Online and Blended Instruction in K–12 Physical Education: A Scoping Review

in Kinesiology Review
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $41.00

1 year subscription

USD  $54.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $77.00

2 year subscription

USD  $101.00

Online and blended instruction have emerged as popular teaching methods in the K–12 environment. The asynchronous characteristics of these methods represent potential for improved learning opportunities in physical education. Therefore, the purpose of this scoping review was to provide a comprehensive overview of research, commentary, and practical articles related to the use of these methods in K–12 physical education. Method: PRISMA-ScR guidelines directed this review, and 5 databases were searched for English-language articles. Results: Twenty-four articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were research-based and 10 were commentary or practical articles. Most related research has been conducted in secondary-school environments. Minimal learning-related outcomes were reported across studies. Evidence provided in commentary and practical articles is largely anecdotal and based on research from other subject areas. Conclusions: Systematic research related to the design, adoption, and implementation of online and blended instruction in physical education is warranted.

The authors are with the Dept. of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL.

Killian (ckillia2@illinois.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Andre, M., & Hastie, P.A. (2018). Comparing teaching approaches in two student-designed games units. European Physical Education Review, 24(2), 225–239. doi:10.1177/1356336X16681955

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arksey, H., & O’Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19–32. doi:10.1080/1364557032000119616

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bailey, R. (2006). Physical education and sport in schools: A review of benefits and outcomes. Journal of School Health, 76(8), 397–401. PubMed ID: 16978162 doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2006.00132.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barbour, M.K., & Reeves, T.C. (2009). The reality of virtual schools: A review of the literature. Computers & Education, 52(2), 402–416. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2008.09.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beets, M.W., Okely, A., Glenn Weaver, R., Webster, C., Lubans, D., Brusseau, T., … Cliff, D.P. (2016). The theory of expanded, extended, and enhanced opportunities for youth physical activity promotion. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13(1), 1–15. doi:10.1186/s12966-016-0442-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berge, Z.L., & Clark, T.C. (Eds.). (2005). Virtual schools: Planning for success. New York, NY: Teachers’ College Press.

  • Bhagat, K.K., Chang, C.N., & Chang, C.Y. (2016). The impact of the flipped classroom on mathematics concept learning in high school. Educational Technology & Society, 19(3), 134–142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buschner, C. (2006). Online physical education: Wires and lights in a box. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(2), 3–8. doi:10.1080/07303084.2006.10597818

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Castelli, D., & Rink, J. (2003). A comparison of high and low performing secondary physical education programs. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22(5), 512–532. doi:10.1123/jtpe.22.5.512

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cavanaugh, C.S., Barbour, M.K., & Clark, T. (2009). Research and practice in K-12 online learning: A review of open access literature. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 10(1), 1–22. doi:10.19173/irrodl.v10i1.607

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chao, C.Y., Chen, Y.T., & Chuang, K.Y. (2015). Exploring students’ learning attitude and achievement in flipped learning supported computer-aided design curriculum: A study in high school engineering education. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 23(4), 514–526. doi:10.1002/cae.21622

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, W., Mason, S., Hypnar, A., & Hammond-bennett, A. (2016). Association of quality physical education teaching with students' physical fitness. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 15(2), 335–343. PubMed ID: 27274673

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Choi, H.J., & Johnson, S.D. (2005). The effect of context-based video instruction on learning and motivation in online courses. American Journal of Distance Education, 19(4), 215–227. doi:10.1207/s15389286ajde1904_3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chow, B.C., McKenzie, T.L., & Louie, L. (2009). Physical activity and environmental influences during secondary school physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 28(1), 21–37. doi:10.1123/jtpe.28.1.21

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Columna, L., Arndt, K., Lieberman, L., & Stephen, Y. (2009). Using online videos for disability awareness. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(8), 19–24. doi:10.1080/07303084.2009.10598369

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cummings, M. (2001). Internet, goal net or both: PE and the introduction of ICT into the curriculum. British Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 32(3), 19–22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Curtner-Smith, M.D., Chen, W., & Kerr, I.G. (1995). Health‐related fitness in secondary school physical education: A descriptive‐analytic study. Educational Studies, 21(1), 55–66. doi:10.1080/0305569950210105

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daum, D.N., & Buschner, C. (2012). The status of high school online physical education in the United States. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 31(1), 86–100. doi:10.1123/jtpe.31.1.86

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daum, D.N., & Buschner, C. (2014). Research on teaching blended and online physical education. In R.E. Ferdig& K. Kennedy (Eds.), Handbook of research on K-12 online and blended learning (1st ed., pp. 201–222). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daum, D.N., & Buschner, C. (2018). Research on teaching K-12 online physical education. In K. Kennedy& R.E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K-12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 321–334). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daum, D.N., & Woods, A.M. (2015). Physical education teacher educator’s perceptions toward understanding of K-12 online physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 34(4), 716–724. doi:10.1123/jtpe.2014-0146

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Digital Learning Collaborative. (2019). Snapshot 2019: A review of K-12 online, blended, and digital learning. Retrieved from https://www.digitallearningcollab.com/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ellery, P.J. (1997). Using the World Wide Web in physical education. Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators, 10(3), 5–8. doi:10.1080/08924562.1997.10591248

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ennis, C.D. (2010). On their own: Preparing students for a lifetime. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 81(5), 17–22. doi:10.1080/07303084.2010.10598475

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fairclough, S.J., & Stratton, G. (2005). Physical activity levels in middle and high school physical education: A review. Pediatric Exercise Science, 17(3), 217–236. doi:10.1123/pes.17.3.217

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fulton, K., & Honey, M. (2002). Emerging technologies in education. Educational Technology, 42(6), 6–8.

