564 doi:10.1186/1747-5341-3-14

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ioannidis, J.P. (2016). Evidence-based medicine has been hijacked: A report to David Sackett. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 73, 8286. PubMed ID: 26934549 doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2016.02.012

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jakobsen, J.C., Katakam, K.K., Schou, A., Hellmuth, S.G., Stallknecht, S.E., Leth-Møller, K., … Gluud, C. (2017). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus placebo in patients with major depressive disorder: A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 17(1), 58. PubMed ID: 28178949 doi:10.1186/s12888-016-1173-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jesulola, E., Micalos, P., & Baguley, I.J. (2018). Understanding the pathophysiology of depression: From monoamines to the neurogenesis hypothesis model: Are we there yet? Behavioural Brain Research, 341, 7990. PubMed ID: 29284108 doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2017.12.025

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jonas, S., & Phillips, E.M. (2009). ACSM’s exercise is medicine: A clinician’s guide to exercise prescription. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kantor, E.D., Rehm, C.D., Haas, J.S., Chan, A.T., & Giovannucci, E.L. (2015). Trends in prescription drug use among adults in the United States from 1999–2012. Journal of the American Medical Association, 314(17), 18181831. PubMed ID: 26529160 doi:10.1001/jama.2015.13766

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kendrick, T., Dowrick, C., McBride, A., Howe, A., Clarke, P., Maisey, S., … Smith, P.W. (2009). Management of depression in UK general practice in relation to scores on depression severity questionnaires: Analysis of medical record data. British Medical Journal, 338, b750. PubMed ID: 19299475 doi:10.1136/bmj.b750

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kessler, D., Lewis, G., Kaur, S., Wiles, N., King, M., Weich, S., … Peters, T.J. (2009). Therapist-delivered internet psychotherapy for depression in primary care: A randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 374(9690), 628634. PubMed ID: 19700005 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61257-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kessler, R.C., Merikangas, K.R., & Wang, P.S. (2007). Prevalence, comorbidity, and service utilization for mood disorders in the United States at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3(1), 137158. PubMed ID: 17716051 doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091444

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khan, A., & Brown, W.A. (2015). Antidepressants versus placebo in major depression: An overview. World Psychiatry, 14(3), 294300. PubMed ID: 26407778 doi:10.1002/wps.20241

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kirsch, I. (2010). The emperor’s new drugs: Exploding the antidepressant myth. New York, NY: Basic Books.

  • Kirsch, I., Deacon, B.J., Huedo-Medina, T.B., Scoboria, A., Moore, T.J., & Johnson, B.T. (2008). Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: A meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. PLoS Medicine, 5(2), e45. PubMed ID: 18303940 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kobori, O., Nakazato, M., Yoshinaga, N., Shiraishi, T., Takaoka, K., Nakagawa, A., … Shimizu, E. (2014), Transporting Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) project to Japan: Preliminary observations and service evaluation in Chiba. Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, 9(3), 155166. doi:10.1108/JMHTEP-10-2013-0033

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kok, R.M., & Reynolds, C.F., 3rd. (2017). Management of depression in older adults: A review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 317(20), 21142122. PubMed ID: 28535241 doi:10.1001/jama.2017.5706

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krogh, J., Hjorthøj, C., Speyer, H., Gluud, C., & Nordentoft, M. (2017). Exercise for patients with major depression: A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. BMJ Open, 7(9), e014820. PubMed ID: 28928174 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014820

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kvam, S., Kleppe, C.L., Nordhus, I.H., & Hovland, A. (2016). Exercise as a treatment for depression: A meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 202, 6786. PubMed ID: 27253219 doi:10.1016/j.jad.2016.03.063

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laynard, R., Clark, D., Knapp, M., & Mayraz, G. (2007). Cost-benefit analysis of psychological therapy. National Institute Economic Review, 202(1), 9098. doi:10.1177/0027950107086171

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leijon, M.E., Bendtsen, P., Nilsen, P., Ekberg, K., & Ståhle, A. (2008). Physical activity referrals in Swedish primary health care: Prescriber and patient characteristics, reasons for prescriptions, and prescribed activities. BMC Health Services Research, 8(1), 201. PubMed ID: 18828898 doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-201

