Recent Advances in Prevention of Primary and Secondary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: What Does the Future Hold for Optimizing Knee-Joint Function?

in Kinesiology Review
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $41.00

1 year subscription

USD  $54.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $77.00

2 year subscription

USD  $101.00

Despite considerable advances in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury-risk identification and prevention over the past 20 years, the annual incidence of ACL injury has continued to rise, and females remain at greater risk of both primary and secondary ACL injury. Important questions remain regarding ancillary risk factors we should target, the most effective training and rehabilitation approaches to ensure retention and transfer of learned skills from the rehabilitation setting to real-world sporting environment, and the development of more evidence-based criteria for return to sport that consider the whole athlete. As we look to the future, the optimization of primary and secondary ACL-injury prevention represents a complex, multidisciplinary problem with many unique and exciting opportunities to engage the various subdisciplines of kinesiology to address these emerging questions.

The authors are with the Applied Neuromechanics Research Laboratory, Dept. of Kinesiology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC.

Shultz (sjshultz@uncg.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Agel, J., Rockwood, T., & Klossner, D. (2016). Collegiate ACL injury rates across 15 sports: National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance system data update (2004–2005 through 2012–2013). Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 26(6), 518523. doi:10.1097/JSM.0000000000000290

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ahlden, M., Samuelsson, K., Sernert, N., Forssblad, M., Karlsson, J., & Kartus, J. (2012). The Swedish national anterior cruciate ligament register: A report on baseline variables and outcomes of surgery for almost 18,000 patients. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(10), 22302235. PubMed ID: 22962296 doi:10.1177/0363546512457348

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ahmad, C.S., Clark, A.M., Heilmann, N., Schoeb, J.S., Gardner, T.R., & Levine, W.N. (2006). Effect of gender and maturity on quadriceps-to-hamstring strength ratio and anterior cruciate ligament laxity. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 34(3), 370374. PubMed ID: 16210574 doi:10.1177/0363546505280426

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, A.F., Dome, D.C., Gautam, S., Awh, M.H., & Rennirt, G.W. (2001). Correlation of anthropometric measurements, strength, anterior cruciate ligament size, and intercondylar notch characteristics to sex differences in anterior cruciate ligament tear rates. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(1), 5866. PubMed ID: 11206258 doi:10.1177/03635465010290011501

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, M.J., Browning, W.M., 3rd, Urband, C.E., Kluczynski, M.A., & Bisson, L.J. (2016). A systematic summary of systematic reviews on the topic of the anterior cruciate ligament. Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 4(3), 2325967116634074. doi:10.1177/2325967116634074

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andriacchi, T.P., & Mundermann, A. (2006). The role of ambulatory mechanics in the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Current Opinion Rheumatol, 18(5), 514518. doi:10.1097/01.bor.0000240365.16842.4e

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Antosh, I.J., Svoboda, S.J., Peck, K.Y., Garcia, E.J., & Cameron, K.L. (2018). Change in KOOS and WOMAC scores in a young athletic population with and without anterior cruciate ligament injury. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(7), 16061616. PubMed ID: 29733680 doi:10.1177/0363546518768753

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ardern, C.L., Taylor, N.F., Feller, J.A., & Webster, K.E. (2014). Fifty-five per cent return to competitive sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis including aspects of physical functioning and contextual factors. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(21), 15431552. PubMed ID: 25157180 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-093398

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beck, N.A., Lawrence, J.T.R., Nordin, J.D., DeFor, T.A., & Tompkins, M. (2017). ACL tears in school-aged children and adolescents over 20 years. Pediatrics, 139(3), pii: e20161877. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-1877

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benjaminse, A., Gokeler, A., Dowling, A.V., Faigenbaum, A., Ford, K.R., Hewett, T.E., . . . Myer, G.D. (2015). Optimization of the anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention paradigm: Novel feedback techniques to enhance motor learning and reduce injury risk. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 45(3), 170182. PubMed ID: 25627151 doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.4986

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bonnette, S., DiCesare, C.A., Diekfuss, J.A., Grooms, D.R., MacPherson, R.P., Riley, M.A., & Myer, G.D. (2019). Advancing anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention using real-time biofeedback for amplified sensorimotor integration. Journal of Athletic Training, 54(9), 985986. PubMed ID: 31437016 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-54.083