  • Gemin, B., & Pape, L. (2016). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED576762

  • Gemin, B., Pape, L., Vashaw, L., & Watson, J. (2015). Keeping pace with K-12 digital learning: An annual review of policy and practice (12th ed.). Durango, CO: Evergreen Education Group. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED570125

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goc-Karp, G., & Woods, M.L. (2003). Wellness NutriFit online learning in physical education for high school students. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 2(2), 1–19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamdan, N., McKnight, P., McKnight, K., & Arfstrom, K.M. (2013). A review of flipped learning. Retrieved from https://flippedlearning.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/LitReview_FlippedLearning.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, M.T., & Metzler, M. (2018). Online personal fitness course alignment with national guidelines for online physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. Advance online publication. doi:10.1123/jtpe.2018-0169

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hastie, P.A., Casey, A., & Tarter, A.M. (2010). A case study of wikis and student-designed games in physical education. Technolgy, Pedagogy, and Education, 19(1), 79–91. doi:10.1080/14759390903579133

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kane, J.J. (2004). The dog ate my disk: Teacher and student perspectives of an online personal fitness course. Florida Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance Journal, 2, 8–12.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Killian, C.M., Graber, K.C., & Woods, A.M. (2016). Flipped instructional model in physical education. In D. Kamenaric & B. Antala (Eds.), Physical education and new technologies (pp. 102–111). Zagreb, Croatia: Croatian Kinesiology Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Killian, C.M., Trendowski, T.N., & Woods, A.M. (2016). Students’ perceptions of flipped instruction in a university physical activity course. In T. Wallhead (Ed.), Blazing new trails: Future directions for sport pedagogy and physical activity: Abstract book: AISEP international conference (p. 156). Laramie: University of Wyoming.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kooiman, B.J., & Sheehan, D.P. (2015). The efficacy of exergames for social relatedness in online physical education. Cogent Education, 2(1), 1–15. doi:10.1080/2331186X.2015.1045808

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kooiman, B.J., Sheehan, D.P., Wesolek, M., & Reategui, E. (2016). Exergaming for physical activity in online physical education. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies, 14(2), 1–16. doi:10.4018/IJDET.2016040101

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kooiman, B.J., Sheehan, D.P., Wesolek, M., & Retegui, E. (2017). Moving online physical education from oxymoron to efficacy. Sport, Education and Society, 22(2), 230–246. doi:10.1080/13573322.2015.1015978

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lazerte, D.K.S., & Lathrop, A.H. (2006). “Hot links to cool stuff”: Website technology in the elementary school physical education classroom. Physical and Health Education Journal, 72(2), 14–20.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lo, C.K., & Hew, K.F. (2017). A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: Possible solutions and recommendations for future research. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 12(4), 1–22.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, G.S., Shuman, R.T., & Cook, K.E. (2013). Comparing the effectiveness of an inverted classroom to a traditional classroom in an upper-division engineering course. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Transactions on Education, 56(4), 430–435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McAuley, E., Duncan, T., & Tammen, V.V. (1987). Psychometric properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory in a competitive sport setting: A confirmatory factor analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 60(1), 48–58. doi:10.1080/02701367.1989.10607413

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCullick, B.A., Baker, T., Tomporowski, P.D., Templin, T.J., Lux, K., & Isaac, T. (2012). An analysis of state physical education policies. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 31(2), 200–210. doi:10.1123/jtpe.31.2.200

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mohnsen, B. (2012). Implementing online physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 83(2), 42–47. doi:10.1080/07303084.2012.10598727

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mosier, B. (2012). Virtual physical education: A call for action. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 83(3), 6–7, and 10. doi:10.1080/07303084.2012.10598734

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mosier, B., & Lynn, S. (2012). An initial exploration of a virtual personal fitness course. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 15(3).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Association for Sport and Physical Education, & American Heart Association. (2006). 2006 Shape of the Nation Report: Status of physical education in the USA. Reston, VA: NASPE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (2007). Initial guidelines for online physical education: A position paper from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Reston, VA: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osterlie, O. (2016). Flipped learning in physical education: Why and how? In D. Kamenaric& B. Antala (Eds.), Physical education and new Technologies (pp. 166–176). Zagreb, Croatia: Croatian Kinesiology Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osterlie, O. (2018). Can flipped learning enhance adolescents’ motivation in physical education? An intervention study. Journal of Research in Arts and Sports Education, 2(3), 1–15. doi:10.23865/jased.v4.1197

