The Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program Model: A Proposed Illustrative Supplement to Help Move the Needle on Youth Physical Activity

in Kinesiology Review
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $42.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $56.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $80.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $107.00

Birthed over a decade ago and built on a solid foundation of conceptual and empirical work in public health, the comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) model set the stage for a new and exciting chapter of physical activity promotion through schools. On the academic front, there has been much enthusiasm around the potential of CSPAPs to positively affect youth physical activity behaviors and trajectories. However, program uptake in schools has yet to take hold. This article examines the CSPAP model and proposes an illustrative supplement to enhance communication about its application. The authors begin by charting the model’s challenging contextual landscape and then highlight the model’s early successes in spite of such challenges. Subsequently, they turn their attention to limitations in the way the model is presented, which appear to undermine CSPAP advocacy, and focus on improving the messaging about CSPAPs as an immediate step toward increased implementation.

Webster, Rink, and Moon are with the Dept. of Physical Education, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Carson is with PlayCore, Chattanooga, TN. Gaudreault is with the Dept. of Health, Exercise, and Sport Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.

Webster (WebsterC@mailbox.sc.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Allensworth, D.D., & Kolbe, L.J. (1987). The Comprehensive School Health Program: Exploring an expanded concept. Journal of School Health, 57, 409412. PubMed ID: 3441129 doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.1987.tb03183.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. (2011). Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) survey report. Reston, VA: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beighle, A., Erwin, H.E., Castelli, D., & Ernst, M. (2009). Preparing physical educators for the role of physical activity director. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 80(4), 2429. doi:10.1080/07303084.2009.10598307

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brener, N.D., Demissie, Z., McManus, T., Shanklin, S.L., Queen, B., & Kann, L. (2017). School health profiles 2016: Characteristics of health programs among secondary schools. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/profiles/pdf/2016/2016_Profiles_Report.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carson, R.L., Castelli, D.M., Beighle, A., & Erwin, H. (2014). School-based physical activity promotion: A conceptual framework for research and practice. Childhood Obesity, 10(2), 100106. PubMed ID: 24655311 doi:10.1089/chi.2013.0134

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carson, R.L., Castelli, D.M., & Kulinna, P.H. (2017). CSPAP professional preparation: Takeaways from pioneering physical education teacher education programs. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 88(2), 4351. doi:10.1080/07303084.2017.1260986

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carson, R.L., & Webster, C.A. (Eds.). (2019). Comprehensive school physical activity programs: Putting evidence-based research into practice. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Castelli, D.M., Carson, R.L., & Kulinna, P.H. (2014, July). Comprehensive school physical activity programs [special issue]. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33(3).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Comprehensive school physical activity programs: A guide for schools. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/physicalactivity/pdf/13_242620-A_CSPAP_SchoolPhysActivityPrograms_Final_508_12192013.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). National framework for physical activity and physical education. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/physicalactivity/pdf/National_Framework_Physical_Activity_and_Physical_Education_Resources_Support_CSPAP_508_tagged.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Increasing physical education and physical activity: A framework for schools. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/physicalactivity/pdf/17_278143-A_PE-PA-Framework_508.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, S., & Gu, X. (2018). Toward active living: Comprehensive school physical activity research and implications. Quest, 70(2), 191212. doi:10.1080/00336297.2017.1365002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004. (2004). Publication L. No. 108-265. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dauenhauer, B., Keating, X., Stoepker, P., & Knipe, R. (2019). State physical education policy changes from 2001 to 2016. Journal of School Health, 89, 485493. PubMed ID: 30919961 doi:10.1111/josh.12757

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doolittle, S.A., & Rukavina, P.B. (2014). Case study of an institutionalized urban comprehensive school physical activity program. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33(4), 528557. doi:10.1123/jtpe.2014-0073

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Erwin, H., Beighle, A., Carson, R.L., & Castelli, D.M., (2013). Comprehensive school-based physical activity promotion. Quest, 65(4), 412428. doi:10.1080/00336297.2013.791872

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hastie, P.A. (2017). Revisiting the national physical education content standards: What do we really know about our achievement of the physically educated/literate person? Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 36(1), 319. doi:10.1123/jtpe.2016-0182

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunt, K., & Metzler, M. (2017). Adoption of comprehensive school physical activity programs: A literature review. Physical Educator, 74(2), 315340. doi:10.18666/TPE-2017-V74-I2-7167