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brooks, M.A., Peterson, K., Biese, K., Sanfilippo, J., Heiderscheit, B.C., & Bell, D.R. (2016). Concussion increases odds of sustaining a lower extremity musculoskeletal injury after return to play among collegiate athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(3), 742747. PubMed ID: 26786903 doi:10.1177/0363546515622387

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carlson, V.R., Sheehan, F.T., & Boden, B.P. (2016). Video analysis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries: A systematic review. JBJS Reviews, 4(11), 1. doi:10.2106/JBJS.RVW.15.00116

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Culvenor, A.G., Boeth, H., Diederichs, G., Wirth, W., Duda, G., & Eckstein, F. (2016). Longitudinal bone, muscle and adipose tissue changes in physically active subjects—Sex differences during adolescence and maturity. Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions, 16(3), 237246. PubMed ID: 27609038

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DiCesare, C.A., Kiefer, A.W., Bonnette, S., & Myer, G.D. (2019). High-risk lower-extremity biomechanics evaluated in simulated soccer-specific virtual environments. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. Advance online publication. doi:10.1123/jsr.2018-0237

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diekfuss, J.A., Grooms, D.R., Foss, K.B., Bonnette, S., Dicesare, C., Dudley, J.A., . . . Myer, G.D. (2019). Real-time biofeedback integrated into neuromuscular training increases brain functional connectivity and reduces high-risk knee biomechanics. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 7(Suppl. 3), 2325967119S00022. doi:10.1177/2325967119S00022

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diekfuss, J.A., Grooms, D.R., Nissen, K.S., Schneider, D.K., Foss, K.D.B., Thomas, S., . . . Myer, G.D. (2019). Alterations in knee sensorimotor brain functional connectivity contributes to ACL injury in male high-school football players: A prospective neuroimaging analysis. Brazil Journal of Physical Therapy. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/j.bjpt.2019.07.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diekfuss, J.A., Grooms, D.R., Yuan, W., Dudley, J., Barber Foss, K.D., Thomas, S., . . . Myer, G.D. (2019). Does brain functional connectivity contribute to musculoskeletal injury? A preliminary prospective analysis of a neural biomarker of ACL injury risk. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22(2), 169174. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2018.07.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dodwell, E.R., Lamont, L.E., Green, D.W., Pan, T.J., Marx, R.G., & Lyman, S. (2014). 20 years of pediatric anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in New York State. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(3), 675680. PubMed ID: 24477820 doi:10.1177/0363546513518412

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eliakim, A., Scheett, T., Allmendinger, N., Brasel, J.A., & Cooper, D.M. (2001). Training, muscle volume, and energy expenditure in nonobese American girls. Journal of Applied Physiology (1985), 90(1), 3544. doi:10.1152/jappl.2001.90.1.35

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Falciglia, F., Guzzanti, V., Di Ciommo, V., & Poggiaroni, A. (2009). Physiological knee laxity during pubertal growth. Bulletin of the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, 67(4), 325329. PubMed ID: 20001932

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farr, J.N., Laddu, D.R., & Going, S.B. (2014). Exercise, hormones and skeletal adaptations during childhood and adolescence. Pediatric Exercise Science, 26(4), 384391. PubMed ID: 25372373 doi:10.1123/pes.2014-0077

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ford, K.R., Shapiro, R., Myer, G.D., Van Den Bogert, A.J., & Hewett, T.E. (2010). Longitudinal sex differences during landing in knee abduction in young athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(10), 19231931. PubMed ID: 20305577 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181dc99b1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gokeler, A., Benjaminse, A., Hewett, T.E., Paterno, M.V., Ford, K.R., Otten, E., & Myer, G.D. (2013). Feedback techniques to target functional deficits following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Implications for motor control and reduction of second injury risk. Sports Medicine, 43(11), 10651074. PubMed ID: 24062274 doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0095-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gokeler, A., Benjaminse, A., Welling, W., Alferink, M., Eppinga, P., & Otten, B. (2015). The effects of attentional focus on jump performance and knee joint kinematics in patients after ACL reconstruction. Physical Therapy of Sport, 16(2), 114120. doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2014.06.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grindstaff, T.L., Hammill, R.R., Tuzson, A.E., & Hertel, J. (2006). Neuromuscular control training programs and noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury rates in female athletes: A numbers-needed-to-treat analysis. Journal of Athletic Training, 41(4), 450456. PubMed ID: 17273472