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lewis, G. (2012). Authors’ reply to Davies and colleagues, Donnelly, and Pilling and Anderson. British Medical Journal, 345, e4500. doi:10.1136/bmj.e4500

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lewis, G., Duffy, L., Ades, A., Amos, R., Araya, R., Brabyn, S., … Lewis, G. (2019). The clinical effectiveness of sertraline in primary care and the role of depression severity and duration (PANDA): A pragmatic, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial. Lancet Psychiatry, 6(11), 903914. PubMed ID: 31543474 doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30366-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lion, A., Vuillemin, A., Thornton, J.S., Theisen, D., Stranges, S., & Ward, M. (2019). Physical activity promotion in primary care: A Utopian quest? Health Promotion International, 34(4), 877886. PubMed ID: 29893846 doi:10.1093/heapro/day038

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lobelo, F., Rohm Young, D., Sallis, R., Garber, M.D., Billinger, S.A., Duperly, J., … Joy, E.A. (2018). Routine assessment and promotion of physical activity in healthcare settings: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 137(18), e495e522. PubMed ID: 29618598 doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000559

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luck-Sikorski, C., Stein, J., Heilmann, K., Maier, W., Kaduszkiewicz, H., Scherer, M., … Riedel-Heller, S.G. (2017). Treatment preferences for depression in the elderly. International Psychogeriatrics, 29(3), 389398. PubMed ID: 27890036 doi:10.1017/S1041610216001885

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacAuley, D. (2006). Physical activity may be good for you but we are not the key players. British Journal of General Practice, 56(532), 888. PubMed ID: 17132366

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malhi, G.S., Bassett, D., Boyce, P., Bryant, R., Fitzgerald, P.B., Fritz, K., … Singh, A.B. (2015). Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for mood disorders. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49(12), 10871206. PubMed ID: 26643054 doi:10.1177/0004867415617657

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marks, D.F. (2018). IAPT under the microscope. Journal of Health Psychology, 23(9), 11311135. PubMed ID: 30008263 doi:10.1177/1359105318781872

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McAllister-Williams, R.H. (2008). Do antidepressants work? A commentary on 'Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: A meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration’ by Kirsch et al. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 11(3), 6668. PubMed ID: 18669671 doi:10.1136/ebmh.11.3.66

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCrone, P. (2013). IAPT is probably not cost-effective. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(5), 383. PubMed ID: 23637111 doi:10.1192/bjp.202.5.383

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPherson, S., & Sunkin, M. (2020). The Dobson-Rawlins pact and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: Impact of political independence on scientific and legal accountability. British Journal of Psychiatry, 216(4), 231234. PubMed ID: 31138337 doi:10.1192/bjp.2019.121

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mead, G.E. (2012). Physical activity as a treatment for depressed adults. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 42(4), 325. PubMed ID: 23240120 doi:10.4997/JRCPE.2012.410

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mercier, A., Auger-Aubin, I., Lebeau, J.P., Schuers, M., Boulet, P., Hermil, J.L., … Peremans, L. (2013). Evidence of prescription of antidepressants for non-psychiatric conditions in primary care: An analysis of guidelines and systematic reviews. BMC Family Practice, 14(1), 55. PubMed ID: 23641784 doi:10.1186/1471-2296-14-55

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, C., Dwyer, R., Hagan, T., & Mathers, N. (2011). Impact of the QOF and the NICE guideline in the diagnosis and management of depression: A qualitative study. British Journal of General Practice, 61(586), e279e289. PubMed ID: 21619752 doi:10.3399/bjgp11X572472

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moberly, T. (2018). The pharma deals that CCGs fail to declare. British Medical Journal, 360, j5915. PubMed ID: 29298768 doi:10.1136/bmj.j5915

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mojtabai, R., & Olfson, M. (2011). Proportion of antidepressants prescribed without a psychiatric diagnosis is growing. Health Affairs, 30(8), 14341442. PubMed ID: 21821561 doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.1024

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Möller, H.-J. (2008). Isn’t the efficacy of antidepressants clinically relevant? A critical comment on the results of the meta-analysis by Kirsch et al. 2008. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 258(8), 451455. doi:10.1007/s00406-008-0836-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morres, I.D., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Stathi, A., Comoutos, N., Arpin-Cribbie, C., Krommidas, C., & Theodorakis, Y. (2019). Aerobic exercise for adult patients with major depressive disorder in mental health services: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Depression and Anxiety, 36(1), 3953. PubMed ID: 30334597 doi:10.1002/da.22842

