Strength, Conditioning, and Nutritional Considerations for High-Level Performers

in Kinesiology Review
View More View Less
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $41.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $55.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $79.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $105.00

Strength, conditioning, and nutrition play an important role in preparing athletes to perform to the best of their ability. For this reason, nearly all competitive teams employ strength and conditioning specialists to prepare their athletes for competition, and most teams have sport dietitians and/or nutrition consultants as part of their performance-enhancement team. Academic and professional preparation of strength and conditioning and sport-nutrition specialists in kinesiology programs has opened up a number of career opportunities for students and scholars. In addition, advances in technology have enhanced the ability of strength and conditioning specialists and sport nutritionists to monitor athletes during training and competition. This paper provides an overview of the history, professional preparation, program components, and general principals of strength and conditioning and sport nutrition and the impact they have had on high-level performance, as well as future trends in these fields.

The author is with the Dept. of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

Address correspondence to rbkreider@tamu.edu.
  • Anzell, A.R., Potteiger, J.A., Kraemer, W.J., & Otieno, S. (2013). Changes in height, body weight, and body composition in American football players from 1942 to 2011. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27(2), 277284. PubMed ID: 23222088 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31827f4c08

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Applegate, E.A., & Grivetti, L.E. (1997). Search for the competitive edge: A history of dietary fads and supplements. Journal of Nutrition, 127(Suppl. 5), 869S873S. PubMed ID: 9164254 doi:10.1093/jn/127.5.869S

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aragon, A.A., Schoenfeld, B.J., Wildman, R., Kleiner, S., VanDusseldorp, T., Taylor, L., . . . Antonio, J. (2017). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Diets and body composition. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14(1), 16. doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0174-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balsom, P.D., Soderlund, K., & Ekblom, B. (1994). Creatine in humans with special reference to creatine supplementation. Sports Medicine, 18(4), 268280. PubMed ID: 7817065 doi:10.2165/00007256-199418040-00005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barrero, A., Erola, P., & Bescos, R. (2014). Energy balance of triathletes during an ultra-endurance event. Nutrients, 7(1), 209222. PubMed ID: 25558906 doi:10.3390/nu7010209

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergstrom, J., & Hultman, E. (1969). Glycogen content of skeletal muscle in patients with renal failure. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 186(3), 177181. PubMed ID: 5363493 doi:10.1111/j.0954-6820.1969.tb01460.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergstrom, J., Hultman, E., & Roch-Norlund, A.E. (1972). Muscle glycogen synthetase in normal subjects. Basal values, effect of glycogen depletion by exercise and of a carbohydrate-rich diet following exercise. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 29(2), 231236. PubMed ID: 5029327 doi:10.3109/00365517209081080

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brouns, F., Saris, W.H., Stroecken, J., Beckers, E., Thijssen, R., Rehrer, N.J., & ten Hoor, F. (1989a). Eating, drinking, and cycling. A controlled Tour de France simulation study, Part I. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 10(Suppl. 1), S32S40. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1024952

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brouns, F., Saris, W.H., Stroecken, J., Beckers, E., Thijssen, R., Rehrer, N.J., & ten Hoor, F. (1989b). Eating, drinking, and cycling. A controlled Tour de France simulation study, Part II. Effect of diet manipulation. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 10(Suppl. 1), S41S48. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1024953

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, T.G., & Cathcart, E.P. (1909). The effect of work on the creatine content of muscle. Biochemical Journal, 4(9), 420426. PubMed ID: 16742119 doi:10.1042/bj0040420

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buck, C.L., Wallman, K.E., Dawson, B., & Guelfi, K.J. (2013). Sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid. Sports Medicine, 43(6), 425435. PubMed ID: 23568374 doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0042-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burke, L.M. (2001). Energy needs of athletes. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 26(Suppl.), S202S219. doi:10.1139/h2001-055

  • Burke, L.M. (2007). Practical sports nutrition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Burke, L.M., & Deakin, V. (Eds.). (2015). Clinical sports nutrition (5th ed.). Australia: McGraw Hill Education.

