Taking Steps Toward Health Equity Through Physical Activity

in Kinesiology Review
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN, USA
  • | 2 Center for Aging Research, Regenstrief Institute, Incorporated, Indianapolis, IN, USA
Restricted access

Health equity will be achieved when all demographics have a fair opportunity be healthy. This essay describes the possibility of achieving health equity through physical activity. It presents the social ecological model of physical activity and describes how both microenvironmental and macroenvironmental factors influence one’s ability to participate. There is then a description of watershed moments in American history that negatively influenced the ability of certain demographics to be active today. It then describes groups participating in less physical activity when compared to others. Several public health and political science models are then suggested with specific examples of how they have been implemented in the past to improve health or physical activity. The essay ends by describing the need to build the physical activity evidence among vulnerable populations that tend to be underrepresented in research and explains best practices in engaging these populations in investigative work.

Address correspondence to nkeith@iupui.edu.

  • Alexander, S.J. (2010). “As long as it helps somebody”: Why vulnerable people participate in research. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 16(4), 173178. https://doi.org/10.12968/ijpn.2010.16.4.47783

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allen, J.L. (2020). Sexual minority health: Using the 2016 National Health Interview Survey to evaluate physical activity, behavioral risk factors, and health outcomes.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allison, K.R., Dwyer, J.J., Goldenberg, E., Fein, A., Yoshida, K.K., & Boutilier, M.J.A. (2005). Male adolescents’ reasons for participating in physical activity, barriers to participation, and suggestions for increasing participation. Adolescence, 40(157), 155170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alvidrez, J., Castille, D., Laude-Sharp, M., Rosario, A., & Tabor, D.J. (2019). The national institute on minority health and health disparities research framework. American Journal of Public Health, 109(Suppl. 1), S16S20. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304883

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, D.G., & Hatton, D.C.J. (2000). Accessing vulnerable populations for research. Western Journal Nursing Research, 22(2), 244251. https://doi.org/10.1177/01939450022044386

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, R.V., & Gallman, R.E.J.T. (1977). Slaves as fixed capital: Slave labor and southern economic development. Journal of American History, 64(1), 2446. https://doi.org/10.2307/1888272

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Armstrong, S., Wong, C.A., Perrin, E., Page, S., Sibley, L., & Skinner, A.J. (2018). Association of physical activity with income, race/ethnicity, and sex among adolescents and young adults in the United States: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2016. JAMA Pediatrics, 172(8), 732740. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.1273

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arundell, L., Fletcher, E., Salmon, J., Veitch, J., & Hinkley, T.J. (2016). A systematic review of the prevalence of sedentary behavior during the after-school period among children aged 5–18 years. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13(1), 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0419-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aytur, S.A., Rodriguez, D.A., Evenson, K.R., Catellier, D.J., & Rosamond, W.D. (2008). The sociodemographics of land use planning: Relationships to physical activity, accessibility, and equity. Journal of Health and Place, 14(3), 367385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2007.08.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker, D.A., & Palmer, R.J. (2006). Examining the effects of perceptions of community and recreation participation on quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 75(3), 395418. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-004-5298-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker, F., & Intagliata, J.J. (1982). Quality of life in the evaluation of community support systems. Evaluation and Program Planning, 5(1), 6979. https://doi.org/10.1016/0149-7189(82)90059-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ball, K., Carver, A., Downing, K., Jackson, M., & O’Rourke, K.J. (2015). Addressing the social determinants of inequities in physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Health Promotion International, 30(Suppl. 2), ii8ii19. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dav022

