Physical Education Participation and Student Anxiety, Depression, and/or Stress: A Scoping Review

in Kinesiology Review

Click name to view affiliation

Kacie V. LanierDepartment of Kinesiology and Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA

Search for other papers by Kacie V. Lanier in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Chad M. KillianDepartment of Kinesiology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA

Search for other papers by Chad M. Killian in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
,
Kathryn WilsonDepartment of Kinesiology and Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA

Search for other papers by Kathryn Wilson in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Rebecca EllisDepartment of Kinesiology and Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA

Search for other papers by Rebecca Ellis in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

The purpose of this review was to identify and summarize research that has been conducted on the potential impact of physical education (PE) on students’ feelings of anxiety, depression, and stress. This review followed the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines. Twenty-seven articles were identified from four databases: Academic Search Complete, APA PsycInfo, ERIC, and SPORTDiscus. Key findings indicated caring, task-involved climates were more likely to be related to reduce feelings of anxiety, depression, and stress, while ego-involving climates were related to heightened symptoms of mental distress. This review demonstrated that participation in PE had an unclear relationship with students’ mental health. To improve the understanding of the relationship and potential impact of PE on students’ mental health, future researchers should apply more rigorous methods to account for environmental factors of the school, program characteristics, social influences, physical activity intensity, and the quality of PE programs.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 263 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S2 (PDF 404 KB)
  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Active Minds. (2021). Student mental health survey (September 2020). https://www.activeminds.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Student-Mental-Health-Data-Sheet-Fall-2020-1.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2020). What is depression? https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/depression/what-is-depression

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American Psychiatric Association & American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Task Force. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American Psychological Association. (2014). Stress in America: Are teens adopting adults’ stress habits?

  • Andrade, A., Correia, C.K., da Cruz, W.M., & Bevilacqua, G.G. (2019). Acute effect of exergames on children’s mood states during physical education classes. Games for Health Journal, 8(4), 250. https://doi.org/10.1089/g4h.2018.0083

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andrade, A., Cruz, W.M.D., Correia, C.K., Santos, A.L.G., & Bevilacqua, G.G. (2020). Effect of practice exergames on the mood states and self-esteem of elementary school boys and girls during physical education classes: A cluster-randomized controlled natural experiment. PLoS One, 15(6), 118. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232392

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aromataris, E., & Riitano, D. (2014). Constructing a search strategy and searching for evidence. A guide to the literature search for a systematic review. American Journal of Nursing, 114(5), 4956. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NAJ.0000446779.99522.f6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barkoukis, V., Koidou, E., & Tsorbatzoudis, H. (2010). Effects of a motivational climate intervention on state anxiety self-efficacy and skill development in physical education. European Journal of Sport Science, 10(3), 167177. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390903426634

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barkoukis, V., Tsorbatzoudis, H., & Grouios, G. (2008). Manipulation of motivational climate in physical education: Effects of a seven-month intervention. European Physical Education Review, 14(3), 367387. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X08095671

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barney, D.C., Pleban, F.T., & Lewis, T. (2019). Relationship between physical activity and stress among junior high school students in the physical education environment. Physical Educator, 76(3), 777799. https://doi.org/10.18666/TPE-2019-V76-I3-8966

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bevans, K.B., Fitzpatrick, L.A., Sanchez, B.M., Riley, A.W., & Forrest, C. (2010). Physical education resources, class management, and student physical activity levels: A structure-process-outcome approach to evaluating physical education effectiveness. The Journal of School Health, 80(12), 573580. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2010.00544.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biel, A. (2019). Trail guide to movement: building the body in motion. Books of Discovery.

