Adapted Physical Activity Scholarship: Evolving From Corrective to Inclusion and Anti-Ableist

Click name to view affiliation

Karen P. DePauw Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) Emerita, Blacksburg, VA, USA
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) Emerita, Blacksburg, VA, USA

Search for other papers by Karen P. DePauw in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5099-167X *
Restricted access

Kinesiology and adapted physical activity (APA) share a common history rooted in the medical model approach to physical activity, movement, and the human body. The evolution of APA was influenced by these early roots and later by special-education legislation, sensory-motor perspectives, inclusion movement, and the disability-rights movement. Originally identified as adapted physical education, APA emerged as a professional field and an academic discipline. Since the 1950s, the research and scholarship has increased and cuts across the specialization areas (subdisciplines) of kinesiology. The multidisciplinary nature of APA scholarship has also reached beyond the discipline of kinesiology informed by disability studies and sociology. Reflection about APA and kinesiology reveals the ableist nature of the medical model, which informed early professional practice and scholarship. Thus, it is critical that APA and kinesiology engage in anti-ableist scholarship to better understand human physical activity and movement inclusive of individuals with disabilities.

Address author correspondence to kpdepauw@vt.edu, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5099-167X

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. (1952). Guiding principles for adapted physical education. Journal of Health, Physical Education Recreation, 23, 15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, D.I., & van Emmerik, R.E. (2021). Perspectives on the academic discipline of kinesiology. Kinesiology Review, 10(3), 225227. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2021-0029

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benefield, L., & Head, D.W. (1984). Discrimination and disabled women. Journal of Humanistic Education and Development, 23(2), 6068.

  • Blinde, E.M., & McCallister, S.G. (1999). Women, disability, and sport and physical fitness activity: The intersection of gender and disability dynamics. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70(3), 303312. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1999.10608049

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Block, M.E. (2016). A teacher’s guide to adapted physical education: Including students with disabilities in sports and recreation. Brookes Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bogart, K.R., & Dunn, D.S. (2019). Ableism special issue introduction. Journal of Social Issues, 75(3), 650664. https://doi.org/10.1111/josi.12354

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bordo, S. (1993). Unbearable weight: Feminism, western culture and the body. University of California Press.

  • Broadhead, G.D. (1981). Time passages in adapted physical education. In G.A. Brooks (Ed.), Perspectives on the academic discipline of physical education (pp. 234252). Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broadhead, G.D. (1983). Research directions in adapted physical activity. In R.L. Eason, T.L. Smith, & F. Caron (Eds.), Adapted physical activity. From Theory to application (pp. 329341). Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, N., & Leigh, J. (2020). Ableism in academia: Theorising experiences of disabilities and chronic illnesses in higher education (p. 241). UCL Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bruininks, R.H. (1974). Physical and motor development of retarded persons. In N.R. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation (Vol. 7, pp. 209261). Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, F. (2001). Inciting legal fictions: Disability’s date with ontology and the ableist body of the law. Griffith Law Review, 10(1), 4262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, F. (2008). Exploring internalized ableism using critical race theory. Disability & Society, 23(2), 151162. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687590701841190

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cardinal, B.J., Rogers, K.A., Kuo, B., Locklear, R.L., Comfort, K.E., & Cardinal, M.K. (2015). Critical discourse analysis of motivational content in commercially available exercise DVDs: Body capital on display or psychological capital being developed? Sociology of Sport Journal, 32(4), 452470. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.2014-0157

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Connolly, M., & Harvey, W.J. (2018). Critical pedagogy and APA: A resonant (and timely) interdisciplinary blend. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 35(3), 293307. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.2017-0106

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis, L.J. (1995). Enforcing normalcy: Disability, deafness, and the body. Verso.

  • Deegan, M.J., & Brooks, N.A. (Eds.). (1985). Women and disability: The double handicap. TransactionBooks.

  • DePauw, K.P. (1986a). Research on sport for athletes with disabilities. Adapted physical activity quarterly, 3(4), 292299. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.3.4.292

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DePauw, K.P. (1986b). Toward progressive inclusion and acceptance: Implications for physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 3(1), 15. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.3.1.1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DePauw, K.P. (1997). The (in)visibility of disability: Cultural contexts and sporting bodies. Quest, 49 (4): 416430. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1997.10484258

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DePauw, K.P. (2020). Historical viewpoint on adapted physical education. In J.A. Haegele, S.R. Hodge, & D.R. Shapiro (Eds.), Handbook of adapted physical education (pp. 724). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DePauw, K.P. (2021). Achieving a socially just society: Kinesiology’s role and responsibility in disrupting the status quo. Kinesiology Review, 11(1), 104111. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2021-0059