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baquet, C.R., Commiskey, P., Mullins, C.D., & Mishra, S.I.J. (2006). Recruitment and participation in clinical trials: Socio-demographic, rural/urban, and health care access predictors. Cancer Detection and Prevention, 30(1), 2433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cdp.2005.12.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barton, H.J. (2009). Land use planning and health and well-being. Land Use and Policy, 26(Suppl. 1), S115S123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.09.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Basterfield, L., Adamson, A.J., Frary, J.K., Parkinson, K.N., Pearce, M.S., Reilly, J.J., & Gateshead Millennium Study Core Team. (2011). Longitudinal study of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children. Pediatrics, 127(1), e24e30. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-1935

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baumgartner, F.R. (2016). John Kingdon and the evolutionary approach to public policy and agenda setting. In N. Zahariadis (Ed.), Handbook of public policy agenda setting (pp. 53–66). Edward Elgar Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergeron, C.D., Tanner, A.H., Friedman, D.B., Zheng, Y., Schrock, C.S., Bornstein, D.B., Segar, M., & Swift, N.J. (2019). Physical activity communication: A scoping review of the literature. Health Promotion Practice, 20(3), 344353. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524839919834272

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blacksher, E., & Lovasi, G.S. (2012). Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: Taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment. Health and Place, 18(2), 172179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.08.019

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blair, S.N., & Connelly, J.C. (1996). How much physical activity should we do? The case for moderate amounts and intensities of physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 67(2), 193205. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1996.10607943

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Booth, S.L., Sallis, J.F., Ritenbaugh, C., Hill, J.O., Birch, L.L., Frank, L.D., Glanz, K., Himmelgreen, D.A., Mudd, M., Popkin, B.M., Rickard, K.A., Jeor, S., & Popkin, B.M. (2001). Environmental and societal factors affect food choice and physical activity: Rationale, influences, and leverage points. Nutrition Reviews, 59(Suppl. 3), S21S36. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2001.tb06983.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bove, A.M., Gough, S.T., & Hausmann, L.R. (2019). Providing no-cost transport to patients in an underserved area: Impact on access to physical therapy. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 35(7), 645650. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593985.2018.1457115

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32(7), Article 513. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bull, F.C., Al-Ansari, S.S., Biddle, S., Borodulin, K., Buman, M.P., Cardon, G., Carty, C., Chaput, J.-P., Chastin, S., Chou, R., Dempsey, P.C., DiPietro, L., Ekelund, U., Firth, J., Friedenreich, C.M., Garcia, L., Gichu, M., Jago, R., Katzmarzyk, P.T., & Chou, R. (2020). World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 54(24), 14511462. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bustamante, E.E., Sawyer, C., Brown, M.D., Suman, O.E., & Keith, N.R. (2019). The American college of sports medicine (ACSM) leadership and diversity training program (LDTP): Harnessing mentorship to diversify organizational leadership. Journal of Best Practices in Health Professions Diversity: Research, Education, and Policy, 12(2), 165180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cardinal, B.J., & Sachs, M.L. (1996). Effects of mail-mediated, stage-matched exercise behavior change strategies on female adults’ leisure-time exercise behavior. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 36(2), 100107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cervantes, C.M., & Hodge, S.R. (2019). Health disparities among men with disabilities and functional limitations. In D.M. Griffith, M.A. Bruce, R.J. Thorpe, Jr. (Eds.), Men’s health equity (pp. 376394). Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, D., Chrysler, L., Perkins, A., Keith, N.R., Willis, D.R., Abernathy, G., & Smith, F. (2010). Screening, referral, and participation in a weight management program implemented in five CHCs. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 21(2), 617628. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.0.0319

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, D.O. (1997). Physical activity efficacy and effectiveness among older adults and minorities. Diabetes Care, 20(7), 11761182. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.20.7.1176

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cusatis, R., & Garbarski, D.J. (2019). Different domains of physical activity: The role of leisure, housework/care work, and paid work in socioeconomic differences in reported physical activity. Social Science and Medicine Population Health, 7, Article 100387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100387

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dannenberg, A.L., Jackson, R.J., Frumkin, H., Schieber, R.A., Pratt, M., Kochtitzky, C., & Tilson, H.H. (2003). The impact of community design and land-use choices on public health: A scientific research agenda. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9), 15001508. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.9.1500