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pate, R.R., Small, M.L., Ross, J.G., Young, J.C., Flint, K.H., & Warren, C.W. (1995). School physical education. Journal of School Health, 65(8), 312–318. PubMed ID: 8558859 doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.1995.tb03380.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peters, M.D.J., Godfrey, C.M., Khalil, H., McInerney, P., Parker, D., & Soares, C.B. (2015). Guidance for conducting systematic scoping reviews. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 13(3), 141–146. PubMed ID: 26134548 doi:10.1097/XEB.0000000000000050

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Randsell, L.B., Rice, K., Snelson, C., & Decola, J. (2008). Online health-related fitness course: A wolf in sheep’s clothing or a solution to some problems? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 79(1), 45–52. doi:10.1080/07303084.2008.10598119

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhea, D.J. (2011). Virtual physical education in the K-12 setting. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 82(1), 5–6, and 50. doi:10.1080/07303084.2011.10598551

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schilling, W. (2014). Increasing material coverage in software engineering through the introduction of the flipped classroom. Proceedings of the 2014 American Society for Engineering Education north midwest section conference, 1–7. Iowa City, IA : University of Iowa.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schultz, D., Duffield, S., Rasmussen, S.C., & Wageman, J. (2014). Effects of the flipped classroom model on student performance for advanced high school chemistry students. Journal of Chemical Education, 91(9), 1334–1339. doi:10.1021/ed400868x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwen, T.M., & Hara, N. (2004). A metaphor for online design. In S.A. Barab, R. Kling, & J.H. Gray (Eds.), Designing for virtual communities in the service of learning (pp. 154–178). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SHAPE America. (2010). Opportunity to learn: Guidelines for elementary, middle & high school physical. Retrieved from https://www.shapeamerica.org/upload/Opportunity-to-Learn-Guidelines.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SHAPE America. (2014). National standards & grade-level outcomes for K-12 physical education. Reston, VA: Author.

  • SHAPE America. (2016). Shape of the Nation 2016: Status of Physical Education in the USA. Reston, VA: Author.

  • Snyder, C., Paska, L.M., & Bessozi, D. (2014). Cast from the past: Using screencasting in the social studies classroom. The Social Studies, 105(6), 310–314. doi:10.1080/00377996.2014.951472

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sutherland, R., Campbell, E., Lubans, D.R., Morgan, P.J., Okley, A.D., Nathan, N., … Wiggers, J. (2016). Physical education in secondary schools located in low-income communities: Physical activity levels, lesson context and teacher interaction. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(2), 135–141. PubMed ID: 25559053 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.12.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thornburg, R., & Hill, K. (2004). Using Internet assessment tools for health and physical education instruction. TechTrends, 48(6), 53–55, and 70. doi:10.1007/BF02763585

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tricco, A.C., Antony, J., Zarin, W., Strifler, L., Ghassemi, M., Ivory, J., … Straus, S.E. (2015). A scoping review of rapid review methods. BMC Medicine, 13(224), 1–15.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tricco, A.C., Lillie, E., Zarin, W., O’Brien, K., Colquhoun, H., Kastner, M., … Straus, S.E. (2016). A scoping review on the conduct and reporting of scoping reviews. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 16(15), 1–10.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tricco, A.C., Lillie, E., Zarin, W., O’Brien, K., Colquhoun, H., Levac, D., … Straus, S.E. (2018). PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and explanation. Annals of Internal Medicine, 169(7), 467–473. PubMed ID: 30178033 doi:10.7326/M18-0850

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trost, S.G., & van der Mars, H. (2010). Why we should not cut PE. Educational Leadership, 67(4), 60–65.

  • Venkatesh, V., Thong, J., & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: Extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 36(1), 157–178. doi:10.2307/41410412

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wayer, N., Crippen, K., & Dawson, K. (2015). Design and enactment of online components during four blended learning courses. Journal of Online Learning Research, 1(2), 291–239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Welsh, E.T., Wanberg, C.R., Brown, K.G., & Simmering, M.J. (2003). E-learning: Emerging uses, empirical results and future directions. International Journal of Training and Development, 7(4), 245–258. doi:10.1046/j.1360-3736.2003.00184.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wentling, T., Waight, C., Gallaher, J., La Fleur, J., Wang, C., & Kanfer, A. (2000). E-learning: A review of literature. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woods, M.L., Goc-Karp, G., Shimon, J.M., & Jensen, K. (2004). Using webquests to create online learning opportunities in physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 75(8), 41–56. doi:10.1080/07303084.2004.10607288

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yarbro, J., Arfstrom, K.M., McKnight, K., & McKnight, P. (2014). Extension of review of flipped learning. Retrieved from https://flippedlearning.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Extension-of-FLipped-Learning-LIt-Review-June-2014.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, X., Sun, H., Chen, A., & Ennis, C. (2012). Measurement invariance of Expectancy-Value Questionnaire in physical education. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 16(1), 41–54. doi:10.1080/1091367X.2012.639629

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 291 291 31
Full Text Views 27 27 2
PDF Downloads 16 16 2