  • Bridges, L., & Sharma, M. (2017). The efficacy of yoga as a form of treatment for depression. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 22(4), 10171028. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156587217715927

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, H.E., Pearson, N., Braithwaite, R.E., Brown, W.J., & Biddle, S.J.H. (2013). Physical activity interventions and depression in children and adolescents. Sports Medicine, 43(3), 195206. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-012-0015-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butzer, B., LoRusso, A., Shin, S.H., & Khalsa, S.B. (2017). Evaluation of yoga for preventing adolescent substance use risk factors in a middle school setting: A preliminary group-randomized controlled trial. Journal of Youth and Adolescense, 46(3), 603632. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0513-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cadenas-Sanchez, C., Mena-Molina, A., Torres-Lopez, L.V., Migueles, J.H., Rodriguez-Ayllon, M., Lubans, D.R., & Ortega, F.B. (2021). Healthier minds in fitter bodies: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between physical fitness and mental health in youth. Sports Medicine, 50, 25712605. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01520-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carter, T., Morres, I.D., Meade, O., & Callaghan, P. (2016). The effect of exercise on depressive symptoms in adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(7), 580590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2016.04.016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cecchini, J.A., Gonzalez, C., Carmona, A.M., Arruza, J., Escarti, A., & Balague, G. (2001). The influence of the physical education teacher on intrinsic motivation, self-confidence, anxiety, and pre- and post-competition mood states. European Journal of Sport Science, 1(4), 111. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390100071407

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Results from the school health policies and practices study 2014.

  • Chen, S., Kim, Y., & Gao, Z. (2014). The contributing role of physical education in youth’s daily physical activity and sedentary behavior. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 110. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-110

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chugh-Gupta, N., Baldassarre, F.G., & Vrkljan, B.H. (2013). A systematic review of yoga for state anxiety: Considerations for occupational therapy. The Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 80(3), 150170. https://doi.org/10.1177/0008417413500930

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clarke, D.M., & Currie, K.C. (2009). Depression, anxiety and their relationship with chronic diseases: A review of the epidemiology, risk and treatment evidence. The Medical Journal of Australia, 190(Suppl. 7), S54S60. https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.2009.tb02471.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cobar, A.G.C., Borromeo, M.C.B., Agcaoili, J.K.M., & Rodil, A.M.T. (2017). Acute effect of birdwatching on mood states of senior high school students in the physical education setting. Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education & Sport/Science, Movement & Health, 17(1), 1825.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colquhoun, H.L., Levac, D., O’Brien, K.K., Straus, S., Tricco, A.C., Perrier, L., Kastner, M., & Moher, D. (2014). Scoping reviews: Time for clarity in definition, methods, and reporting. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 67(12), 12911294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.03.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Czeisler, M.É., Lane, R.I., Petrosky, E., Wiley, J.F., Christensen, A., Njai, R., Weaver, M.D., Robbins, R., Facer-Childs, E.R., Barger, L.K., Czeisler, C.A., Howard, M.E., & Rajaratnam, S.M.W. (2020). Mental health, substance use, and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic—United States, June 24–30, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(32), 10491057. http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6932a1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis, K., Drey, N., & Gould, D. (2009). What are scoping studies? A review of the nursing literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(10), 13861400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.02.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dudley, D., & Burden, R. (2020). What effect on learning does increasing the proportion of curriculum time allocated to physical education have? A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Physical Education Review, 26(1), 85100. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X19830113

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Endler, N.S., Edwards, J.M., Vitelli, R., & Parker, J.D.A. (1989). Assessment of state and trait anxiety: Endler multidimensional anxiety scales. Anxiety Research, 2(1), 114. https://doi.org/10.1080/08917778908249322

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farren, G.L., Zhang, T., Gu, X., & Thomas, K.T. (2018). Sedentary behavior and physical activity predicting depressive symptoms in adolescents beyond attributes of health-related physical fitness. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 7(4), 489496. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gano-Overway, L.A. (2013). Exploring the connections between caring and social behaviors in physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 84(1), 104114. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2013.762322

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giannopoulou, I., Efstathiou, V., Triantafyllou, G., Korkoliakou, P., & Douzenis, A. (2021). Adding stress to the stressed: Senior high school students’ mental health amidst the COVID-19 nationwide lockdown in Greece. Psychiatry Research, 295, Article 113560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113560