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Desveaux, L., Goldstein, R., Mathur, S., & Brooks, D.J. (2016). Barriers to physical activity following rehabilitation: Perspectives of older adults with chronic disease. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 24(2), 223233. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2015-0018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dillahunt, T.R., & Veinot, T.C. (2018). Getting there: Barriers and facilitators to transportation access in underserved communities. ACSM Transactions on Computer-Human Interactions, 25(5), 139. https://doi.org/10.1145/3233985

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, D. (2004). Ecological models: Application to physical activity. In Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_1125

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donnaway, L. (1985). Women’s rights before the Civil War, 16.

  • Downing, J.M., & Przedworski, J.M. (2018). Health of transgender adults in the US, 2014–2016. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 55(3), 336344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.04.045

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du, Y., Liu, B., Sun, Y., Snetselaar, L.G., Wallace, R.B., & Bao, W.J. (2019). Trends in adherence to the physical activity guidelines for Americans for aerobic activity and time spent on sedentary behavior among US adults, 2007 to 2016. JAMA Network Open, 2(7), Article e197597. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.7597

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DuBois, J.M., Anderson, E.E., Chibnall, J., Carroll, K., Gibb, T., Ogbuka, C., & Rubbelke, T. (2013). Understanding research misconduct: A comparative analysis of 120 cases of professional wrongdoing. Accountability in Research, 20(5–6), 320338. https://doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2013.822248

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dwyer, J.J., Allison, K.R., Goldenberg, E.R., & Fein, A.J. (2006). Adolescent girls’ perceived barriers to participation in physical activity. Adolescence, 41(161), 75.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eldredge, N., & Gould, S.J. (1988). Punctuated equilibrium prevails. Nature, 332(6161), 211212. https://doi.org/10.1038/332211b0

  • England, L., Tong, V.T., Rockhill, K., Hsia, J., McAfee, T., Patel, D., Rupp, K., Conrey, E.J., Valdivieso, C., & Davis, K.C. (2017). Evaluation of a federally funded mass media campaign and smoking cessation in pregnant women: A population-based study in three states. BMJ Open, 7(12), Article e016826. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016826

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Erves, J.C., Mayo-Gamble, T.L., Malin-Fair, A., Boyer, A., Joosten, Y., Vaughn, Y.C., Sherden, L., Luther, P., Miller, S., & Wilkins, C.H. (2017). Needs, priorities, and recommendations for engaging underrepresented populations in clinical research: A community perspective. Journal of Community Health, 42(3), 472480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-016-0279-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fernández-i-Marín, X., Hurka, S., Knill, C., & Steinebach, Y.J. (2019). Systemic dynamics of policy change: Overcoming some blind spots of punctuated equilibrium theory. Policy Studies Journal. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/psj.12379

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fisher, K.J., Ford, C., Abernethy, P.J., Ritchie, C., Miller, R., & Hutchins, C.J. (1998). Just walk it: Enhancing community participation in physical activity. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 8(2), 140144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fones-Wolf, E.J. (1983). The politics of vocationalism: Coalitions and industrial education in the Progressive Era. The Historian, 46(1), 3955. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6563.1983.tb01586.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fuezeki, E., Engeroff, T., & Banzer, W. (2017). Health benefits of light-intensity physical activity: A systematic review of accelerometer data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Sports Medicine, 47(9), 17691793. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0724-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gayle, A.J. (1970). The Harlem renaissance: Towards a black aesthetic. American Studies, 11(2), 7887.

