We are updating our website on Thursday, December 2 from 9 AM – 5 PM EST. During this time, users may experience some disruptions while using the site. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Challenges, Achievements, and Uncertainties: The Philosophy of Sport Since the 1980s

in Kinesiology Review
View More View Less
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $42.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $56.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $80.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $107.00

The philosophy of sport has flourished in some ways and struggled in others since the publication of George Brooks’s anthology Perspectives on the Academic Discipline of Physical Education: A Tribute to G. Lawrence Rarick in 1981. In this article, the authors trace challenges faced by the philosophy of sport, discuss trends and hot topics, analyze opportunities for integrations with other subdisciplines, and speculate on the current issues in and the future of the philosophy of sport. While they conclude that the philosophy of sport’s prospect within kinesiology is uncertain and that it has work to do, they also conclude that this subdiscipline is uniquely positioned to provide kinesiology with the clarity and unity of purpose it needs.

Kretchmar (rsk1@psu.edu) is with the Dept. of Kinesiology, Penn State University, University Park, PA, USA. Torres (crtorres@brockport.edu) is with the Dept. of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education, SUNY Brockport, Brockport, NY, USA

  • American Kinesiology Association. (2009). Section one: The AKA undergraduate core curriculum elements. https://www.americankinesiology.org/SubPages/Pages/Undergraduate%20Core%20Elements

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Best, D. (1974). The aesthetic in sport. The British Journal of Aesthetics, 14(3), 197213. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjaesthetics/14.3.197

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brooks, G. (Ed.). (1981). Perspectives on the academic discipline of physical education: A tribute to G. Lawrence Rarick. Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, W.M. (1980). Ethics, drugs, and sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 7(1), 1523. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1980.9714363

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burke, M.D. (1997). Drugs in sport: Have they practiced too hard? A response to Schneider and Butcher. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 24(1), 4766. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1997.9714539

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camporesi, S. & McNamee, M. (2018). Bioethics, genetics and sport. Routledge.

  • Carlson, C. (2018). Game spirituality: How games tell us more than we might think. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 12(1), 8193. https://doi.org/10.1080/17511321.2017.1300603

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Commission on Sport Management Accreditation. (2016). Accreditation principles manual and guidelines for self-study preparation. www.cosmaweb.org > uploads > cosma_principles_516

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, W.E. (1978). Do sports have an aesthetic aspect? Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 5(1), 5155. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1978.10654140.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cordner, C. (1988). Differences between sport and art. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 15(1), 3147. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1988.9714459

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D’Agostino, F. (1981). The ethos of games. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 8(1), 718.

  • Damasio, A. (2003). Looking for Spinoza: Joy, sorrow, and the feeling brain. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

  • Digest of Education Statistics. (2020). Table 322.10. Bachelor’s degrees conferred by postsecondary institutions, by field of study: Selected years, 1970-71 through 2017-18. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d19/tables/dt19_322.10.asp

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • English, J. (1978). Sex equality in sports. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 7(3), 269277.

  • Elcombe, T.L. & Hardman, A.R. (2020). Pragmatic conventionalism and sport normativity in the face of intractable dilemmas. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 47(1), 1432. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.2019.1673763

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feezell, R. (2001). Sport and the view from nowhere. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 28(1), 117. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.2001.9714597

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Francis, L.P. (1993) Title IX: Equality for women’s sports? Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 20/21(1), 3247.

  • Geeraets, V. (2018). Ideology, doping and the spirit of sport. Sports, Ethics and Philosophy, 12(3), 255271. https://doi.org/10.1080/17511321.2017.1351483

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gleaves, J. (2010). No harm, no foul: Justifying bans on safe performance enhancing drugs. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 4(3), 269283. https://doi.org/10.1080/17511320903521068

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gramsci, A. (1973). Letters from prison (L. Lawner, Trans.). Harper & Row.

  • Graves, S. (2019). Love your opponent as yourself: A Christian ethic for sport. In R.S. Kretchmar & J.B. White (Eds.), Sport and spirituality (pp. 5069). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoffman, S. (Ed.). (1992). Sport and religion. Human Kinetics.

  • Hoffman, S. (2010). Good game: Christianity and the culture of sports. Baylor University Press.

