Blending Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health and Public Health in Kinesiology

Click name to view affiliation

Barbara Ainsworth Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China

Search for other papers by Barbara Ainsworth in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4199-692X *
Restricted access

Early physical education programs were interested in how exercise and physical fitness can improve student health and well-being. This interest in improving health is a foundational purpose of public health. The emergence of physical activity (PA) as a health-enhancing behavior prompted epidemiologists and researchers to identify associations between PA, morbidity, and mortality and to understand the doses needed to enhance health outcomes. Public health experts convened consensus meetings, agreeing that physical inactivity was a public health problem. PA leaders and educators created workshops to train researchers and public health practitioners in topics on PA and public health. Kinesiology departments have embraced the PA and public health agenda. Eleven kinesiology departments have joined the Schools of Public Health, and some offer degrees or concentrations in PA and public health. Most kinesiology departments not in a School of Public Health offer undergraduate courses in PA, fitness, and health, blending kinesiology and public health topics.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. (2018). 2018 physical activity guidelines advisory committee scientific report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/sites/default/files/2019-09/PAG_Advisory_Committee_Report.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Active Living Research. (2023). Active living research: Promoting activity-friendly communities. Retrieved August 15 from https://activelivingresearch.org/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ainsworth, B. (2005). Movement, mobility, and public health. Quest, 57(1), 1223. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2005.10491839

  • Bailey College of Science and Mathematics, California Polytechnic State University. (2022). Kinesiology and public health. Office of the Registrar, California Polytechnic State University. Retrieved August 7 from https://catalog.calpoly.edu/collegesandprograms/collegeofsciencemathematics/kinesiologypublichealth/#undergraduatetext

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blair, S. (2009). Physical inactivity: The biggest public health problem of the 21st century. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(1), 12.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blair, S.N., Kohl, H.W., III, Paffenbarger, R.S., Jr., Clark, D.G., Cooper, K.H., & Gibbons, L.W. (1989). Physical fitness and all-cause mortality: A prospective study of healthy men and women. JAMA, 262(17), 23952401. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1989.03430170057028

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Booth, F. (2001). Sedentary death syndrome is what researchers now call America’s second largest threat to public health. https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/10361/SedentaryDeathSyndrome.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Booth, F., & Scott, G. (2000). Advocacy is needed to promote research into diseases of physical inactivity. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 28(4), 145147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bornstein, D.R., Eyler, A.A., Maddock, J.E., & Moore, J.B. (Ed.). (2019). Physical activity and public practice (1st ed.). Springer.

  • Bouchard, C. (1992, May 2). Physical activity, fitness, and health: Consensus and statement [Conference session]. Second International Consensus Symposium on Physical Activity, and Fitness, Toronto, Canada.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bouchard, C. (2001). Physical activity and health: Introduction to the dose-response symposium. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(Suppl.), S347S350. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200106001-00002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bouchard, C., Blair, S.N., & Haskell, W.L. (Eds.). (2012). Physical activity and health (2nd ed.). Human Kinetics.

  • Bouchard, C., Shephard, R.J., Stephens, T.H., Sutton, J.R., & McPherson, B.D. (1988, May 29 to June 3). Exercise, fitness, and health: A consensus of current knowledge [Conference session]. International Conference on Exercise, Fitness, and Health, Toronto, Canada.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, D.R., Pate, R.R., Pratt, M., Wheeler, F., Buchner, D., Ainsworth, B., & Macera, C. (2001). Physical activity and public health: Training courses for researchers and practitioners. Public Health Reports, 116(3), 197202. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0033-3549(04)50034-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cardinal, B.J., Kang, M., Farnsworth, J.L., II, & Welk, G.J. (2015). Historical context and current status of the intersection of physical activity and public: Results of the 2015 American Kinesiology Association’s opportunities for kinesiology survey. Kinesiology Review, 4(4), 329345. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2015-0033

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Challis, J. (2021). The National Academy of Kinesiology 2020 Review and Evaluation of Doctoral Programs in Kinesiology. Kinesiology Review, 10(1), 117. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2020-0049

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Council on Education for Public Health. (2023). List of accredited schools and programs. Retrieved August 8 from https://ceph.org/about/org-info/who-we-accredit/accredited/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Kinesiology. (2021). Retrieved August 15 from https://www.hhs.k-state.edu/kines/

  • Dishman, R.K., Health, G.W., Schmidt, M.D., & Lee, I.-M. (2021). Physical activity epidemiology (3rd ed.). Human Kinetics.