  • Gehlert, S., & Mozersky, J.J. (2018). Seeing beyond the margins: Challenges to informed inclusion of vulnerable populations in research. The Journal of Law, Medicine, & Ethics, 46(1), 3043. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073110518766006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gil, E.F., & Bob, S.J. (1999). Culturally competent research: An ethical perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 19(1), 4555. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(98)00019-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ginis, K.A.M., van der Ploeg, H.P., Foster, C., Lai, B., McBride, C.B., Ng, K., Pratt, M., Shirazipour, C.H., Smith, B., & Vásquez, P.M. (2021). Participation of people living with disabilities in physical activity: A global perspective. Lancet, 398(10298), 443455. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01164-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hassen, N., & Kaufman, P. (2016). Examining the role of urban street design in enhancing community engagement: A literature review. Journal of Health and Place, 41, 119132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.08.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hasson, R., Sallis, J.F., Coleman, N., Kaushal, N., Nocera, V.G., & Keith, N. (2021). COVID-19: Implications for physical activity, health disparities, and health equity. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/15598276211029222

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hasson, R.E., Brown, D.R., Dorn, J., Barkley, L., Torgan, C., Whitt-Glover, M., Ainsworth, B., & Keith, N. (2017). Achieving equity in physical activity participation: ACSM experience and next steps. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 49(4), 848858. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001161

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herazo-Beltrán, Y., Pinillos, Y., Vidarte, J., Crissien, E., Suarez, D., & García, R.J. (2017). Predictors of perceived barriers to physical activity in the general adult population: A cross-sectional study. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 21(1), 4450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjpt.2016.04.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herrick, S.S., & Duncan, L.R.J. (2018). A systematic scoping review of engagement in physical activity among LGBTQ+ adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 15(3), 226232. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2017-0292

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hersey, J., Niederdeppe, J., Ng, S., Mowery, P., Farrelly, M., & Messeri, P. (2005). How state counter-industry campaigns help prime perceptions of tobacco industry practices to promote reductions in youth smoking. Tobacco Control, 14(6), 377383. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2004.010785

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hooghe, M.J. (2007). Social capital and diversity generalized trust, social cohesion and regimes of diversity. Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue Canadienne de Science Politique, 40(3), 709732. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0008423907070722

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hornbuckle, L.M. (2021). Running while Black: A distinctive safety concern and barrier to exercise in White neighborhoods. Preventive Medicine Reports, 22, Article 101378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101378

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howard, J.R. (1999). The shifting wind: The supreme court and civil rights from reconstruction to brown. SUNY Press.

  • Jeffres, L.W., Bracken, C.C., Jian, G., & Casey, M.F. (2009). The impact of third places on community quality of life. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 4(4), 333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-009-9084-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jenkins-Smith, H.C., Nohrstedt, D., Weible, C.M., & Ingold, K.J. (2014). The advocacy coalition framework: An overview of the research program. In P. Sabatier & C. Weible (Eds.), Theories of the policy process (pp. 183223). Boulder: Westview Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jenkins-Smith, H.C., Nohrstedt, D., Weible, C.M., & Sabatier, P.A. (2014). The advocacy coalition framework: Foundations, evolution, and ongoing research. Contemporary Approaches to Public Policy, 3, 183224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jerome, G.J., Young, D.R., Dalcin, A., Charleston, J., Anthony, C., Hayes, J., & Daumit, G.L. (2009). Physical activity levels of persons with mental illness attending psychiatric rehabilitation programs. Schizophrenia Research, 108(1–3), 252257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2008.12.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joseph, R.P., Ainsworth, B.E., Keller, C., & Dodgson, J.E. (2015). Barriers to physical activity among African American women: An integrative review of the literature. Woman & Health, 55(6), 679699.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaczorowski, R.J. (1995). Federal enforcement of civil rights during the first reconstruction. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 23, 155.