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gidron, Y (2013). Trait anxiety. In M.D. Gellman & J.R. Turner (Eds.), Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine (p. 1989). Springer New York. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Granlund, M., Imms, C., King, G., Andersson, A.K., Augustine, L., Brooks, R., Danielsson, H., Gothilander, J., Ivarsson, M., Lundqvist, L.O., Lygnegård, F., & Almqvist, L. (2021). Definitions and perationalization of mental health problems, wellbeing and participation constructs in children with NDD: Distinctions and clarifications. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), 16561675. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041656

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graupensperger, S., Sutcliffe, J., & Vella, S.A. (2021). Prospective associations between sport participation and indices of mental health across adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 50(7), 14501463. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-021-01416-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gross, M.K., & Buchanan, A.M. (2014). Perspectives of physical education specialists who teach in large class settings. Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management, 1(2), 6790. https://doi.org/10.15640/jpesm.v1n2a5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herbert, C., Meixner, F., Wiebking, C., & Gilg, V. (2020). Regular physical activity, short-term exercise, mental health, and well-being among university students: The results of an online and a laboratory study. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 509. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00509

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogue, C.M., Fry, M.D., & Iwasaki, S. (2019). The impact of the perceived motivational climate in physical education classes on adolescent greater life stress, coping appraisals, and experience of shame. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 8(3), 273289. https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000153

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hossain, M.M., Tasnim, S., Sultana, A., Faizah, F., Mazumder, H., Zou, L., McKyer, E.L.J., Ahmed, H.U., & Ma, P. (2020). Epidemiology of mental health problems in COVID-19: A review. F1000Research, 9, 636. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.24457.1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, M.X., Turner, D., Generaal, E., Bos, D., Ikram, M.K., Ikram, M.A., Cuijpers, P., & Penninx, B.W.J.H. (2020). Exercise interventions for the prevention of depression: A systematic review of meta-analyses. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1255. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09323-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huhtiniemi, M., Salin, K., Lahti, J., Sääkslahti, A., Tolvanen, A., Watt, A., & Jaakkola, T. (2020). Finnish students’ enjoyment and anxiety levels during fitness testing classes. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 26(2), 115. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2020.1793926

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huijie, R., & Young-eun, S. (2020). Effects of physical exercises in varied intensities on mental health of college students. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 29(2), 10741083. https://doi.org/10.24205/03276716.2020.348

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huppert, F.A., & So, T.T.C. (2013). Flourishing across Europe: Application of a new conceptual framework for defining well-being. Social Indicators Research, 110(3), 837861. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-011-9966-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaakkola, T., Barkoukis, V., Huhtiniemi, M., Salin, K., SeppÄLÄ, S., Lahti, J., & Watt, A. (2019). Enjoyment and anxiety in Finnish physical education-achievement goals and self-determination perspectives. Journal of Physical Education & Sport, 19(3), 16191629.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiménez-Barbero, J.A., Jiménez-Loaisa, A., González-Cutre, D., Beltrán-Carrillo, V.J., Llor-Zaragoza, L., & Ruiz-Hernández, J.A. (2020). Physical education and school bullying: A systematic review. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 25(1), 79100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2019.1688775

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kearney, A., Hamel, L., & Brodie, M. (2021). Mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic: An update. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/poll-finding/mental-health-impact-of-the-covid-19-pandemic/

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keyes, C.L.M. (2005). Chronic physical conditions and aging: Is mental health a potential protective factor? Ageing International, 30(1), 88104. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02681008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keyes, C.L.M., & Simoes, E.J. (2012). To flourish or not: Positive mental health and all-cause mortality. American Journal of Public Health, 102(11), 21642172. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2012.300918