  • Dunbar, H.F.J. (1950). A brief history of the College Physical Education Association (Publication Number 0001844) [Dissertation, Colombia University]. https://www.proquest.com/openview/fd3ebe8e6181376ba1d8e675f67376b3/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • English Heritage. (2023). Chadwick, Sir Edwin (1801–1890). Retrieved August 8 from https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/visit/blue-plaques/edwin-chadwick/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freedson, P., Buchner, D.M., Pate, R., Hatfield, B., DiPietro, L., Dzewaltowski, D.A., Gavin, T., & Nessler, J. (2015). Integrating public health in kinesiology: Instruction, academic programs, research, and outreach. Kinesiology Review, 4(4), 355369. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2015-0035

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guthold, R., Stevens, G.A., Riley, L.M., & Bull, F.C. (2018). Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: A pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1·9 million participants. The Lancet, 6, e1077e1086. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30323-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guthold, R., Stevens, G.A., Riley, L.M., & Bull, F.C. (2020). Global trends in insufficient physical activity among adolescents: A pooled analysis of 298 population-based surveys with 1.6 million participants. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4(1), 2335. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30323-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haskell, W.L., Lee, I-M, Pate, R.R., Powell, K.E., Blair, S.N., Franklin, B.A., Macera, C.A., Heath, G.W., Thompson, P.D., & Bauman, A. (2007). Physical activity and public health: Updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116(9), 10811093. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.185649

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heath, G.W., Parra, D.C., Sarmiento, O.L., Andersen, L.B., Owen, N., Goenka, S., Montes, F., & Brownson, R.C. (2012). Evidence-based intervention in physical activity: Lessons from around the world. The Lancet, 380(9838), 272281. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60816-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iowa State University College of Human Sciences. (2023). Kinesiology and health. Iowa State University. Retrieved August 7 from https://kin.hs.iastate.edu/find-your-major/kinesiology-and-health/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keys, A., Menotti, A., Aravanis, C., Blackburn, H., Djordevic, B.S., Buzina, R., Dontas, A.S., Fidanza, F., Karvonen, M.J., Kimura, N., Mohaⓒek, I., Nedeljkoviⓒ, S., Puddu, V., Punsar, S., Taylor, H.L, Conti, S., Kromhout, D., & Toshima, H. (1984). The seven countries study: 2,289 deaths in 15 years. Preventive Medicine, 13(2), 141154. https://doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435(84)90047-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kohl, H.W., Murray, T.D., Salvo, D. (2019). Foundations of physical activity and public health (2nd ed.). Human Kinetics.

  • Leon, A. (Ed.). (1997). Physical activity and cardiovascular health: A national consensus. Human Kinetics.

  • Leon, A.S., Connett, J., Jacobs, D.R., Jr., & Rauramma, R. (1987). Leisure-time physical activity levels and risk of coronary heart disease and death. JAMA, 258(17), 23882395. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1987.03400170074026

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mahmood, S.S., Levy, D., Vasan, R.S., & Wang, T.J. (2014). The Framingham Heart Study and the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases: A historical perspective. The Lancet, 283(9921), 9991008. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61752-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshfield Clinic Health Systems YMCA. (2023). Our history—A brief history of the YMCA movement. Retrieved August 4 from http://www.mfldymca.org/about_us/history_national.php

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merriam-Webster. (2023). Mover and shaker. Retrieved August 15 from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mover%20and%20shaker

  • Morris, J.N., Chave, S.P., Adam, C., Sirey, C., Epstein, L., & Sheehan, D.J. (1973). Vigorous exercise in leisure-time and the incidence of coronary heart disease. The Lancet, 1(7799), 333339. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(73)90128-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morris, J.N., & Crawford, M.D. (1958). Coronary heart disease and physical activity of work: Evidence of a national necropsy survey. British Medical Journal, 2(5111), 14851486. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5111.1485

