Measuring Learning and Promoting Academic Integrity in Online Instruction

in Kinesiology Review
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Health & Human Performance, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA
  • | 2 Department of Kinesiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $42.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $56.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $80.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $107.00

The COVID-19 pandemic shifted kinesiology courses into more hybrid and online delivery, creating new challenges and opportunities for evaluating learning and online testing. Research using the Biomechanics Concept Inventory indicates that both high-tech and low-tech active learning experiences implemented in hybrid and online formats in biomechanics courses improve student learning above levels for lecture alone. However, online pre- and posttesting using concept inventories or major exams are vulnerable to cheating. Experience and research on proctoring online testing indicate only partial success in detecting cheating absent substantial faculty commitment to investigate suspicious behavior. These difficulties with online testing provide an opportunity for kinesiology faculty to implement more authentic, holistic assessments that are less vulnerable to violations of academic integrity. The importance of well-designed, rigorous assessment methods that uphold academic integrity standards will continue to evolve as kinesiology departments expand online learning.

Knudson (dk19@txstate.edu) is corresponding author, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0809-7970

  • Abraham, L., Bird, M., Johnson, J., Knudson, D., Russell, P., Smith, D., & Strohmeyer, S. (2018). Guidelines for undergraduate biomechanics (4th ed.) [Guidance document]. SHAPE America. https://www.shapeamerica.org/uploads/pdfs/2018/guidelines/Guidelines-for-UG-Biomechanics.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alessio, H.M., Malay, N., Maurer, K., Bailer, J.A., & Rubin, B. (2017). Examining the effect of proctoring on online test scores. Online Learning, 21(1), 146161. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v21i1.885

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderman, E.M., & Won, S. (2019). Academic cheating in disliked classes. Ethics & Behavior, 29(1), 122. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508422.2017.1373648

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Azulay Chertok, I.R., Barnes, E.R., & Gilleland, D. (2014). Academic integrity in the online learning environment for health sciences students. Nurse Education Today, 34(10), 13241329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2013.06.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beichner, R.J., Saul, J.M., Abbott, D.S., Morse, J.J., Deardorff, D.L., Allain, R.J., Bonhmam, S.W., Dancy, M.H., & Risley, J.S. (2007). The student-centered activities for large enrollment programs (SCALE-UP) project. Reviews in Physics Education Research, 1, ar3. https://www.compadre.org/per/per_reviews/volume1.cfm?#Cite

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bonwell, C.C., & Eison, J.A. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom. ASHE-ERIC higher education reports. Association for the Study of Higher Education. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED336049

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cleophas, C., Hoennige, C., Meisel, F., & Meyer, P. (2021). Who’s cheating? Mining patterns of collusion from text and events in online exams. SSRN. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3824821

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cluskey, G.R., Ehlen, C.R., & Raiborn, M.H. (2011). Thwarting online exam cheating without proctor supervision. Journal of Academic and Business Ethics, 4, Ar10. https://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/11775.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Driessen, E.P., Knight, J.K., Smith, M.K., & Ballen, C.J. (2020). Demystifying the meaning of active learning in postsecondary biology education. CBE-Life Science Education, 19, ar52. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.20-04-0068

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freeman, S., Eddy, S.L., McDonough, M., Smith, M.K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M.P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 83198320. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1319030111

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gerstenhaber, J.A., & Har-El, Y-E. (2021). Virtual biomaterials lab during COVID-19 pandemic. Biomedical Engineering Education, 1, 353358. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43683-020-00045-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giles, J.W., & Willerth, S.M. (2021). Strategies for delivering biomedical engineering elective during the COVID-19 pandemic. Biomedical Engineering Education, 1(1), 115120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43683-020-00023-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goedl, P.A., & Malla, G.B. (2020). A study of grade equivalency between proctored and unproctored exams in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 34(4), 280289. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2020.179637

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grawe, N.D. (2018). Demographics and the demand for higher education. Johns Hopkins University Press.

