The Shared Criticisms of Periodization Models and Behavior-Change Theories for Exercise: An Opportunity for Collaborative Advancement?

in Kinesiology Review
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $41.00

1 year subscription

USD  $54.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $77.00

2 year subscription

USD  $101.00

Engaging in regular exercise is a common strategy to meet physical activity guidelines. It is generally accepted that exercise programs and interventions that are theory driven and provide clear exercise prescriptions elicit greater improvements than ones that are and do not. Several researchers have further surmised that the application of periodization may be useful for insufficiently active and at-risk populations. Although periodization is most commonly used to elicit peak performance in athletes, the goal of manipulating human movement to elicit favorable health and fitness adaptations is shared by interventionists applying behavior-change theories. However, the commonly applied theories and concept of periodization have received criticisms alluding to their potential obsolescence. The purpose of this review was to synthesize these criticisms and present current opinions in intervention development, with the goal of promoting cross talk and collaboration between experts in both disciplines to address potential shortcomings and stimulate innovation in exercise-program design.

The authors are with the Dept. of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, TN.

Strohacker (kstrohac@utk.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Afonso, J., Nikolaidis, P.T., Sousa, P., & Mesquita, I. (2017). Is empirical research on periodization trustworthy? A comprehensive review of conceptual and methodological issues. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 16(1), 2734. PubMed ID: 28344448

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Afonso, J., Rocha, T., Nikolaidis, P.T., Clemente, F.M., Rosemann, T., & Knechtle, B. (2019). A systematic review of meta-analyses comparing periodized and non-periodized exercise programs: Why we should go back to original research. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, 1023. PubMed ID: 31440169 doi:10.3389/fphys.2019.01023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 1139). Heidelburg, Germany: Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American College of Sports Medicine. (2017). ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (10th ed.). Philadelpha, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Backhouse, S.H., Ekkekakis, P., Bidle, S.J., Foskett, A., & Williams, C. (2007). Exercise makes people feel better but people are inactive: Paradox or artifact? Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29(4), 498517. PubMed ID: 17968050 doi:10.1123/jsep.29.4.498

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 126. PubMed ID: 11148297 doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barreto, P.D.S. (2013). Why are we failing to promote physical activity globally? Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 91(6), 390390A. doi:10.2471/BLT.13.120790

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Becker, M.H. (1974). The health belief model and personal health behavior. Health Education Monographs, 2, 324473.

  • Bock, B.C., Marcus, B.H., Pinto, B.M., & Forsyth, L.H. (2001). Maintenance of physical activity following an individualized motivationally tailored intervention. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23(2), 7987. PubMed ID: 11394558 doi:10.1207/S15324796ABM2302_2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boggenpoel, B.Y., Nel, S., & Hanekom, S. (2018). The use of periodized exercise prescription in rehabilitation: A systematic scoping review of literature. Clinical Rehabilitation, 32(9), 12351248. PubMed ID: 29663831 doi:10.1177/0269215518769445

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bompa, T.O., & Haff, G.G. (2009). Basis of training. In T.O. Bompa & G.G. Haff, Periodization: Theory and methodology of training (5th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bond, D.S., Raynor, H.A., Phelan, S., Steeves, J., Daniello, R., & Wing, R.R. (2012). The relationship between physical activity variety and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels in weight loss maintainers and normal-weight individuals. Journal of Obesity, 2012, 812414. PubMed ID: 22506103 doi:10.1155/2012/812414

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brand, R., & Ekkekakis, P. (2018). Affective-reflective theory of physical activity and exercise: Foundations and preliminary evidence. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 48(1), 4858. doi:10.1007/s12662-017-0477-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryan, A.D., Nilsson, R., Tompkins, S.A., Magnan, R.E., Marcus, B.H., & Hutchison, K.E. (2011). The big picture of individual differences in physical activity behavior change: A transdisciplinary approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(1), 2026. PubMed ID: 21278837 doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.05.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buckner, S.L., Mouser, J.G., Dankel, S.J., Jessee, M.B., Mattocks, K.T., & Loenneke, J.P. (2017). The general adaptation syndrome: Potential misapplications to resistance exercise. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(11), 10151017. PubMed ID: 28377133 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2017.02.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Capostagno, B., Lambert, M.I., & Lamberts, R.P. (2014). Standardized versus customized high-intensity training: Effects on cycling performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 9(2), 292301. PubMed ID: 23881116 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2012-0389