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mukuria, C., Brazier, J., Barkham, M., Connell, J., Hardy, G., Hutten, R., … Parry, G. (2013). Cost-effectiveness of an improving access to psychological therapies service. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(3), 220227. PubMed ID: 23307921 doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.107888

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mulinari, S., & Ozieranski, P. (2018). Disclosure of payments by pharmaceutical companies to healthcare professionals in the UK: Analysis of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry’s Disclosure UK database, 2015 and 2016 cohorts. BMJ Open, 8(10), e023094. PubMed ID: 30344175 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023094

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mura, G., Moro, M.F., Patten, S.B., & Carta, M.G. (2014). Exercise as an add-on strategy for the treatment of major depressive disorder: A systematic review. CNS Spectrums, 19(6), 496508. PubMed ID: 24589012 doi:10.1017/S1092852913000953

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Naci, H., & Ioannidis, J.P. (2015). Comparative effectiveness of exercise and drug interventions on mortality outcomes: Metaepidemiological study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(21), 14141422. PubMed ID: 26476429 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-f5577rep

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Naci, H., Salcher-Konrad, M., Dias, S., Blum, M.R., Sahoo, S.A., Nunan, D., & Ioannidis, J. (2019). How does exercise treatment compare with antihypertensive medications? A network meta-analysis of 391 randomised controlled trials assessing exercise and medication effects on systolic blood pressure. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 53(14), 859869. PubMed ID: 30563873 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2018-099921

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health and National Institute for Clinical Excellence. (2004). Depression: Management of depression in primary and secondary care (National Clinical Practice Guideline Number 23). London, UK: National Institute for Clinical Excellence.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2010). The treatment and management of depression in adults (updated edition). London, UK: The British Psychological Society and The Royal College of Psychiatrists.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Netz, Y. (2017). Is the comparison between exercise and pharmacologic treatment of depression in the clinical practice guideline of the American College of Physicians evidence-based? Frontiers in Pharmacology, 8, 257. PubMed ID: 28555108 doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00257

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olfson, M., Blanco, C., & Marcus, S.C. (2016). Treatment of adult depression in the United States. JAMA Internal Medicine, 176(10), 14821491. PubMed ID: 27571438 doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.5057

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olfson, M., & Marcus, S.C. (2009). National patterns in antidepressant medication treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(8), 848856. PubMed ID: 19652124 doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.81

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2019). Health at a glance 2019: OECD indicators. Paris, France: OECD Publishing. doi:10.1787/4dd50c09-en

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ormel, J., Spinhoven, P., De Vries, Y., Cramer, A., Siegle, G., Bockting, C., & Hollon, S. (2020). The antidepressant standoff: Why it continues and how to resolve it. Psychological Medicine, 50(2), 177186. PubMed ID: 31779735 doi:10.1017/S0033291719003295

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orrow, G., Kinmonth, A.L., Sanderson, S., & Sutton, S. (2012). Effectiveness of physical activity promotion based in primary care: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal, 344, e1389. PubMed ID: 22451477 doi:10.1136/bmj.e1389

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Otte, C., Gold, S.M., Penninx, B.W., Pariante, C.M., Etkin, A., Fava, M., … Schatzberg, A.F. (2016). Major depressive disorder. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 2(1), 16065. PubMed ID: 27629598 doi:10.1038/nrdp.2016.65

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ozieranski, P., Csanadi, M., Rickard, E., Tchilingirian, J., & Mulinari, S. (2019). Analysis of pharmaceutical industry payments to UK health care organizations in 2015. JAMA Network Open, 2(6), e196253. PubMed ID: 31225896 doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.6253

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, G., & Crawford, J. (2007). Judged effectiveness of differing antidepressant strategies by those with clinical depression. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(1), 3237. PubMed ID: 17464679 doi:10.1080/00048670601057726

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Penninx, B.W. (2017). Depression and cardiovascular disease: Epidemiological evidence on their linking mechanisms. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 74(Pt B), 277286. PubMed ID: 27461915 doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.07.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Persson, G., Ovhed, I., & Hansson, E.E. (2010). Simplified routines in prescribing physical activity can increase the amount of prescriptions by doctors, more than economic incentives only: An observational intervention study. BMC Research Notes, 3(1), 304. PubMed ID: 21078135 doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-304