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khalsa, S., Hickey-Schultz, L., Cohen, D., Steiner, N., & Cope, S. (2012). Evaluation of the mental health benefits of yoga in a secondary school: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 39, 8090. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11414-011-9249-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Killian, C.M., Kinder, C.J., & Woods, A.M. (2019). Online and blended instruction in K–12 physical education: A scoping review. Kinesiology Review, 8(2), 120. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2019-0003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klizienė, I., Kimantienė, L., Čižauskas, G., Marcinkevičiūtė, G., & Treigytė, V. (2018). Effects of an eight-month exercise intervention programme on physical activity and decrease of anxiety in elementary school children. Baltic Journal of Sport & Health Sciences, 111(4), 2329.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kliziene, I., Klizas, S., Cizauskas, G., & Sipaviciene, S. (2018). Effects of a 7-month exercise intervention programme on the psychosocial adjustment and decrease of anxiety among adolescents. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 7(1), 127136. https://doi.org/10.13187/ejced.2018.1.127

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lang, C., Colledge, F., Pühse, U., Gerber, M., Brand, S., & Holsboer-Trachsler, E. (2019). Teaching stress management in physical education: A quasi-experimental study with vocational students. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 63(2), 245257. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2017.1336479

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lang, C., Feldmeth, A.K., Brand, S., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., Pühse, U., & Gerber, M. (2016). Stress management in physical education class: An experiential approach to improve coping skills and reduce stress perceptions in adolescents. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 35(2), 149158. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2015-0079

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lang, C., Feldmeth, A.K., Brand, S., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., Pühse, U., & Gerber, M. (2017). Effects of a physical education-based coping training on adolescents’ coping skills, stress perceptions and quality of sleep. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 22(3), 213230. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2016.1176130

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lehtinen, V. (2008). Building up good mental health: Guidelines based on existing knowledge. STAKES.

  • Li, A.W., & Goldsmith, C.A. (2012). The effects of yoga on anxiety and stress. Alternative Medicine Review, 17(1), 2135.

  • Liukkonen, J., Barkoukis, V., Watt, A., & Jaakkola, T. (2010). Motivational climate and students’ emotional experiences and effort in physical education. The Journal of Educational Research, 103(5), 295308. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220670903383044

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lodewyk, K.R., & Bracco, E. (2018). Differences in adaptive outcomes between previous physical education and a teaching games for understanding games unit in adolescent girls. ICHPER-SD Journal of Research, 10(1), 1220.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lodewyk, K.R., & Muir, A. (2017). High school females’ emotions, self-efficacy, and attributions during soccer and fitness testing in physical education. Physical Educator, 74(2), 269295. https://doi.org/10.18666/TPE-2017-V74-I2-7136

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacDonald, D.J., Côté, J., Eys, M., & Deakin, J. (2012). Psychometric properties of the youth experience survey with young athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(3), 332340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.09.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPhie, M.L., & Rawana, J.S. (2015). The effect of physical activity on depression in adolescence and emerging adulthood: A growth-curve analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 40, 8392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.01.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merglen, A., Flatz, A., Bélanger, R.E., Michaud, P.A., & Suris, J.C. (2014). Weekly sport practice and adolescent well-being. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 99(3), 208210. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2013-303729

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, P.J., & Hansen, V. (2008). Classroom teachers’ perceptions of the impact of barriers to teaching physical education on the quality of physical education programs. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79(4), 506516. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2008.10599517

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mowling, C.M., Brock, S.J., Eiler, K.K., & Rudisill, M.E. (2004). Student motivation in physical education: Breaking down barriers. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 75(6), 4045. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2004.10607256

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mücke, M., Ludyga, S., Colledge, F., & Gerber, M. (2018). Influence of regular physical activity and fitness on stress reactivity as measured with the trier social stress test protocol: A systematic review. Sports Medicine, 48(11), 26072622. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0979-0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Munn, Z., Peters, M.D.J., Stern, C., Tufanaru, C., McArthur, A., & Aromataris, E. (2018). Systematic review or scoping review? Guidance for authors when choosing between a systematic or scoping review approach. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 18(1), 143. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-018-0611-x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2021). Chronic illness and mental health: Recognizing and treating depression.

  • Nicholls, J.G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Harvard University Press.