  • Katzmarzyk, P.T., Denstel, K.D., Beals, K., Carlson, J., Crouter, S.E., McKenzie, T.L., Pate, R.R., Sisson, S.B., Staiano, A.E., Stanish, H., Ward, D.S., Whitt-Glover, M., & Wright, C. (2018). Results from the United States 2018 report card on physical activity for children and youth. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 15(Suppl. 2), S422S424. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2018-0476

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katzmarzyk, P.T., Lee, I.-M., Martin, C.K., & Blair, S.N. (2017). Epidemiology of physical activity and exercise training in the United States. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 60(1), 310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2017.01.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaushal, N., Keith, N., Aguiñaga, S., & Hagger, M.S. (2020). Social cognition and socioecological predictors of home-based physical activity intentions, planning, and habits during the COVID-19 pandemic. Behavioral Sciences, 10(9), Article 133. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10090133

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keadle, S.K., Bustamante, E.E., & Buman, M.P. (2021). Physical activity and public health: Four decades of progress. Kinesiology Review, 10(3), 319330. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2021-0028

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knaggård, Å.J. (2015). The multiple streams framework and the problem broker. European Journal of Political Research, 54(3), 450465. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.12097

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kraft, S.A., Cho, M.K., Gillespie, K., Halley, M., Varsava, N., Ormond, K.E., Wilfond, B.S., & Lee, S.S.-J. (2018). Beyond consent: Building trusting relationships with diverse populations in precision medicine research. The American Journal of Bioethics, 18(4), 320. https://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2018.1431322

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumanyika, S.K., & Yancey, A.K. (2009). Physical activity and health equity: Evolving the science. American Journal of Health Promotion, 23(Suppl. 6), S4S7. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.23.6.S4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laddu, D.R., Lavie, C.J., Phillips, S.A., & Arena, R. (2021). Physical activity for immunity protection: Inoculating populations with healthy living medicine in preparation for the next pandemic. Progress in Cardiovascular Disease, 64, 102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2020.04.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lauer, E.E., Jackson, A.W., Martin, S.B., & Morrow, J.R., Jr. (2017). Meeting USDHHS physical activity guidelines and health outcomes. International Journal of Exercise Science, 10(1), 121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laurence, J. (2011). The effect of ethnic diversity and community disadvantage on social cohesion: A multi-level analysis of social capital and interethnic relations in UK communities. European Sociological Review, 27(1), 7089. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcp057

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, S.J., & Kim, Y. (2015). Searching for the meaning of community well-being. In S. Jong Lee, Y. Kim, & R. Phillips (Eds.), Community well-being and community development (pp. 923). Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lehne, G., & Bolte, G.J. (2017). Impact of universal interventions on social inequalities in physical activity among older adults: An equity-focused systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 115. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0472-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lippman, A.J. (2020). Medical research misconduct: A challenge to scientific integrity.

  • Loprinzi, P.D., & Cardinal, B.J. (2013). Association between biologic outcomes and objectively measured physical activity accumulated in ≥ 10-minute bouts and < 10-minute bouts. American Journal of Health Promotion, 27(3), 143151. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.110916-QUAN-348

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loprinzi, P.D., Lee, H., & Cardinal, B.J. (2015). Evidence to support including lifestyle light-intensity recommendations in physical activity guidelines for older adults. American Journal of Health Promotion, 29(5), 277284. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.130709-QUAN-354

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lustyk, M.K.B., Widman, L., Paschane, A.A., & Olson, K.C. (2004). Physical activity and quality of life: Assessing the influence of activity frequency, intensity, volume, and motives. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(3), 124132. https://doi.org/10.3200/BMED.30.3.124-132

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lynch, F.R. (1977). Social theory and the progressive era. Theory and Society, 4(2), 159210. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00156452

  • Marshall, E.S., Bland, H., & Melton, B.J. (2013). Perceived barriers to physical activity among pregnant women living in a rural community. Public Health Nursing, 30(4), 361369. https://doi.org/10.1111/phn.12006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martinez-Gomez, D., Tucker, J., Heelan, K.A., Welk, G.J., & Eisenmann, J.C. (2009). Associations between sedentary behavior and blood pressure in young children. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 163(8), 724730. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.90