  • Büttner, J. (2000). Justus Von Liebig and his influence on clinical chemistry. Ambix, 47(2), 96117. doi:10.1179/amb.2000.47.2.96

  • Cade, R., Spooner, G., Schlein, E., Pickering, M., & Dean, R. (1972). Effect of fluid, electrolyte, and glucose replacement during exercise on performance, body temperature, rate of sweat loss, and compositional changes of extracellular fluid. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 12(3), 150156. PubMed ID: 4669055

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., La Bounty, P., Taylor, L., Nelson, M.T., Greenwood, M., . . . Kreider, R.B. (2013). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Energy drinks. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10(1), 1. PubMed ID: 23281794 doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christensen, E.H., & Hansen, O. (1939). V. Respiratorischer Quotient und O2‐Aufnahme. Acta Physiologica, 81(1), 180189. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.1939.tb01322.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christensen, P.M., Shirai, Y., Ritz, C., & Nordsborg, N.B. (2017). Caffeine and bicarbonate for speed. A meta-analysis of legal supplements potential for improving intense endurance exercise performance. Frontiers in Physiology, 8, 240. PubMed ID: 28536531 doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00240

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clayton, N., Drake, J., Larkin, S., Linkul, R., Martino, M., Nutting, M., & Tumminello, N. (2016). Foundations of fitness programming. National Strength and Conditioning Association. Retrieved from https://www.nsca.com/education/tools-and-resources/program-design-essentials/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Costill, D.L., Bowers, R., Branam, G., & Sparks, K. (1971). Muscle glycogen utilization during prolonged exercise on successive days. Journal of Applied Physiology, 31(6), 834838. PubMed ID: 5123660 doi:10.1152/jappl.1971.31.6.834

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Costill, D.L., Coyle, E.F., Fink, W.F., Lesmes, G.R., & Witzmann, F.A. (1979). Adaptations in skeletal muscle following strength training. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory Environmental and Exercise Physiology, 46(1), 9699. doi:10.1152/jappl.1979.46.1.96

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Costill, D.L., Gollnick, P.D., Jansson, E.D., Saltin, B., & Stein, E.M. (1973). Glycogen depletion pattern in human muscle fibres during distance running. Acta Physiologica Scandinavcia, 89(3), 374383. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.1973.tb05532.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Costill, D.L., Jansson, E., Gollnick, P.D., & Saltin, B. (1974). Glycogen utilization in leg muscles of men during level and uphill running. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 91(4), 475481. PubMed ID: 4432759 doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.1974.tb05703.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cunanan, A.J., DeWeese, B.H., Wagle, J.P., Carroll, K.M., Sausaman, R., Hornsby, W.G., III, . . . Stone, M.H. (2018). The general adaptation syndrome: A foundation for the concept of periodization. Sports Medicine, 48(4), 787797. PubMed ID: 29307100 doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0855-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis, W.J., Wood, D.T., Andrews, R.G., Elkind, L.M., & Davis, W.B. (2008). Concurrent training enhances athletes’ strength, muscle endurance, and other measures. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 22(5), 14871502. PubMed ID: 18714239 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181739f08

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dijkstra, H.P., Pollock, N., Chakraverty, R., & Alonso, J.M. (2014). Managing the health of the elite athlete: A new integrated performance health management and coaching model. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(7), 523531. PubMed ID: 24620040 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-093222

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, G.H., James, L.J., Shirreffs, S.M., & Maughan, R.J. (2017). Optimizing the restoration and maintenance of fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. Journal of Applied Physiology, 122(4), 945951. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00745.2016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, J.W. (2019). Periodized resistance training for enhancing skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength: A mini-review. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, 13. PubMed ID: 30728780 doi:10.3389/fphys.2019.00013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faigenbaum, A.D., Kraemer, W.J., Blimkie, C.J., Jeffreys, I., Micheli, L.J., Nitka, M., & Rowland, T.W. (2009). Youth resistance training: Updated position statement paper from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(Suppl. 5), S60S79. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31819df407

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foster, C., Costill, D.L., Daniels, J.T., & Fink, W.J. (1978). Skeletal muscle enzyme activity, fiber composition and VO2 max in relation to distance running performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 39(2), 7380. PubMed ID: 689010 doi:10.1007/BF00421711

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fragala, M.S., Cadore, E.L., Dorgo, S., Izquierdo, M., Kraemer, W.J., Peterson, M.D., & Ryan, E.D. (2019). Resistance training for older adults: Position statement from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 33(8), 20192052. PubMed ID: 31343601 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000003230

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fry, A.C., & Newton, R.U. (2000). A brief history of strength training and basic principles and concepts. In W.J. Kraemer& K. Hakkinen (Eds.), Handbook of sports medicine and science: Strength training for sport (pp. 119). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilgien, M., Kroll, J., Sporri, J., Crivelli, P., & Muller, E. (2018). Application of dGNSS in alpine ski racing: Basis for evaluating physical demands and safety. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, 145. PubMed ID: 29559918 doi:10.3389/fphys.2018.00145

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goldstein, E.R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., . . . Antonio, J. (2010). International Society of Sports Nutrition Position stand: Caffeine and performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7(1), 5. PubMed ID: 20205813 doi:10.1186/1550-2783-7-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haff, G.G., & Tripplett, N.T. (Eds.). (2016). Essentials of strength training and conditioning (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harries, S.K., Lubans, D.R., & Callister, R. (2015). Systematic review and meta-analysis of linear and undulating periodized resistance training programs on muscular strength. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(4), 11131125. PubMed ID: 25268290 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000712