  • Noggle, J.J., Steiner, N.J., Minami, T., & Khalsa, S.B. (2012). Benefits of yoga for psychosocial well-being in a US high school curriculum: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 33(3), 193201. https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e31824afdc4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Norris, R., Carroll, D., & Cochrane, R. (1992). The effects of physical activity and exercise training on psychological stress and well-being in an adolescent population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 36(1), 5565. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999(92)90114-h

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ntoumanis, N., Pensgaard, A.-M., Martin, C., & Pipe, K. (2004). An idiographic analysis of amotivation in compulsory school physical education. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 26(2), 197214. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.26.2.197

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olive, L.S., Byrne, D., Cunningham, R.B., Telford, R.M., & Telford, R.D. (2019). Can physical education improve the mental health of children? The look study cluster-randomized controlled trial. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(7), 13311340. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000338

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olive, L.S., Telford, R.M., Byrne, D.G., Abhayaratna, W.P., & Telford, R.D. (2016). Psychological distress leads to reduced physical activity and fitness in children: The Australian longitudinal look study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 39(4), 587598. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-016-9723-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Panza, M.J., Graupensperger, S., Agans, J.P., Doré, I., Vella, S.A., & Evans, M.B. (2020). Adolescent sport participation and symptoms of anxiety and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 42(3), 201218. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2019-0235

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pao, M., & Bosk, A. (2011). Anxiety in medically ill children/adolescents. Depression and Anxiety, 28(1), 4049. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20727

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paolucci, E.M., Loukov, D., Bowdish, D.M.E., & Heisz, J.J. (2018). Exercise reduces depression and inflammation but intensity matters. Biological Psychology, 133, 7984. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2018.01.015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Papaioannou, A., & Kouli, O. (1999). The effect of task structure perceived motivational climate and goal orientations on students’ task involvement and anxiety. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11(1), 5171. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413209908402950

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pastor, D., Cervelló, E., Peruyero, F., Biddle, S., & Montero, C. (2019). Acute physical exercise intensity, cognitive inhibition and psychological well-being in adolescent physical education students. Current Psychology, 40(1), 50305039. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00454-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perry, Y., Petrie, K., Buckley, H., Cavanagh, L., Clarke, D., Winslade, M., Hadzi-Pavlovic, D., Manicavasagar, V., & Christensen, H. (2014). Effects of a classroom-based educational resource on adolescent mental health literacy: A cluster randomised controlled trial. Journal of Adolescence, 37(7), 11431151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.08.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peters, M.D., Godfrey, C.M., Khalil, H., McInerney, P., Parker, D., & Soares, C.B. (2015). Guidance for conducting systematic scoping reviews. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 13(3), 141146. https://doi.org/10.1097/xeb.0000000000000050

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peters, M.D.J., Marnie, C., Tricco, A.C., Pollock, D., Munn, Z., Alexander, L., McInerney, P., Godfrey, C.M., & Khalil, H. (2020). Updated methodological guidance for the conduct of scoping reviews. JBI Evidence Synthesis, 18(10), 21192126. https://doi.org/10.11124/jbies-20-00167

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pinquart, M., & Shen, Y. (2011). Depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with chronic physical illness: An updated meta-analysis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36(4), 375384. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsq104

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powell, M.A., Graham, A., Fitzgerald, R., Thomas, N., & White, N.E. (2018). Wellbeing in schools: What do students tell us? The Australian Educational Researcher, 45(4), 515531. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-018-0273-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reigal, R.E., Moral-Campillo, L., Morillo-Baro, J.P., Juárez-Ruiz de Mier, R., Hernández-Mendo, A., & Morales-Sánchez, V. (2020). Physical exercise, fitness, cognitive functioning, and psychosocial variables in an adolescent sample. International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, 17(3), 1100. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031100