  • Holowchak, M.A. (2002). Ergogenic aids and the limits of human performance in sport: Ethical issues, aesthetic considerations. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 29(1), 7586. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.2002.9714624

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hopsicker, P.M. & Hochstetler, D. (2016). The future of sport philosophy in higher education kinesiology. Quest, 68(3), 240256.

  • Hurka, T. & Tasioulas, J. (2006). Games and the good. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes, 80, 217264.

  • Hyland, D. (1984). Opponents, contestants, and competitors: The dialectic of sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 11(1), 6370. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1984.9714417

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • James, W. (1978). What makes a life significant? In J. MacDermott (Ed.), The writings of William James: A comprehensive edition (pp. 645660). The University of Chicago Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kretchmar, R.S. (1975). From test to contest: An analysis of two kinds of counterpoints in sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 2(1), 2330. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1975.10654094

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kretchmar, R.S. (2005). Practical philosophy of sport and physical activity (2nd ed.). Human Kinetics.

  • Kretchmar, R.S. (2008). The utility of silos and bunkers in the evolution of Kinesiology. Quest, 60(1), 312. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2008.10483564

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kretchmar, R.S. (2015). Pluralistic internalism. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(1), 83100. 10.1080/00948705.2014.911101

  • Kupfer. J.H. (1983). Experience as art: Aesthetics in everyday life. State University of New York Press.

  • Latash, M. (Ed.). (2020). Bernstein’s construction of movements: The original text and commentaries. Routledge.

  • Lavin, M. (1987). Sports and drugs: Are the current bans justified? Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 14(1), 3443. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1987.9714449

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loland, S. (2004). Normative theories of sport: A critical review. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 31(2), 111121. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.2004.9714655

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopez Frias, F.J. (2014). William J. Morgan’s “conventionalist internalism” approach. Furthering internalism? A critical hermeneutical response. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 8(2), 157171.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacIntyre, A. (1981/2007). After virtue. University of Notre Dame Press.

  • McBride, F. (1975). Toward a non-definition of sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 2(1), 411. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1975.10654092

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGinn, C. (1999). The mysterious flame: Conscious minds in a material world. Basic Books.

  • Meier, K.V. (1988). Triad trickery: Playing with sport and games. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 15(1), 1130. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1988.9714458

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merleau-Ponty, M. (1942/1963). The structure of behavior (A. Fisher, Trans.). Beacon Press.

  • Messner, M. (1988). Sports and male domination: The female athlete as contested ideological terrain. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5(3), 197211. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.5.3.197

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Metheny, E. (1968). Movement and meaning. McGraw-Hill.

  • Meyer, A. (2012). Radical orthodoxy & Lance Armstrong: Shedding light on sport as religious experience. Journal of religion and Popular Culture, 24(3), 449462. https://doi.org/10.1353/rpc.2012.0036

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miah, A. (2004). Genetically modified athletes. Biomedical ethics, gene doping and sport. Routledge.

  • Moore, E. (2019). Formalism conventionalized. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 13(3–4), 318333. https://doi.org/10.1080/17511321.2019.1566271

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, W.J. (1977). Some Aristotelian notes on the attempt to define sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 4(1), 1535. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1977.10654125.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, W.J. (1987). The logical incompatibility thesis and rules: A reconsideration of formalism as an account of games. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 14(1), 120. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1987.9714447

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, W.J. (1994). Leftist theories of sport. A critique and reconstruction. University of Illinois Press.

  • Morgan, W.J. (1998). Ethnocentrism and the social criticism of sports: A response to Roberts. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 25(1), 81102. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1998.9714571

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, W.J. (2004). Moral anti-realism, internalism, and sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 31(2), 161183. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.2004.9714658

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, W.J. (2010). Sport, wholehearted engagement and the good life. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 4(3), 239253. https://doi.org/10.1080/17511320903580098

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, W.J. (2020). Sport and moral conflict: A conventionalist theory. Temple University Press.

  • Morgan, W.J., & Meier, K.V. (Eds.). (1995). Philosophic inquiry in sport (2nd ed.). Human Kinetics.

  • Mumford, S. (2015). The aesthetics of sport. In C.R. Torres (Ed.), The Bloomsbury companion to the philosophy of sport (pp. 180194). Bloomsbury.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Novak, M. (1976). The joy of sports: End zones, bases, baskets, balls and the consecration of the American spirit. Basic Books.