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGarty, A.M., & Melville, C.A. (2018). Parental perceptions of facilitators and barriers to physical activity for children with intellectual disabilities: A mixed methods systematic review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 73, 4057. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2017.12.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meer, T.v.d., & Tolsma, J. (2014). Ethnic diversity and its effects on social cohesion. Annual Review of Sociology, 40(1), 459478. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043309

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, J., Pereira, M., Wolfson, J., Laska, M., Nelson, T., & Neumark-Sztainer, D.J.J. (2018). Developmental trends and determinants of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood differ by ethnicity/race and sex. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 15(5), 345354. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2017-0287

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mintz, S. (1995). Moralists and modernizers: America’s pre-civil war reformers. JHU Press.

  • Mitchell, J.A., Pate, R.R., & Blair, S.N. (2012). Screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness from age 11 to 13. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 44(7), 1302. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318247cd73

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nederveen Pieterse, A., Van Knippenberg, D., & Van Dierendonck, D. (2013). Cultural diversity and team performance: The role of team member goal orientation. The Academy of Management Journal, 56(3), 782804.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noar, S.M., Grant Harrington, N., Van Stee, S.K., & Shemanski Aldrich, R. (2011). Tailored health communication to change lifestyle behaviors. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 5(2), 112122. https://doi.org/10.1177/1559827610387255

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Notthoff, N., Reisch, P., & Gerstorf, D. (2017). Individual characteristics and physical activity in older adults: A systematic review. Gerontology, 63(5), 443459. https://doi.org/10.1159/000475558

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pahor, M., Guralnik, J.M., Ambrosius, W.T., Blair, S., Bonds, D.E., Church, T.S., Espeland, M.A., Fielding, R.A., Gill, T.M., Groessl, E.J., King, A.C., Kritchevsky, S.B., Manini, T.M., McDermott, M.M., Miller, M.E., Newman, A.B., Rejeski, W.J., Sink, K.M., Williamson, J.D., & LIFE Study Investigators. (2014). Effect of structured physical activity on prevention of major mobility disability in older adults: The LIFE study randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 311(23), 23872396. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.5616

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paolucci, C., & Wessels, H. (2020). The international mathematics enrichment project: Enhancing teacher preparation through international community engagement. In H. Rosario (Ed.), Mathematical outreach: Explorations in social justice around the globe (pp. 6589). World Scientific.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Papadopoulos, I., & Lees, S.J. (2002). Developing culturally competent researchers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 37(3), 258264. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2002.02092.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, S.S., & Grayson, M.H. (2008). Clinical research: Protection of the “vulnerable”? The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 121(5), 11031107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2008.01.014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pate, R.R. (2009). A national physical activity plan for the United States. Physical Activity and Public Health, 6(Suppl. 2), S157.

  • Piercy, K.L., Troiano, R.P., Ballard, R.M., Carlson, S.A., Fulton, J.E., Galuska, D.A., George, S.M., & Olson, R.D. (2018). The physical activity guidelines for Americans. JAMA, 320(19), 20202028. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.14854

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richard, O.C., & Johnson, N.B. (2001). Strategic human resource management effectiveness and firm performance. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(2), 299310. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190121674

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, S.E. (2007). Punctuated equilibrium. In D.A. Bearfield & M.J. Dubnick (Eds.), Encyclopedia of public administration and public policy (pp. 16741677). Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roemmich, J.N., Beeler, J.E., & Johnson, L. (2014). A microenvironment approach to reducing sedentary time and increasing physical activity of children and adults at a playground. Preventive Medicine, 62, 108112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.01.018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Romero, V.C. (2021). Racism, incorporated: Ramos v. Louisiana and jogging while black. Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal, 30, 101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rudwick, E. (1957). The Niagara movement (Vol.  42, pp. 177200).

  • Ryan, D. (2001). Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory (Vol. 9, p. 2012).