  • Guo, S. (2020). Synchronous versus asynchronous online teaching of physics during the COVID-19 pandemic. Physics Education, 55(6), Article 0065007. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6552/aba1c5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hake, R.R. (1998). Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: A six thousand student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics. American Journal of Physics, 66, 6474. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.18809

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Halloun, I.A., & Henestes, D. (1985). The initial knowledge state of college physics students. American Journal of Physics, 53(11), 10431055. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.14030

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harpp, D.N., & Hogan, J.J. (1993). Crime in the classroom: Detection and prevention of cheating on multiple-choice exams. Journal of Chemical Education, 70(4), 306. https://doi.org/10.1021/ed070p306

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hearne Moore, P., Head, J.D., & Griffin, R.B. (2017). Impeding students’ efforts to cheat in online classes. Journal of Learning in Higher Education, 13(1), 923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsieh, C., & Knudson, D. (2008). Student factors related to learning in biomechanics. Sports Biomechanics, 7(3), 398402. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763140802233207

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsieh, C., Smith, J., Bohne, M., & Knudson, D. (2012). Factors related to students’ learning of biomechanics concepts. Journal of College Science Teaching, 41(4), 8389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hussein, M.J., Yusuf, J., Deb, A.S., Fong, L., & Naidu S. (2020). An evaluation of online proctoring tools. Open Praxis International Council for Open and Distance Education, 12(4), 509525. https://doi.org/10.3316/informit.620366163696963

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaschik, S., & Lederman, D. (2019). 2019 survey of faculty attitudes on technology. Inside Higher Education.

  • Justin, R., & Oxner, R. (2020). Texas universities are moving more classes online but keeping the tuition the same. Students are asking if it’s worth the money. Texas Tribune. https://texastribune.org/2020/07/06/texas-universities-coronavirus-online-classes

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knudson, D. (2004). Biomechanics concept inventory: version two. In M. Lamontagne, D.G.E. Robertson, & H. Sveistrup (Eds.), Proceedings of XXIInd International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports (pp. 378–380). University of Ottawa. https://ojs.ub.uni-konstanz.de/cpa/article/view/1326.81-82

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knudson, D. (2006). Biomechanics concept inventory. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 103(1), 81–82. https://doi.org/10.2466/PMS.103.1.81-82

  • Knudson, D. (2019). Do low-tech active learning exercises influence biomechanics student’s epistemology of learning? Sports Biomechanics. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2019.1682650

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knudson, D. (2020). A tale of two instructional experiences: Student engagement in active learning and emergency remote learning of biomechanics. Sports Biomechanics. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2020.1810306

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knudson, D., Bauer, J., & Bahamonde, R. (2009). Correlates of student learning in introductory biomechanics. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 108, 499504. https://doi.org/10.2466/PMS.108.2.499-504

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knudson, D., Noffal, G., Bauer, J., McGinnis, P., Bird, M., Chow, J., Bahamonde, R., Blackwell, J., Strohmeyer, S., & Abendroth-Smith, J. (2003). Development and evaluation of a biomechanics concept inventory. Sports Biomechanics, 2, 267-277. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763140308522823

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knudson, D., & Wallace, B. (2021). Student perceptions of low-tech active learning and mastery of introductory biomechanics concepts. Sports Biomechanics, 20(4), 458468. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2019.1570322

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, C.-H., Liu, Y., Moore, M., Ge, X., & Siddique, Z. (2021). Enhancement of stay-at-home learning for the biomechanics laboratory course during COVID-19 pandemic. Biomedical Engineering Education, 1(1), 149154. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43683-020-00025-w

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Macfarlane, B., Zhang, J., & Pun, A. (2014). Academic integrity: A review of the literature. Studies in Higher Education, 39(2), 339358. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2012.709495

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mahar, M.T., Hall, T.R., Delp, M.D., & Morrow, J.R. (2014). The state of online education in kinesiology in the United States. Kinesiology Review, 3(4), 177. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2014-0068