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Physical Activity, and Obesity. (2019). Data, trends, and maps [online]. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/data-trends-maps/index.html

    • Export Citation
  • Craig, P., Dieppe, P., Macintyre, S., Michie, S., Nazareth, I., Petticrew, M., & Medical Research Council Guidance. (2008). Developing and evaluating complex interventions: The new Medical Research Council guidance. British Medical Journal, 337, a1655. doi:10.1136/bmj.a1655

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cunanan, A.J., DeWeese, B.H., Wagle, J.P., Carroll, K.M., Sausaman, R., Hornsby, W.G., III, … Stone, M.H. (2018). The general adaptation syndrome: A foundation for the concept of periodization. Sports Medicine, 48(4), 787797. PubMed ID: 29307100 doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0855-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Czajkowski, S.M., Powell, L.H., Adler, N., Naar-King, S., Reynolds, K.D., Hunter, C.M., … Charlson, M.E. (2015). From ideas to efficacy: The ORBIT model for developing behavioral treatments for chronic diseases. Health Psychology, 34(10), 971982. PubMed ID: 25642841 doi:10.1037/hea0000161

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dalle Grave, R., Calugi, S., Centis, E., El Ghoch, M., & Marchesini, G. (2011). Cognitive-behavioral strategies to increase the adherence to exercise in the management of obesity. Journal of Obesity, 2011, 348293. PubMed ID: 21052533 doi:10.1155/2011/348293

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delevatti, R.S., Bracht, C.G., Lisboa, S.D.C., Costa, R.R., Marson, E.C., Netto, N., & Kruel, L.F.M. (2019). The role of aerobic training variables progression on glycemic control of patients with Type 2 diabetes: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Sports Medicine—Open, 5(1), 22. doi:10.1186/s40798-019-0194-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, D., Lawson, K.D., Kolbe-Alexander, T.L., Finkelstein, E.A., Katzmarzyk, P.T., van Mechelen, W., … Lancet Physical Activity Series 2 Executive Committee. (2016). The economic burden of physical inactivity: A global analysis of major non-communicable diseases. Lancet, 388(10051), 13111324. PubMed ID: 27475266 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30383-X

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dishman, R.K. (1981). Health psychology and exercise adherence. Quest, 33(2), 166180. doi:10.1080/00336297.1981.10483752

  • Dishman, R.K., Sallis, J.F., & Orenstein, D.R. (1985). The determinants of physical-activity and exercise. Public Health Reports, 100(2), 158171. PubMed ID: 3920714

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunton, G.F. (2017). Ecological momentary assessment in physical activity research. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 45(1), 4854. PubMed ID: 27741022 doi:10.1249/JES.0000000000000092

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunton, G.F., & Atienza, A.A. (2009). The need for time-intensive information in healthful eating and physical activity research: A timely topic. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(1), 3035. PubMed ID: 19103320 doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.10.019

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Durell, D.L., Pujol, T.J., & Barnes, J.T. (2003). A survey of the scientific data and training methods utilized by collegiate strength and conditioning coaches. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(2), 368373. PubMed ID: 12741880

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ebben, W.P., Carroll, R.M., & Simenz, C.J. (2004). Strength and conditioning practices of National Hockey League strength and conditioning coaches. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18(4), 889897. PubMed ID: 15574099

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ebben, W.P., Hintz, M.J., & Simenz, C.J. (2005). Strength and conditioning practices of Major League Baseball strength and conditioning coaches. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(3), 538546. PubMed ID: 16095401

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P. (2009a). The dual-mode theory of affective responses to exercise in metatheoretical context I: Initial impetus, basic postulates, and philosophical framework. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2(1), 7394. doi:10.1080/17509840802705920

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P. (2009b). The dual-mode theory of affective responses to exercise in metatheoretical context: II. Bodiless heads, ethereal cognitive schemata, and other improbable dualistic creatures, exercising. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2(2), 139160. doi:10.1080/17509840902829323