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DePauw, K.P. (2022). Disabled female sporting bodies: Reflections on (in)visibility of disability in sport. In B. Powis, J. Brighton, & P.D. Howe (Eds.), Researching disability sport: Theory, method, practice (pp. 8599). Taylor and Francis.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DePauw, K.P. (2023). Disrupting ableism in adapted physical activity through anti-ableist Research and practice. In D. Goodwin & M. Connolly (Eds.). Reflexivity and change in adaptive physical activity: Overcoming hubris. Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DePauw, K.P., & Doll-Tepper, G. (2000). Toward progressive inclusion and acceptance: Myth or Reality? The inclusion debate and bandwagon discourse. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 17(2), 135143. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.17.2.135

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DePauw, K.P., & Doll-Tepper, G.M. (1989). European perspectives on adapted physical activity. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 6(2), 9599. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.6.2.95

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DePauw, K.P., & Gavron, S.J. (2005). Disability and sport. Human Kinetics.

  • DePauw, K.P., & Goc Karp, G. (1994). Integrating knowledge of disability throughout the physical education curriculum: An infusion approach. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 11(1), 313. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.11.1.3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DePauw, K.P., & Sherrill, C. (1994). Adapted physical activity: Present and future. Physical Education Review, 17(1), 613.

  • Dolmage, J.T. (2017). Academic ableism: Disability and higher education. University of Michigan Press.

  • Donnelly, P. (1996). Approaches to social inequality in the sociology of sport. Quest,(2), 221242. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1996.10484192

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fine, M. (2019). Critical disability studies: Looking back and forward. Special Issue: Ableism. Journal of Social Issues, 75(3), 972984.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fine, M., & Asch, A. (1988). Disability beyond stigma: Social interaction, discrimination, and activism. Journal of Social Issues, 44(1), 321. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1988.tb02045.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garland-Thomson, R. (1997). Extraordinary Bodies: Figuring physical disability in American culture and literature. Columbia University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodwin, D., & Connolly, M. (Eds.), (2023). Reflexivity and change in adaptive physical activity: Overcoming hubris. Routledge.

  • Goodwin, D., & Dunn, J. (2018). Revisiting our research assumptions 20 years on: The role of interdisciplinarity. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 35(3), 249253. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.2017-0192

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodwin, D.L. (2017). Reflections on professional practice in adapted physical activity through a social justice lens. In A.J.S. Morin, C. Maïano, D. Tracey, & R.G. Craven (Eds.), Inclusive physical activities: International perspectives (pp. 271286). Information Age Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A. (2019). Inclusion illusion: Questioning the inclusiveness of integrated physical education: 2019 National Association for Kinesiology in Higher Education Hally Beth Poindexter Young Scholar Address. Quest, 71(4), 387397. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2019.1602547

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., Lee, J., & Porretta, D.L. (2015). Research trends in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly from 2004 to 2013. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 32(3), 1872016. https://doi.org/10.1123/APAQ.2014-0232

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haegele, J.A., & Wilson, W.J. (2023). e10 things I hate about ‘inclusion’ in physical education. In D. Goodwin & M. Connolly (Eds.), Reflexivity and change in adaptive physical activity: Overcoming hubris (pp. 2133). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, M.A. (1995). Feminism and sporting bodies. Human Kinetics.

  • Hanna, W.J., & Rogovsky, B. (1993). Women with disabilities: Two handicaps plus. In M. Nagler (Ed.), Perspectives on disability (2nd ed., pp. 109120). Health Markets Research.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardin, M., & Hardin, B. (2005). Performance or participation … pluralism or hegemony? Images of disability and gender in Sports ’n Spokes magazine. Disability Studies Quarterly, 25(4). https://doi.org/10.18061/dsq.v25i4.606

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardin, M., Lynn, S., & Walsdorf, K., (2006). Depicting the sporting body: The intersection of gender, race and disability in women’s sport/fitness magazines. Journal of Magazine Media, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1353/jmm.2006.0006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hargreaves, J.A., & Hardin, B. (2009). Women wheelchair athletes: Competing against media stereotypes. Disability Studies Quarterly, 29(2). https://doi.org/10.18061/dsq.v29i2.920

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henry, F.M. (1964). Physical education: An academic discipline. Journal of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, 35(7), 3269. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221473.1964.10621849

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hodge, S.R., Jordan, R.D., & Smith, K.J. (2023). Intersectionality, disability, justice, and critical pedagogy. In D. Goodwin & M. Connolly (Eds.), Reflexivity and change in adaptive physical activity: Overcoming hubris (pp 123135). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huber, C.A. (1984). An overview and perspective on international disabled sport: Past, present, future. Rehabilitation World, 8, 811.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lieberman, L., & Houston-Wilson, C. (2017). Strategies for inclusion. Human Kinetics.