  • Osterhoudt, R.G. (1974). Introduction. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 1(1), 15. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1974.10654081

  • Paddick, R.J. (1979). Review essay: The grasshopper: Games, life and utopia. By Bernard Suits. Toronto, University of Toronto Press 1978. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 6(1), 7378. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1979.10654153

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, R. (1981). The emergence of the academic discipline of physical education in the United States. In G.A. Brooks (Ed.), Perspectives on the academic discipline of physical education: A tribute to G. Lawrence Rarick (pp. 2045). Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parry, J., Robinson S., Watson, N.J. & Nesti, M. (2007). Sport and spirituality: An introduction. Rutledge.

  • Postow, B.C. (1984). Sport, art, and gender. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 11(1), 5255. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1984.9714415

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reddiford, G. (1985). Constitutions, institutions, and games. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 12(1), 4151. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1985.9714427

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roberts, T.J. (1986). Sport, art, and particularity: The best equivocation. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 13(1), 4963. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1986.9714441

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roberts, T.J. (1998). Sporting practice protection and vulgar ethnocentricity: Why won’t Morgan go all the way? Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 25(1), 7181. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1998.9714570

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, S. (2015). Sport, spirituality and religion. In C.R. Torres (Ed.), The Bloomsbury companion to the philosophy of sport (pp. 245261). Bloomsbury.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rojo-Perez, F. & Fernandez-Mayoralas, G. (Eds.). (2021). Handbook of active aging and quality of life: From concepts to application. Springer International.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Russell, J.S. (1999). Are rules all an umpire has to work with? Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 26(1), 2749. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.1999.9714577.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Russell, J.S. (2007). Broad internalism and the moral foundation of sport. In W.J. Morgan (Ed.), Ethics in Sport (2nd ed., pp. 5166). Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sailors, P. (2020). Transgender and intersex athletes and the women’s category in sport. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 14(4), 419431. https://doi.org/10.1080/17511321.2020.1756904

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sandel, M.J. (2007). The case against perfection: Ethics in the age of genetic engineering. Harvard University Press.

  • Schneider, A.J. & Rupert, J.L. (2009). Constructing winners: The science and ethics of genetically manipulating athletes. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 36(2), 182206. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.2009.9714756

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simon, R.L. (2000). Internalism and internal values in sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 27(1), 116. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.2000.9714586

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simon, R.L., Torres, C.R., & Hager, P.F. (2015). Fair play: The ethics of sport (4th ed.). Westview Press.

  • Slusher, H. (1967). Man, sport and existence: A critical analysis. Lea & Febiger.

  • Snow, C.P. (1959/1964). The two cultures and a second look. Cambridge University Press.

  • Suits, B. (1978). The grasshopper: Games, life, and Utopia. University of Toronto Press.

  • Tamburrini, C.M. (2000). What’s wrong with doping? In T. Tännsjö & C.M. Tamburrini (Eds.), Values in sport: Elitism, nationalism, gender equality and the scientific manufacture of winners (pp. 200216). E & FN Spon.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tamburrini, C.M. (2010). Born to be an athlete? The impact of genetic technology on autonomy. Sport in Society, 13(2), 212220. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430430903522939

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Teetzel, S. (2006). On transgendered athletes, fairness, and doping: An international challenge. Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics, 9(2), 227251.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Torres, C.R. (2012). Furthering interpretivism’s integrity: Bringing together ethics and aesthetics. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 39(2), 299319. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.2012.725908

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Torres, C.R. (2015). Introduction. In C.R. Torres (Ed.), The Bloomsbury Companion to the Philosophy of Sport (pp. 114). Bloomsbury.

  • VanderZwaag, H. (1978). The joy of sports: End zones, bases, baskets, balls, and the consecration of the American spirit by Michael Novak. Journal of Sport History, 5(2), 8991. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43608924

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, B.A. (2000). The taboo of subjectivity: Toward a new science of consciousness. Oxford University Press.

  • Weiss, P. (1969). Sport: A philosophic enquiry. Southern Illinois University Press.

  • Young, M.I. (1979). The exclusion of women from sport: Conceptual and existential dimensions. Philosophy in Context, 9(1), 4453. https://doi.org/10.5840/philcontext197996

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zeigler, E. & McCristal, K. (1967). A history of the Big Ten Body of Knowledge project in physical education. Quest, 9(1), 7984. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1967.10702790

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 329 329 242
Full Text Views 241 241 1
PDF Downloads 230 230 2