  • Sallis, J.F. (2018). Needs and challenges related to multilevel interventions: Physical activity examples. Health Education and Behavior, 45(5), 661667. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198118796458

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sallis, J.F., & Owen, N. (2015). Ecological models of health behavior (Vol. 5, pp. 4364).

  • Seo, D.C., Bodde, A.E., & Torabi, M.R. (2009). Salient environmental and perceptual correlates of current and established smoking for 2 representative cohorts of Indiana adolescents. Journal of School Health, 79(3), 98107. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2009.00393.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shivayogi, P.J. (2013). Vulnerable population and methods for their safeguard. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 4(1), 53. https://doi.org/10.4103/2229-3485.106389

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siewell, N., & Thomas, M. (2015). Building sustainable neighborhoods through community gardens: Enhancing residents’ well-being through university–community engagement initiative. Journal of Metropolitan Universities: An International Forum, 26(1), 173190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, L.P., Ng, S.W., & Popkin, B.M. (2014). No time for the gym? Housework and other non-labor market time use patterns are associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among adults in full-time, sedentary jobs. Social Science & Medicine, 120, 126134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.09.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sparling, P.B., Owen, N., Lambert, E.V., & Haskell, W.L. (2000). Promoting physical activity: The new imperative for public health. Health Education Research, 15(3), 367376. https://doi.org/10.1093/her/15.3.367

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spong, C.Y., & Bianchi, D.W. (2018). Improving public health requires inclusion of underrepresented populations in research. JAMA, 319(4), 337338. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.19138

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stevinson, C., Wiltshire, G., & Hickson, M. (2015). Facilitating participation in health-enhancing physical activity: A qualitative study of parkrun. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22(2), 170177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-014-9431-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Temple, V.A., & Stanish, H.I. (2011). The feasibility of using a peer-guided model to enhance participation in community-based physical activity for youth with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 15(3), 209217. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744629511422137

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, S.B., Fine, M.J., & Ibrahim, S.A. (2004). Health disparities: The importance of culture and health communication. American Journal of Public Health, 94(12), 2050.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • True, J.L., Jones, B.D., & Baumgartner, F.R. (2019). Punctuated-equilibrium theory: Explaining stability and change in public policymaking. In P.A. Sabatier (Ed.), Theories of the policy process (pp. 155187). Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wall, C. (2009). Women of the Harlem renaissance (pp. 3250).

  • Watson, K.B., Frederick, G.M., Harris, C.D., Carlson, S.A., & Fulton, J.E. (2015). US adults’ participation in specific activities: Behavioral risk factor surveillance system—2011. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 12(Suppl. 1), S3S10. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2013-0521

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wesley, C.H. (1927). Negro labor in the United States, 1850-1925: A study in American economic history. Vanguard Press.

  • Whitehead, M. (1991). The concepts and principles of equity and health. International Journal of Health Services, 22(3), 429445. https://doi.org/10.2190/986L-LHQ6-2VTE-YRRN

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, C. (2013). A mobilized diaspora: The first world war and black soldiers as new negroes. University of Minnesota Press Minneapolis.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolf, K.D. (2008). The Niagara movement of 1905: A look back to a century ago. In S. Vaught (Ed.), Afro-Americans in New York Life and History (Vol. 32, p. 9).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yarborough, M., & Sharp, R.R. (2017). Restoring and preserving trust in biomedical research. In L.W. Roberts (Ed.), Human experimentation and research (pp. 583589). Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, D.R., Cradock, A.L., Eyler, A.A., Fenton, M., Pedroso, M., Sallis, J.F., Whitsel, L.P., & American Heart Association Advocacy Coordinating Committee. (2020). Creating built environments that expand active transportation and active living across the United States: A policy statement from the American heart association. Circulation, 142(11), e167e183. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000878

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1943 1943 347
Full Text Views 51 51 3
PDF Downloads 59 59 6