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrow, J.J. (1991). Physical education’s role in the public health: Review and commentary. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 62(2), 123. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1991.10608700

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Academy of Kinesiology. (2023). Historical overview. Retrieved October 10 from https://nationalacademyofkinesiology.org/historical-overview/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nelson, M.E., Rejeski, W.J., Blair, S.N., Duncan, P.W., Judge, J.O., King, A.C., Macera, C.A., & Casteneda-Sceppa, C. (1997). Physical activity and public health in older adults: Recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(8), 14351445. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e3180616aa2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paffenbarger, R.S., Laughlin, M.E., Gima, A.S., & Black, R.A. (1971). Work activity of Longshoremen as related to death from coronary heart disease and stroke. The New England Journal of Medicine, 282(20), 11091114. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197005142822001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paffenbarger, R.S., Wing, A.L., & Hyde, R.T. (1978). Physical activity as an index of heart attack risk in college alumni. American Journal of Epidemiology, 108(3), 161175. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a112608

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PAPH 2023. (2023). Physical activity and public health courses. Arnold School of Public Health. Retrieved August 9 from https://web.asph.sc.edu/paph/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pate, R.R., Flynn, J.I., & Dowda, M. (2016). Policies for promotion of physical activity and prevention of obesity in adolescence. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 14(2), 4753. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesf.2016.07.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pate, R.R., Pratt, M., Blair, S.N., Haskell, W.L., Macera, C.A., Bouchard, C., Buchner, D., Ettinger, W., Heath, G.W., King, A.C., Kriska, A., Leon, A.S., Marcus, B.H., Morris, J., Paffenbarger, R.S., Jr., Patrick, K., Pollock, M.L., Rippe, J.M., Sallis, J., & Wilmore, J.H. (1995). Physical activity and public health: A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA, 273(5), 402407. https://web.asph.sc.edu/paph/research-course/https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1995.03520290054029

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powell, K.E., Thompson, P.D., Caspersen, C.J., & Kendrick, J.S. (1987). Physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease. Annual Review of Public Health, 8(1), 253287. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.08.050187.001345

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sallis, J.F., Cervero, R.B., Ascher, W., Henderson, K.A., Kraft, M.K., & Kerr, J. (2006). An ecological approach to creating active living communities. Annual Review of Public Health, 27(1), 297322. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.27.021405.102100

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spirduso, W., & Reeve, T.G. (2011). The National Academy of Kinesiology 2010 review and evaluation of doctoral programs in Kinesiology. Quest, 63(4), 411440. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2011.10483689

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, H.L., Blackburn, H., Keys, A., Parlin, R.W., Vasquez, C., & Puchner, T. (1970). Coronary heart disease in seven countries. IV. Five-year follow-up of employees of selected U.S. railroad companies. Circulation, 41, 120149. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.41.4s1.i-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, J.R., & Reeve, T.G. (2006). A review and evaluation of doctoral programs 2000–2004 by the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education. Quest, 58(1), 176196. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2006.10491878

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tudor-Locke, C., Hatano, Y., Pangrazi, R.P., & Kang, M. (2008). Revisiting “How many steps are enough?” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(7), S537S543. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31817c7133

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulrich, B.D., & Feltz, D.L. (2016). The National Academy of Kinesiology 2015 review and evaluation of doctoral programs in Kinesiology. Kinesiology Review, 5(2), 101118. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2016-0004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • University of Minnesota, School of Public Health. (2023). What is a Master of Public Health (MPH) degree? Retrieved August 7 from https://www.sph.umn.edu/academics/degrees-programs/mph/degree-information/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1995, December 18–20). Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health, NIH Consensus Development Conference, Program and Abstracts. Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health [Conference session]. NIH Consensus Development Conference, Program and Abstracts, Bethesda, MD.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1996). Physical activity and health: A report of the surgeon general. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). Physical activity guidelines advisory committee report, 2008.

  • Winslow, C. (1920). The untilled field of public health. Science, 51(1306), 2333. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.51.1306.23

  • World Health Organization. (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Retrieved September 24 from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44399/1/9789241599979_eng.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization. (2020). WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240015128

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 341 341 30
Full Text Views 53 53 1
PDF Downloads 58 58 2