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pigott, H.E. (2011). STAR*D: A tale and trail of bias. Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 13(1), 628. doi:10.1891/1559-4343.13.1.6

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pigott, H.E. (2015). The STAR*D trial: It is time to reexamine the clinical beliefs that guide the treatment of major depression. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 60(1), 913. PubMed ID: 25886544 doi:10.1177/070674371506000104

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pratt, L.A., Brody, D.J., & Gu, Q. (2011). Antidepressant use in persons aged 12 and over: United States, 2005–2008. National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief, 76, 18. PubMed ID: 22617183

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qaseem, A., Barry, M.J., & Kansagara, D. (2016). Nonpharmacologic versus pharmacologic treatment of adult patients with major depressive disorder: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 164(5), 350359. PubMed ID: 26857948 doi:10.7326/M15-2570

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Radhakrishnan, M., Hammond, G., Jones, P.B., Watson, A., McMillan-Shields, F., & Lafortune, L. (2013). Cost of improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme: An analysis of cost of session, treatment and recovery in selected Primary Care Trusts in the East of England region. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51(1), 3745. PubMed ID: 23178677 doi:10.1016/j.brat.2012.10.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raue, P.J., Weinberger, M.I., Sirey, J.A., Meyers, B.S., & Bruce, M.L. (2011). Preferences for depression treatment among elderly home health care patients. Psychiatric Services, 62(5), 532537. PubMed ID: 21532080 doi:10.1176/ps.62.5.pss6205_0532

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ravindran, A.V., Balneaves, L.G., Faulkner, G., Ortiz, A., McIntosh, D., Morehouse, R.L., … Parikh, S.V. (2016). Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 clinical guidelines for the management of adults with major depressive disorder: Section 5. Complementary and alternative medicine treatments. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(9), 576587. PubMed ID: 27486153 doi:10.1177/0706743716660290

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Read, J., & Williams, J. (2018). Adverse effects of antidepressants reported by a large international cohort: Emotional blunting, suicidality, and withdrawal effects. Current Drug Safety, 13(3), 176186. PubMed ID: 29866014 doi:10.2174/1574886313666180605095130

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhyner, K.T., & Watts, A. (2016). Exercise and depressive symptoms in older adults: A systematic meta-analytic review. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 24(2), 234246. PubMed ID: 26372020 doi:10.1123/japa.2015-0146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, D.A., Bower, P., Pagel, C., Weaver, A., Utley, M., Cape, J., … Vasilakis, C. (2012). Delivering stepped care: An analysis of implementation in routine practice. Implementation Science, 7(1), 3. PubMed ID: 22248385 doi:10.1186/1748-5908-7-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rising, K., Bacchetti, P., & Bero, L. (2008). Reporting bias in drug trials submitted to the Food and Drug Administration: Review of publication and presentation. PLoS Medicine, 5(11), e217. PubMed ID: 19067477 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050217

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rowley, N., Mann, S., Steele, J., Horton, E., & Jimenez, A. (2018). The effects of exercise referral schemes in the United Kingdom in those with cardiovascular, mental health, and musculoskeletal disorders: A preliminary systematic review. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 949. PubMed ID: 30068338 doi:10.1186/s12889-018-5868-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rowley, N., Steele, J., Wade, M., Copeland, R.J., Mann, S., Liguori, G., … Jimenez, A. (2020). Are exercise referral schemes associated with an increase in physical activity? Observational findings using individual patient data meta-analysis from the National Referral Database. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 17(6), 621631. doi:10.1123/jpah.2019-0435

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rush, A.J., Trivedi, M.H., Wisniewski, S.R., Nierenberg, A.A., Stewart, J.W., Warden, D., … Fava, M. (2006). Acute and longer-term outcomes in depressed outpatients requiring one or several treatment steps: A STAR*D report. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(11), 19051917. PubMed ID: 17074942 doi:10.1176/ajp.2006.163.11.1905

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schuch, F.B., Vancampfort, D., Richards, J., Rosenbaum, S., Ward, P.B., & Stubbs, B. (2016). Exercise as a treatment for depression: A meta-analysis adjusting for publication bias. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 77, 4251. PubMed ID: 26978184 doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.02.023