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grood, E.S., Walz-Hasselfeld, K.A., Holden, J.P., Noyes, F.R., Levy, M.S., Butler, D.L., . . . Drez, D.J. (1992). The correlation between anterior–posterior translation and cross-sectional area of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 10(6), 878885. PubMed ID: 1403302 doi:10.1002/jor.1100100617

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grooms, D., Appelbaum, G., & Onate, J. (2015). Neuroplasticity following anterior cruciate ligament injury: A framework for visual-motor training approaches in rehabilitation. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 45(5), 381393. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5549

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grooms, D.R., Chaudhari, A., Page, S.J., Nichols-Larsen, D.S., & Onate, J.A. (2018). Visual-motor control of drop landing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Journal of Athletic Training, 53(5), 486496. PubMed ID: 29749751 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-178-16

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grooms, D.R., & Myer, G.D. (2017). Upgraded hardware—What about the software? Brain updates for return to play following ACL reconstruction. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(5), 418419. PubMed ID: 27797732 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096658

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grooms, D.R., Page, S.J., Nichols-Larsen, D.S., Chaudhari, A.M., White, S.E., & Onate, J.A. (2017). Neuroplasticity associated with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 47(3), 180189. PubMed ID: 27817301 doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grooms, D.R., Page, S.J., & Onate, J.A. (2015). Brain activation for knee movement measured days before second anterior cruciate ligament injury: Neuroimaging in musculoskeletal medicine. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(10), 10051010. PubMed ID: 26509775 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-50.10.02

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hashemi, J., Mansouri, H., Chandrashekar, N., Slauterbeck, J.R., Hardy, D.M., & Beynnon, B.D. (2011). Age, sex, body anthropometry, and ACL size predict the structural properties of the human anterior cruciate ligament. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 29(7), 9931001. PubMed ID: 21246609 doi:10.1002/jor.21245

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johansson, H., Sjolander, P., & Sojka, P. (1991). A sensory role for the cruciate ligaments. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 1(268), 161178. PubMed ID: 2060205

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, L., Burridge, J.H., & Demain, S.H. (2013). Internal and external focus of attention during gait re-education: An observational study of physical therapist practice in stroke rehabilitation. Physical Therapy, 93(7), 957966. PubMed ID: 23559523 doi:10.2522/ptj.20120300

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kapreli, E., Athanasopoulos, S., Gliatis, J., Papathanasiou, M., Peeters, R., Strimpakos, N., . . . Sunaert, S. (2009). Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency causes brain plasticity: A functional MRI study. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(12), 24192426. PubMed ID: 19940314 doi:10.1177/0363546509343201

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, K., Hong, S., & Kim, E.Y. (2016). Reference values of skeletal muscle mass for Korean children and adolescents using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2011. PLoS ONE, 11(4), e0153383. PubMed ID: 27073844 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153383

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, K.M., Kim, J.S., & Grooms, D.R. (2017). Stroboscopic vision to induce sensory reweighting during postural control. Online-only technical report. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 26(5). doi:10.1123/jsr.2017-0035

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luc, B., Gribble, P.A., & Pietrosimone, B.G. (2014). Osteoarthritis prevalence following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A systematic review and numbers-needed-to-treat analysis. Journal of Athletic Training, 49(6), 806819. PubMed ID: 25232663 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.35

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matkovic, V., Jelic, T., Wardlaw, G.M., Ilich, J.Z., Goel, P.K., Wright, J.K., . . . Heaney, R.P. (1994). Timing of peak bone mass in Caucasian females and its implication for the prevention of osteoporosis. Inference from a cross-sectional model. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 93(2), 799808. PubMed ID: 8113412 doi:10.1172/JCI117034

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCarthy, M., Mallett, K., Abola, M., Vassallo, S., & Nguyen, J. (2017). Hospital for special surgery ACL registry: 2-year outcomes suggest low revision and return to OR rates. HSS Journal, 13(2), 119127. PubMed ID: 28690461 doi:10.1007/s11420-016-9532-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPherson, A.L., Feller, J.A., Hewett, T.E., & Webster, K.E. (2019). Psychological readiness to return to sport is associated with second anterior cruciate ligament injuries. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(4), 857862. PubMed ID: 30753794 doi:10.1177/0363546518825258