  • Massengale, J.D., & Swanson, R.A. (1997). The history of exercise and sport science. Human Kinetics.

  • Peers, D, Eales, L., & Goodwin, D. (2023). Disablism, ableism and enlightened ableism in contemporary Adapted Physical Activity Textbooks: Practising what we preach? In D. Goodwin & M. Connolly (Eds.), Reflexivity and change in adaptive physical activity: Overcoming hubris (pp. 3446). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Porretta, D.L., Nesbitt, J., & Labanowich, S. (1993). Terminology usage: A case for clarity. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 10(2), 8796. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.10.2.87

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Porretta, D.L., & Sherrill, C. (2005). APAQ at twenty: A documentary analysis. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 22(2), 119135. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.22.2.119

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powis, B., Brighton, J., & Howe, P.D. (Eds.). (2022). Researching disability sport: Theory, method, practice. Routledge.

  • Pronger, B. (1995). Rendering the body: The implicit lessons of gross anatomy. Quest, 47(4), 427446. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1995.10484168

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rarick, G.L. (1980). Motor development its growing knowledge base. Journal of Physical Education and Recreation, 51(7), 2662. https://doi.org/10.1080/00971170.1980.10626540

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reid, G., & Brodhead, G.D. (1995). APAQ at ten: A documentary analysis. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 11(1), 12. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.11.1.1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rizzo, T.L., & Davis, W.E. (1991). From the back of the physical education bus: The functional exclusion of adapted physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 62(6), 5355. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.1991.10609894

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sage, G.H. (1993). Sport and physical education and the new world order: Dare we be agents of social change? Quest, 45(2), 151164. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1993.10484081

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seaman, J.A., & DePauw, K.P. (1982). The new adapted physical education: A developmental approach. Mayfield Publishing Company.

  • Seaman, J.A., DePauw, K.P., Morton, K., & Omoto, K. (2003). Making connections: From theory to practice in adapted physical education. Holcomb Hathaway.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherrill, C. (1988). Leadership training in adapted physical education. Human Kinetics.

  • Sherrill, C. (1993). Women with disability, Paralympics, and reasoned action contact theory. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 2(2), 5160. https://doi.org/10.1123/wspaj.2.2.51

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherrill, C., & DePauw, K.P. (1997). Adapted physical activity and education. In J.D. Massengale & R.A. Swanson (Eds.), The history of exercise and sport science. Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shogan, D. (1998). The social construction of disability: The impact of statistics and technology. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 15(3), 269277. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.15.3.269

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silva, C.F., & Howe, P.D. (2012). The (in) validity of supercrip representation of Paralympian athletes. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 36(2), 174194. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723511433865

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silva, C.F., & Howe, P.D. (2018). The social empowerment of difference: The potential influence of para sport. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics, 29(2), 397408.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silva, C.F., & Howe, P.D. (2022). Dis/ability sport for “all” the ultimate dream. In D. Goodwin & M. Connolly (Eds.), Reflexivity and change in adaptive physical activity: Overcoming hubris (pp. 175188). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Snyder, S.L., & Mitchell, D.T. (2010). Cultural locations of disability. University of Chicago Press.

  • Stafford, G.T. (1947). Sports for the handicapped. Prentice-Hall.

  • Stein, J. (1983). Bridge over troubled waters—research review and recommendation for relevance. In T.L. Smith & F. Caron (Eds.), Adapted physical activity, from theory to application (pp. 189198). Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wendell, S. (1996). The rejected body: Feminist philosophical reflections on disability. Routledge.

  • Wiggins, D.K. (2021). Looking back at kinesiology’s future: The need for both focused frogs and visionary birds. Kinesiology Review, 10(4), 372382. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2021-0036

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiggins, D.K., Weiss, M.R., & Kretchmar, R.S. (2017). Reflections on kinesiology: Past, present and future. Kinesiology Review, 6(2), 137139. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2017-0011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winnick, J.P. (1995). Adapted physical education and sport (2nd ed.). Human Kinetics.

  • World Health Organization. (1980). International classification of impairment, disabilities and handicaps: A manual of classification relating to the consequences of disease.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF).

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 543 543 59
Full Text Views 55 55 5
PDF Downloads 62 62 3