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schulz, P., & Hede, V. (2018). Alternative and complementary approaches in psychiatry: Beliefs versus evidence. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 20(3), 207214. PubMed ID: 30581290 doi:10.31887/DCNS.2018.20.3/pschulz

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scott, M.J. (2018). Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT): The need for radical reform. Journal of Health Psychology, 23(9), 11361147. PubMed ID: 29390891 doi:10.1177/1359105318755264

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. (2010). Non-pharmaceutical management of depression in adults: A national clinical guideline. Edinburgh, UK: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Searle, A., Calnan, M., Lewis, G., Campbell, J., Taylor, A., & Turner, K. (2011). Patients’ views of physical activity as treatment for depression: A qualitative study. British Journal of General Practice, 61(585), e149e156. PubMed ID: 21439172 doi:10.3399/bjgp11X567054

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Searle, A., Calnan, M., Turner, K.M., Lawlor, D.A., Campbell, J., Chalder, M., & Lewis, G. (2012). General practitioners’ beliefs about physical activity for managing depression in primary care. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 5(1), 1319. doi:10.1016/j.mhpa.2011.11.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaw, E.J., Sutcliffe, D., Lacey, T., & Stokes, T. (2013). Assessing depression severity using the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework depression indicators: A systematic review. British Journal of General Practice, 63(610), e309e317. PubMed ID: 23643228 doi:10.3399/bjgp13X667169

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shern, D.L., & Moran, H. (2009). STAR*D: Helping to close the gap between science and practice. Psychiatric Services, 60(11), 14581459. PubMed ID: 19880460 doi:10.1176/ps.2009.60.11.1458

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, O.R.F., Knapstad, M., Alves, D.E., & Aarø, L.E. (2017). Initial results of prompt mental health care, the Norwegian version of improving access to psychological therapies. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 86(6), 382384. PubMed ID: 29131045 doi:10.1159/000477668

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smithson, J., & Mitchell, P.B. (2019). Antidepressants. Side Effects of Drugs Annual, 41, 1326. doi:10.1016/bs.seda.2019.10.002

  • Spijker, J., Bockting, C.L.H., Meeuwissen, J.A.C., van Vliet, I.M., Emmelkamp, P.M.G., Hermens, M.L.M., & Balkom, A.L.J.M. (2013). Multidisciplinary guideline for depression: Guideline for the diagnosis, treatment, and counseling of adult patients with major depressive disorder (3rd revision). Utrecht, the Netherlands: Trimbos Instituut.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stanton, R., Franck, C., Reaburn, P., & Happell, B. (2015). A pilot study of the views of general practitioners regarding exercise for the treatment of depression. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 51(4), 253259. PubMed ID: 25307254 doi:10.1111/ppc.12088

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stanton, R., Rebar, A., & Rosenbaum, S. (2019). Exercise and mental health literacy in an Australian adult population. Depression and Anxiety, 36(5), 465472. PubMed ID: 30328662 doi:10.1002/da.22851

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steen, S. (2020). A cost–benefit analysis of the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies programme using its key defining outcomes. Journal of Health Psychology, 25(13-14), 24872498. PubMed ID: 30284915 doi:10.1177/1359105318803751

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stoll, M., Mancini, A., Hubenschmid, L., Dreimüller, N., König, J., Cuijpers, P., … Lieb, K. (2020). Discrepancies from registered protocols and spin occurred frequently in randomized psychotherapy trials: A meta-epidemiologic study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 128, 4956. PubMed ID: 32828837 doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2020.08.013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stubbs, B., Vancampfort, D., Hallgren, M., Firth, J., Veronese, N., Solmi, M., … Kahl, K.G. (2018). EPA guidance on physical activity as a treatment for severe mental illness: A meta-review of the evidence and position statement from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the International Organization of Physical Therapists in Mental Health (IOPTMH). European Psychiatry, 54, 124144. PubMed ID: 30257806 doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.07.004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thase, M.E. (2011). The small specific effects of antidepressants in clinical trials: What do they mean to psychiatrists? Current Psychiatry Reports, 13(6), 476482. PubMed ID: 21964929 doi:10.1007/s11920-011-0235-x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trilk, J.L., & Phillips, E.M. (2014). Incorporating ‘Exercise is Medicine’ into the University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville and Greenville Health System. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(3), 165167. PubMed ID: 24311603 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-093157