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, K.A.R., Pennington, C.G., & Sinelnikov, O.A. (2019). Teacher socialization in physical education: A scoping review of literature. Kinesiology Review, 8(2), 8699. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2018-0003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, K.A.R., Washburn, N., Carson, R.L., & Hemphill, M.A. (2017). A 30-year scoping review of the physical education teacher satisfaction literature. Quest, 69(4), 494514. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2017.1296365

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rieck, T., Jackson, A., Martin, S.B., Petrie, T., & Greenleaf, C. (2013). Health-related fitness, body mass index, and risk of depression among adolescents. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(6), 10831088. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182831db1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmidlein, R., Vickers, B., & Chepyator-Thomson, R. (2014). Curricular issues in urban high school physical education. Physical Educator, 71(2), 273302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SHAPE America. (2015). The essential components of physical education.

  • Silvestri, L. (1987). Anxiety reduction through aerobic dance and progressive relaxation training. Education, 108(1), 34.

  • Spielberger, C.D. (1966). The effects of anxiety on complex learning and academic achievement. In C.D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety and behavior (pp. 361398). Academic Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stress. (2020). Mental Health Foundation. https://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/a-to-z/s/stress

  • Stubbs, B., Vancampfort, D., Rosenbaum, S., Firth, J., Cosco, T., Veronese, N., Salum, G.A., & Schuch, F.B. (2017). An examination of the anxiolytic effects of exercise for people with anxiety and stress-related disorders: A meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research, 249, 102108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.12.020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Suldo, S.M., & Shaffer, E.J. (2008). Looking beyond psychopathology: The dual-factor model of mental health in youth. School Psychology Review, 37(1), 5268. https://doi.org/10.1080/02796015.2008.12087908

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tang, S., Xiang, M., Cheung, T., & Xiang, Y.T. (2021). Mental health and its correlates among children and adolescents during COVID-19 school closure: The importance of parent-child discussion. Journal of Affective Disorders, 279, 353360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.10.016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tricco, A.C., Lillie, E., Zarin, W., O’Brien, K.K., Colquhoun, H., Levac, D., Moher, D., Peters, M.D.J., Horsley, T., Weeks, L., Hempel, S., Akl, E.A., Chang, C., McGowan, J., Stewart, L., Hartling, L., Aldcroft, A., Wilson, M.G., Garritty, C., . . . Straus, S.E. (2018). PRISMA Extension for scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and explanation. Annals of Internal Medicine, 169(7), 467473. https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-0850

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turner, L., Johnson, T.G., Calvert, H.G., & Chaloupka, F.J. (2017). Stretched too thin? The relationship between insufficient resource allocation and physical education instructional time and assessment practices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 68, 210219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.09.007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Physical activity guidelines for Americans midcourse report: Strategies to increase physical activity among youth. Author.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Census Bureau. (2021). 2020 National survey of children’s health: Topical frequencies.  Author.

  • White, R.L., Bennie, A., Vasconcellos, D., Cinelli, R., Hilland, T., Owen, K.B., & Lonsdale, C. (2021). Self-determination theory in physical education: A systematic review of qualitative studies. Teaching and Teacher Education, 99(1), Article 103247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2020.103247

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization. (2021). Mental health: Strengthening our response. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/mental-health-strengthening-our-response

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization. (2022). Mental health: Burden. https://www.who.int/health-topics/mental-health#tab=tab_2

  • Xiang, M., Gu, X., Jackson, A., Zhang, T., Wang, X., & Guo, Q. (2017). Understanding adolescents’ mental health and academic achievement: Does physical fitness matter? School Psychology International, 38(6), 647663. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034317717582

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yli-Piipari, S., Watt, A., Jaakkola, T., Liukkonen, J., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2009). Relationships between physical education students’ motivational profiles enjoyment, state anxiety, and self-reported physical activity. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 8(3), 327336.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, X., Haegele, J.A., & Healy, S. (2019). Movement and mental health: Behavioral correlates of anxiety and depression among children of 6–17 years old in the U.S. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 16, 6065. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2019.04.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 877 877 196
Full Text Views 168 168 63
PDF Downloads 164 164 57