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, H.A. (1966). Nutrition and physical performance. The diet of Greek athletes. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 25(2), 8790. PubMed ID: 5330203 doi:10.1079/PNS19660020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, R.C., Hultman, E., & Nordesjo, L.O. (1974). Glycogen, glycolytic intermediates and high-energy phosphates determined in biopsy samples of musculus quadriceps femoris of man at rest. Methods and variance of values. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 33(2), 109120. PubMed ID: 4852173 doi:10.3109/00365517409082477

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heffernan, C. (2014). An early history of weightlifting. Physical Culture Study, November (basics, training). Retrieved from https://physicalculturestudy.com/2014/11/18/an-early-history-of-weightlifting/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heffernan, C. (2015). Creatine: A short history. Physical Culture Study. Retrieved from https://physicalculturestudy.com/2015/02/26/creatine-a-short-history/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heffernan, C. (2018). Dr. Mel Siff, a short history of strength and conditioning (Dolfzine, 2003). Physical Culture Study, March. Retrieved from https://physicalculturestudy.com/2018/03/16/dr-mel-siff-a-short-history-of-strength-and-conditioning-dolfzine-2003/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heydenreich, J., Kayser, B., Schutz, Y., & Melzer, K. (2017). Total energy expenditure, energy intake, and body composition in endurance athletes across the training season: A systematic review. Sports Medicine Open, 3(1), 8. PubMed ID: 28161872 doi:10.1186/s40798-017-0076-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hultman, E., & Bergstrom, J. (1967). Muscle glycogen synthesis in relation to diet studied in normal subjects. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 182(1), 109117. PubMed ID: 6028947 doi:10.1111/j.0954-6820.1967.tb11504.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jäger, R., Kerksick, C.M., Campbell, B.I., Cribb, P.J., Wells, S.D., Skwiat, T.M., . . . Antonio, J. (2017). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Protein and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14(1), 20. doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0177-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Juzwiak, C.R. (2016). Reflection on sports nutrition: Where we come from, where we are, and where we are headed. Annual Review of Nutrition [online], 29(3), 435444. doi:10.1590/1678-98652016000300013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kerksick, C., Harvey, T., Stout, J., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., Kreider, R., . . . Landis, J. (2008). International Society Of Sports Nutrition position stand: Nutrient timing. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 5, 17. PubMed ID: 18834505 doi:10.1186/1550-2783-5-17

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kerksick, C.M., Wilborn, C.D., Campbell, B.I., Roberts, M.D., Rasmussen, C.J., Greenwood, M., & Kreider, R.B. (2009). Early-phase adaptations to a split-body, linear periodization resistance training program in college-aged and middle-aged men. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(3), 962971. PubMed ID: 19387379 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a00baf

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kerksick, C.M., Wilborn, C.D., Roberts, M.D., Smith-Ryan, A., Kleiner, S.M., Jager, R., . . . Kreider, R.B. (2018). ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: Research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15(1), 38. PubMed ID: 30068354 doi:10.1186/s12970-018-0242-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kraemer, W.J., Adams, K., Cafarelli, E., Dudley, G.A., Dooly, C., Feigenbaum, M.S., . . . American College of Sports Medicine. (2002). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(2), 364380. PubMed ID: 11828249 doi:10.1097/00005768-200202000-00027

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kraemer, W.J., Hakkinen, K., Triplett-Mcbride, N.T., Fry, A.C., Koziris, L.P., Ratamess, N.A., . . . Knuttgen, H.G. (2003). Physiological changes with periodized resistance training in women tennis players. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35(1), 157168. PubMed ID: 12544650 doi:10.1097/00005768-200301000-00024

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kreider, R.B. (2019). Essentials of exercise and sport nutrition: Science to practice. Raleigh, NC: Lulu.

  • Kreider, R.B., Almada, A.L., Antonio, J., Broeder, C., Earnest, C., Greenwood, M., . . . Ziegenfuss, T.N. (2004). ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: Research & recommendations. Sports Nutrition Review Journal, 1(1), 144. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-1-1-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kreider, R.B., Kalman, D.S., Antonio, J., Ziegenfuss, T.N., Wildman, R., Collins, R., . . . Lopez, H.L. (2017). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14, 18. PubMed ID: 28615996 doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0173-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kreider, R.B., Wilborn, C.D., Taylor, L., Campbell, B., Almada, A.L., Collins, R., . . . Antonio, J. (2010). ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: Research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7, 7. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-7-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krogh, A., & Lindhard, J. (1920). The relative value of fat and carbohydrate as sources of muscular energy: With appendices on the correlation between standard metabolism and the respiratory quotient during rest and work. Biochemical Journal, 14(3–4), 290363. PubMed ID: 16742941 doi:10.1042/bj0140290