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mersmann, F., Bohm, S., Schroll, A., Boeth, H., Duda, G.N., & Arampatzis, A. (2017). Muscle and tendon adaptation in adolescent athletes: A longitudinal study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 27(1), 7582. PubMed ID: 26644277 doi:10.1111/sms.12631

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nwachukwu, B.U., Adjei, J., Rauck, R.C., Chahla, J., Okoroha, K.R., Verma, N.N., . . . Williams, R.J., 3rd. (2019). How much do psychological factors affect lack of return to play after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? A systematic review. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 7(5), 2325967119845313. doi:10.1177/2325967119845313

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Palmieri-Smith, R.M., & Thomas, A.C. (2009). A neuromuscular mechanism of posttraumatic osteoarthritis associated with ACL injury. Exercise Sport Science Review, 37(3), 147153. doi:10.1097/JES.0b013e3181aa6669

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paterno, M.V. (2015). Incidence and predictors of second anterior cruciate ligament injury after primary reconstruction and return to sport. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(10), 10971099. PubMed ID: 26509777 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-50.10.07

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paterno, M.V., Flynn, K., Thomas, S., & Schmitt, L.C. (2018). Self-reported fear predicts functional performance and second ACL injury after ACL reconstruction and return to sport: A pilot study. Sports Health, 10(3), 228233. PubMed ID: 29272209 doi:10.1177/1941738117745806

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petushek, E.J., Sugimoto, D., Stoolmiller, M., Smith, G., & Myer, G.D. (2019). Evidence-based best-practice guidelines for preventing anterior cruciate ligament injuries in young female athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(7), 17441753. PubMed ID: 30001501 doi:10.1177/0363546518782460

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raisbeck, L.D., & Diekfuss, J.A. (2015). Fine and gross motor skills: The effects on skill-focused dual-tasks. Human Movement Science, 43, 146154. PubMed ID: 26296039 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2015.08.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sadoghi, P., von Keudell, A., & Vavken, P. (2012). Effectiveness of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention training programs. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 94(9), 769776. PubMed ID: 22456856 doi:10.2106/JBJS.K.00467

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schilaty, N.D., Bates, N.A., Sanders, T.L., Krych, A.J., Stuart, M.J., & Hewett, T.E. (2017). Incidence of second anterior cruciate ligament tears (1990–2000) and associated factors in a specific geographic locale. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(7), 15671573. PubMed ID: 28298067 doi:10.1177/0363546517694026

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmitz, R.J., Shultz, S.J., & Nguyen, A.D. (2009). Dynamic valgus alignment and functional strength in males and females during maturation. Journal of Athletic Training, 44(1), 2632. PubMed ID: 19180215 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-44.1.26

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seshadri, D.R., Li, R.T., Voos, J.E., Rowbottom, J.R., Alfes, C.M., Zorman, C.A., & Drummond, C.K. (2019). Wearable sensors for monitoring the internal and external workload of the athlete. NPJ Digital Medicine, 2, 71. PubMed ID: 31372506 doi:10.1038/s41746-019-0149-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shimokochi, Y., & Shultz, S.J. (2008). Mechanisms of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Journal of Athletic Training, 43(4), 396408. PubMed ID: 18668173 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-43.4.396

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shultz, S.J., Nguyen, A., & Schmitz, R.J. (2008). Differences in lower extremity anatomical and postural characteristics in males and females between maturation groups. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 38(3), 137149. PubMed ID: 18383647 doi:10.2519/jospt.2008.2645

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shultz, S.J., Schmitz, R.J., Benjaminse, A., Collins, M., Ford, K., & Kulas, A.S. (2015). ACL research retreat VII: An update on anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factor identification, screening, and prevention. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(10), 10761093. PubMed ID: 26340613 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-50.10.06

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shultz, S.J., Schmitz, R.J., Cameron, K.L., Ford, K.R., Grooms, D.R., Lepley, L.K., . . . Pietrosimone, B. (2019). Anterior cruciate ligament research retreat VIII summary statement: An update on injury risk identification and prevention across the anterior cruciate ligament injury continuum. March 14–16th, 2019. Journal of Athletic Training, 54(9), 970984. PubMed ID: 31461312 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-54.084