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trivedi, M.H., Rush, A.J., Wisniewski, S.R., Nierenberg, A.A., Warden, D., Ritz, L., … Fava, M. (2006). Evaluation of outcomes with citalopram for depression using measurement-based care in STAR*D: Implications for clinical practice. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(1), 2840. PubMed ID: 16390886 doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.1.28

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turner, E.H., Matthews, A.M., Linardatos, E., Tell, R.A., & Rosenthal, R. (2008). Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy. New England Journal of Medicine, 358(3), 252260. PubMed ID: 18199864 doi:10.1056/NEJMsa065779

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vaccarino, V., Badimon, L., Bremner, J.D., Cenko, E., Cubedo, J., Dorobantu, M., … Bugiardini, R. (2020). Depression and coronary heart disease: 2018 position paper of the ESC working group on coronary pathophysiology and microcirculation. European Heart Journal, 41(17), 16871696. PubMed ID: 30698764 doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehy913

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vuori, I.M., Lavie, C.J., & Blair, S.N. (2013). Physical activity promotion in the health care system. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 88(12), 14461461. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.08.020

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wade, M., Mann, S., Copeland, R.J., & Steele, J. (2020). Effect of exercise referral schemes upon health and well-being: Initial observational insights using individual patient data meta-analysis from the National Referral Database. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 74(1), 3241. PubMed ID: 31740446 doi:10.1136/jech-2019-212674

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, E.R., McGee, R.E., & Druss, B.G. (2015). Mortality in mental disorders and global disease burden implications: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(4), 334341. PubMed ID: 25671328 doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2502

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White, J., & Bero, L.A. (2010). Corporate manipulation of research: Strategies are similar across five industries. Stanford Law and Policy Review, 21(1), 105134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiles, N., Thomas, L., Abel, A., Ridgway, N., Turner, N., Campbell, J., … Lewis, G. (2013). Cognitive behavioural therapy as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy for primary care-based patients with treatment resistant depression: Results of the CoBalT randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 381(9864), 375384. PubMed ID: 23219570 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61552-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiles, N.J., Thomas, L., Turner, N., Garfield, K., Kounali, D., Campbell, J., … Hollinghurst, S. (2016). Long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy for treatment-resistant depression in primary care: Follow-up of the CoBalT randomised controlled trial. Lancet Psychiatry, 3(2), 137144. PubMed ID: 26777773 doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00495-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, C., Wilson, P., Morrison, J., McMahon, A., Walker, A., Allan, L., … Tansey, L. (2013). Guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in primary care: A randomised controlled trial. PLoS One, 8(1), e52735. PubMed ID: 23326352 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052735

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, C.H. (2015). Improving access to psychological therapies (IAPT) and treatment outcomes: Epistemological assumptions and controversies. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 22(5), 344351. PubMed ID: 26014832 doi:10.1111/jpm.12181

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yavchitz, A., Boutron, I., Bafeta, A., Marroun, I., Charles, P., Mantz, J., & Ravaud, P. (2012). Misrepresentation of randomized controlled trials in press releases and news coverage: A cohort study. PLoS Medicine, 9(9), e1001308. PubMed ID: 22984354 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhong, W., Kremers, H.M., Yawn, B.P., Bobo, W.V., St Sauver, J.L., Ebbert, J.O., … Rocca, W.A. (2014). Time trends of antidepressant drug prescriptions in men versus women in a geographically defined US population. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 17(6), 485492. PubMed ID: 25113318 doi:10.1007/s00737-014-0450-7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhong, W., Maradit-Kremers, H., St Sauver, J.L., Yawn, B.P., Ebbert, J.O., Roger, V.L., … Rocca, W.A. (2013). Age and sex patterns of drug prescribing in a defined American population. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 88(7), 697707. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.04.021

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zwald, M.L., Kit, B.K., Fakhouri, T., Hughes, J.P., & Akinbami, L.J. (2019). Prevalence and correlates of receiving medical advice to increase physical activity in U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2016. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 56(6), 834843. PubMed ID: 31003809 doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2019.01.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 770 770 234
Full Text Views 36 36 20
PDF Downloads 25 25 8