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • La Bounty, P.M., Campbell, B.I., Wilson, J., Galvan, E., Berardi, J., Kleiner, S.M., . . . Antonio, J. (2011). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Meal frequency. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 8, 4. PubMed ID: 21410984 doi:10.1186/1550-2783-8-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lloyd, R.S., Cronin, J.B., Faigenbaum, A.D., Haff, G.G., Howard, R., Kraemer, W.J., . . . Oliver, J.L. (2016). National Strength and Conditioning Association position statement on long-term athletic development. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 30(6), 14911509. PubMed ID: 26933920 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001387

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Macadam, P., Simperingham, K.D., Cronin, J.B., Couture, G., & Evison, C. (2017). Acute kinematic and kinetic adaptations to wearable resistance during vertical jumping. European Journal of Sport Science, 17(5), 555562. PubMed ID: 28316257 doi:10.1080/17461391.2017.1298672

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mata, F., Valenzuela, P.L., Gimenez, J., Tur, C., Ferreria, D., Dominguez, R., . . . Martinez Sanz, J.M. (2019). Carbohydrate availability and physical performance: Physiological overview and practical recommendations. Nutrients, 11(5), 1084. doi:10.3390/nu11051084

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orange, S.T., Metcalfe, J.W., Liefeith, A., Marshall, P., Madden, L.A., Fewster, C.R., & Vince, R.V. (2019). Validity and reliability of a wearable inertial sensor to measure velocity and power in the back squat and bench press. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 33(9), 23982408. PubMed ID: 29742745 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002574

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paton, D.N., & Mackie, W.C. (1912). The liver in relation to creatine metabolism in the bird. Journal of Physiology, 45(1–2), 115118. PubMed ID: 16993178 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1912.sp001540

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sands, W.A., Wurth, J.J., & Hewit, J.K. (2012). Basics of strength and conditioning manual. National Strength and Conditioning Association. Retrieved from https://www.nsca.com/education/tools-and-resources/basics-of-strength-and-conditioning-manual/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Selye, H. (1951). The general-adaptation-syndrome. Annual Review of Medicine, 2, 327342. PubMed ID: 14847556 doi:10.1146/annurev.me.02.020151.001551

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Selye, H. (1976). Forty years of stress research: Principal remaining problems and misconceptions. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 115(1), 5356. PubMed ID: 1277062

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shurley, J.P., & Todd, J.S. (2012). “The strength of Nebraska”: Boyd Epley, Husker Power, and the formation of the strength coaching profession. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(12), 31773188. PubMed ID: 22027859 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823c4690

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, J., & Smolianov, P. (2016). The high performance management model: From Olympic and professional to university sport in the United States. Sports Journal, 21(February), 112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, R.A., Martin, G.J., Szivak, T.K., Comstock, B.A., Dunn-Lewis, C., Hooper, D.R., . . . Kraemer, W.J. (2014). The effects of resistance training prioritization in NCAA Division I football summer training. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(1), 1422. PubMed ID: 23698079 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182977e56

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, D.T., Erdman, K.A., & Burke, L.M. (2016). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(3), 501528. PubMed ID: 26920240 doi:10.1016/j.jand.2015.12.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, W.H., Wallace, T.A., & Clotworthy, H.R. (1913). Observations on the use of the Folin method for the estimation of creatine and creatinine. Biochemical Journal, 7(5), 445465. PubMed ID: 16742265 doi:10.1042/bj0070445

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trexler, E.T., Smith-Ryan, A.E., Stout, J.R., Hoffman, J.R., Wilborn, C.D., Sale, C., . . . Antonio, J. (2015). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Beta-alanine. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12, 30. PubMed ID: 26175657 doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0090-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vantarakis, A., Chatzinikolaou, A., Avloniti, A., Vezos, N., Douroudos, II, Draganidis, D., . . . Fatouros, I.G. (2017). A 2-month linear periodized resistance exercise training: Improved musculoskeletal fitness and specific conditioning of Navy cadets. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 31(5), 13621370. PubMed ID: 27548791 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001599

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, M.H. (1976). Nutritional aspects of human physical and athletic performance. Springfield, IL: Thomas.

  • Williams, M.H. (1989). Vitamin supplementation and athletic performance. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research Supplement, 30, 163191.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, J.M., Fitschen, P.J., Campbell, B., Wilson, G.J., Zanchi, N., Taylor, L., . . . Antonio, J. (2013). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10(1), 6. PubMed ID: 23374455 doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 668 668 15
Full Text Views 14 14 4
PDF Downloads 6 6 0