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Snaebjornsson, T., Hamrin Senorski, E., Sundemo, D., Svantesson, E., Westin, O., Musahl, V., . . . Samuelsson, K. (2017). Adolescents and female patients are at increased risk for contralateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A cohort study from the Swedish National Knee Ligament Register based on 17,682 patients. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 25, 39383944. PubMed ID: 28299389 doi:10.1007/s00167-017-4517-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stevenson, J.H., Beattie, C.S., Schwartz, J.B., & Busconi, B.D. (2015). Assessing the effectiveness of neuromuscular training programs in reducing the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: A systematic review. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(2), 482490. PubMed ID: 24569703 doi:10.1177/0363546514523388

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stracciolini, A., Stein, C.J., Zurakowski, D., Meehan, W.P., 3rd, Myer, G.D., & Micheli, L.J. (2015). Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in pediatric athletes presenting to sports medicine clinic: A comparison of males and females through growth and development. Sports Health, 7(2), 130136. PubMed ID: 25984258 doi:10.1177/1941738114554768

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sugimoto, D., Myer, G.D., McKeon, J.M., & Hewett, T.E. (2012). Evaluation of the effectiveness of neuromuscular training to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: A critical review of relative risk reduction and numbers-needed-to-treat analyses. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(14), 979988. PubMed ID: 22745221 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090895

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swanik, C.B., Covassin, T., Stearne, D.J., & Schatz, P. (2007). The relationship between neurocognitive function and noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(6), 943948. PubMed ID: 17369562 doi:10.1177/0363546507299532

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, J.B., Owen, E., Nguyen, A.D., & Ford, K.R. (2019). Integrating external load measurements into ACL rehabilitation: A case study [abstract]. Journal of Athletic Training, 54(9). doi:10.4085/1062-6050-54.081

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, J.B., Waxman, J.P., Richter, S.J., & Shultz, S.J. (2015). Evaluation of the effectiveness of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programme training components: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(2), 7987. PubMed ID: 23922282 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092358

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tuca, M., Hayter, C., Potter, H., Marx, R., & Green, D.W. (2016). Anterior cruciate ligament and intercondylar notch growth plateaus prior to cessation of longitudinal growth: An MRI observational study. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 24(3), 780787. PubMed ID: 26860103 doi:10.1007/s00167-016-4021-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uhorchak, J.M., Scoville, C.R., Williams, G.N., Arciero, R.A., St Pierre, P., & Taylor, D.C. (2003). Risk factors associated with noncontact injury of the anterior cruciate ligament: A prospective four-year evaluation of 859 West Point cadets. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(6), 831842. PubMed ID: 14623646 doi:10.1177/03635465030310061801

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vacek, P.M., Slauterbeck, J.R., Tourville, T.W., Sturnick, D.R., Holterman, L.A., Smith, H.C., . . . Beynnon, B.D. (2016). Multivariate analysis of the risk factors for first-time non-contact ACL injury in high school college athletes; A prospective cohort study with a nested, matched case-control analysis. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(6), 14921501. PubMed ID: 27217522 doi:10.1177/0363546516634682

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, H.M., Shultz, S.J., & Schmitz, R.J. (2016). Association of anterior cruciate ligament width with anterior knee laxity. Journal of Athletic Training, 51(6), 460465. PubMed ID: 27356008 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-51.7.07

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waugh, C.M., Blazevich, A.J., Fath, F., & Korff, T. (2012). Age-related changes in mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon. Journal of Anatomy, 220(2), 144155. PubMed ID: 22150089 doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2011.01461.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, K.E., Feller, J.A., & Lambros, C. (2008). Development and preliminary validation of a scale to measure the psychological impact of returning to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. Physical Therapy in Sports, 9(1), 915. doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2007.09.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wild, C.Y., Steele, J.R., & Munro, B.J. (2013). Musculoskeletal and estrogen changes during the adolescent growth spurt in girls. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(1), 138145. PubMed ID: 22843105 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31826a507e

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wulf, G. (2013). Attentional focus and motor learning: A review of 15 years. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6(1), 77104. doi:10.1080/1750984X.2012.723728

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoo, J.H., Lim, B.O., Ha, M., Lee, S.W., Oh, S.J., Lee, Y.S., & Kim, J.G. (2010). A meta-analysis of the effect of neuromuscular training on the prevention of the anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 18(6), 824830. PubMed ID: 19760399 doi:10.1007/s00167-009-0901-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 83 83 26
Full Text Views 4 4 0
PDF Downloads 4 4 0