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDermott, L.C. (1991). Millikan lecture 1990: What we teach and what is learned—Closing the gap. American Journal of Physics, 59(4), 301315. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.16539

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGreevy, K.M., & Church, F.C. (2020). Active learning: Subtypes, intra-exam comparison, and student survey in an undergraduate biology course. Education Sciences, 10(7), 185. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070185

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Means, B., & Neisler, J. (2020). Suddenly online: A national survey of undergraduates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Digital Promise. https://digitalpromise.dspacedirect.org/handle/20.500.12265/98

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nath, L., & Lovaglia, M. (2009). Cheating on multiple choice exams: Monitoring, assessment, and an optional assignment. College Teaching, 57(1), 38. https://doi.org/10.3200/CTCH.57.1.3-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nelson, L.R. (2006). Using selected indices to monitor cheating on multiple-choice exams. Journal of Educational Research and Measurement, 4(1), 118. https://so05.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/RMCS/article/view/46802/38785

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Norris, M. (2019). University online cheating—How to mitigate the damage. Research in Higher Education Journal, 37, Ar11. https://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/193052.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ochia, R. (2021). A hybrid teaching method for undergraduate biomechanics lab. Biomedical Engineering Education, 1, 187193. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43683-020-00033-w

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ottaway, K., Murrant, C., & Ritchie, K. (2017). Cheating after the test: Who does it and how often? Advances in Physiology Education, 41(3), 368374. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00103.2016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oxner, R. (2021). Student files class-action lawsuit against UT-Austin, saying online education last year wasn’t worth the tuition. Texas Tribune. https://texastribune.org/2021/03/02/ut-austin-lawsuit-pandemic-tuition/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the literature. Journal of Engineering Research, 93, 223231. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2004.tb00809.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ramo, N.L., Lin, M.A., Hald, E.S., & Huang-Saad, A. (2021). Synchronous vs. asynchronous vs. blended remote delivery of introduction to biomechanics course. Biomedical Engineering Education, 1(1), 6166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43683-020-00009-w

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sefcik, L., Striepe, M., & Yorke, J. (2020). Mapping the landscape of academic integrity education programs: What approaches are effective? Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 45(1), 3043. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2019.1604942

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soneral, P.A.G. & Wyse, S.A. (2017). A SCALE-UP mock-up: Comparison of learning gains in high- and low-tech active-learning environments. CBE Life Sciences Education, 16, 12. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.16-07-0228

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Springer, L., Stanne, M.E., & Donovan, S.S. (1999). Effects of small-group learning on undergraduates in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 69(1), 2151. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543069001021

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stephens, J.M., Watson, P.W.S., Alansari, M., Lee, G.C., & Turnbull, S.M. (2021). Can online academic integrity instruction affect university students’ perceptions of and engagement in academic dishonesty? Results from a natural experiment in New Zealand. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 569133. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.569133

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Troutman, V.A., & Grimm, M.J. (2020). Interactive digital experience as an alternative laboratory (IDEAL): Creative investigation of forensic biomechanics. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 37(2), 163170. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.2020-0171

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vazquez, J.J., Chiang, E.P., & Sarmiento-Barbieri, I. (2021). Can we stay one step ahead of cheaters? A field experiment in proctoring online open book exams. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 90, 101653. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2020.101653

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, B., Gheidi, N., & Knudson, D. (2020). Incorporating problem-based learning with direct instruction improves learning in undergraduate biomechanics. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 27, Article 100258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2020.100258

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, B., & Knudson, D. (2020). The of course format on student learning in introductory biomechanics courses that utilise low-tech active learning exercises. Sports Biomechanics. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2020.1830163

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitley, B.E., Jr., & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2002). Academic dishonesty: An educator’s guide. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 246 246 246
Full Text Views 104 104 104
PDF Downloads 57 57 57