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Institute of Medicine. (2013). Educating the student body: Taking physical activity and physical education to school. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kulinna, P.H., Carson, R.L., & Castelli, D.M. (2017). Integrating CSPAP in PETE programs: Sharing insight and identifying strategies [special issue–Parts 1 & 2]. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 88(1&2).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mcleroy, K.R., Bibeau, D., Steckler, A., & Glanz, K. (1988). An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Education Quarterly, 15, 351377. PubMed ID: 3068205 doi:10.1177/109019818801500401

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (2008). Comprehensive school physical activity programs [position statement]. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED541610

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Physical Activity Plan Alliance. (2012). U.S. national physical activity plan. Retrieved from http://physicalactivityplan.org/docs/2016NPAP_Finalforwebsite.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Physical Activity Plan Alliance. (2016). U.S. national physical activity plan. Retrieved from http://physicalactivityplan.org/docs/2016NPAP_Finalforwebsite.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Physical Activity Plan Alliance. (2018). The 2018 United States report card on physical activity for children and youth. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www.physicalactivityplan.org/projects/PA/2018/2018_USReportCard_UPDATE_12062018.pdf?pdf=page-link

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newell, K.M. (1990). Kinesiology: The label for the study of physical activity in higher education. Quest, 42(3), 269278.

  • Pate, R.R., Davis, M.G., Robinson, T.N., Stone, E.J., McKenzie, T.L., & Young, J.C. (2006). Promoting physical activity in children and youth: A leadership role for schools: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Physical Activity Committee) in collaboration with the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young and Cardiovascular Nursing. Circulation, 114(11), 12141224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasberry, C.N., Lee, S.M., Robin, L., Laris, B.A., Russell, L.A., Coyle, K.K., & Nihiser, A.J. (2011). The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: A systematic review of the literature. Preventive Medicine, 52, S10S20. PubMed ID: 21291905 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.01.027

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rink, J. (2012). Implementing comprehensive school physical activity programs: The role of directors of physical activity [special issue]. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 83(6).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rink, J., Hall, T., & Williams, L. (2010). Schoolwide physical activity: A comprehensive guide to designing and conducting programs. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Russ, L.B., Webster, C.A., Beets, M.W., & Phillips, D.S. (2015). Systematic review and meta-analysis of multi-component interventions through schools to increase physical activity. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 12(10), 14361446. PubMed ID: 25599111 doi:10.1123/jpah.2014-0244

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sallis, J.F., & McKenzie, T.L. (1991). Physical education’s role in public health. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62, 124137. PubMed ID: 1925034 doi:10.1080/02701367.1991.10608701

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sallis, J.F., McKenzie, T.L., Beets, M.W., Beighle, A., Erwin, H., & Lee, S. (2012). Physical education’s role in public health: Steps forward and backward over 20 years and HOPE for the future. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83(2), 125135. PubMed ID: 22808697

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Society of Health and Physical Educators America. (2014). National standards and grade level outcomes for K–12 physical education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Society of Health and Physical Educators America. (2015). Comprehensive school physical activity programs: Helping all students achieve 60 minutes of physical activity each day [position statement]. Retrieved from https://www.shapeamerica.org//advocacy/positionstatements/pa/upload/Comprehensive-School-Physical-Activity-Programs-Helping-All-Students-Log-60-Minutes-of-Physical-Activity-Eeach-Day.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Society of Health and Physical Educators America. (2016). 2016 shape of the nation: Status of physical education in the USA. Reston, VA: Author. Retrieved from https://www.shapeamerica.org/advocacy/son/2016/upload/Shape-of-the-Nation-2016_web.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Society of Health and Physical Educators America. (2017). National standards for initial physical education teacher education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watson, A., Timperio, A., Best, K., & Hesketh, K.D. (2017). Effect of classroom-based physical activity interventions on academic and physical activity outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 114137. PubMed ID: 28841890 doi:10.1186/s12966-017-0569-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, C.A., Beets, M.W., Weaver, R.G., Vazou, S., & Russ, L. (2015). Rethinking recommendations for implementing comprehensive school physical activity programs: A partnership model. Quest, 67(2), 185202. doi:10.1080/00336297.2015.1017588

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, C.A., Mindrila, D., Moore, C., Stewart, G., Orendorff, K., & Taunton, S. (2019). Measuring and comparing physical education teachers’ perceived attributes of CSPAPs: An innovation adoption perspective. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 39(1), 7890. doi:10.1123/jtpe.2018-0328

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1134 935 94
Full Text Views 34 24 3
PDF Downloads 20 15 3