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., Parfitt, G., & Petruzzello, S.J. (2011). The pleasure and displeasure people feel when they exercise at different intensities: Decennial update and progress towards a tripartite rationale for exercise intensity prescription. Sports Medicine, 41(8), 641671. PubMed ID: 21780850 doi:10.2165/11590680-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., & Petruzzello, S.J. (2000). Analysis of the affect measurement conundrum in exercise psychology I. Fundamental issues. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 1, 7188. doi:10.1016/S1469-0292(00)00010-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., & Petruzzello, S.J. (2001a). Analysis of the affect measurement conundrum in exercise psychology: II. A conceptual and methodological critique of the Exercise-induced Feeling Inventory. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2, 126. doi:10.1016/S1469-0292(00)00020-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., & Petruzzello, S.J. (2001b). Analysis of the affect measurement conundrum in exercise psychology. III. A conceptual and methodological critique of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2, 205232. doi:10.1016/S1469-0292(01)00022-X

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., & Petruzzello, S.J. (2002). Analysis of the affect measurement conundrum in exercise psychology: IV. A conceptual case for the affect circumplex. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 3, 3563. doi:10.1016/S1469-0292(01)00028-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ezzati, M., Lopez, A.D., Rodgers, A., Vander Hoorn, S., Murray, C.J., & Comparative Risk Assessment Collaborating Group. (2002). Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet, 360(9343), 13471360. PubMed ID: 12423980 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11403-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fairman, C.M., Zourdos, M.C., Helms, E.R., & Focht, B.C. (2017). A scientific rationale to improve resistance training prescription in exercise oncology. Sports Medicine, 47(8), 14571465. PubMed ID: 28074412 doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0673-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fitzhugh, E.C., & Thompson, D.L. (2009). Leisure-time walking and compliance with ACSM/AHA aerobic-related physical activity recommendations: 1999–2004 NHANES. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 6(4), 393402. PubMed ID: 19842452 doi:10.1123/jpah.6.4.393

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fleck, S.J. (1999). Periodized strength training: A critical review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 13(1), 8289.

  • Fleck, S.J. (2011). Non-linear periodization for general fitness & athletes. Journal of Human Kinetics, 29A, 4145. PubMed ID: 23486658 doi:10.2478/v10078-011-0057-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foster, C. (1998). Monitoring training in athletes with reference to overtraining syndrome. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 30(7), 11641168. PubMed ID: 9662690 doi:10.1097/00005768-199807000-00023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glanz, K., & Bishop, D.B. (2010). The role of behavioral science theory in development and implementation of public health interventions. Annual Review of Public Health, 31, 399418. PubMed ID: 20070207 doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.012809.103604

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K., & Lewis, F.M. (2002). Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hagger, M.S., Chatzisarantis, N.L., & Biddle, S.J. (2002). The influence of autonomous and controlling motives on physical activity intentions within the theory of planned behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 7(Part 3), 283297. PubMed ID: 12614501 doi:10.1348/135910702760213689

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ioannidis, J.P. (1998). Effect of the statistical significance of results on the time to completion and publication of randomized efficacy trials. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(4), 281286. PubMed ID: 9450711 doi:10.1001/jama.279.4.281

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Issurin, V.B. (2010). New horizons for the methodology and physiology of training periodization. Sports Medicine, 40(3), 189206. PubMed ID: 20199119 doi:10.2165/11319770-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Javaloyes, A., Sarabia, J.M., Lamberts, R.P., Plews, D., & Moya-Ramon, M. (2019). Training prescription guided by heart rate variability vs. block periodization in well-trained cyclists. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000003337

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jeckel, S., & Sudeck, G. (2018). Sport activities in daily routine: Situational associations between individual goals, activity characteristics, and affective well-being. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 48, 2639. doi:10.1007/s12662-017-0469-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanning, M.K., & Schoebi, D. (2016). Momentary affective states are associated with momentary volume, prospective trends, and fluctuation of daily physical activity. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 744. PubMed ID: 27242643 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00744

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kellmann, M. (2010). Preventing overtraining in athletes in high-intensity sports and stress/recovery monitoring. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(Suppl. 2), 95102. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01192.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiely, J. (2011). Periodization, planning, and prediction: A new perspective? Palestrica Mileniului III – Civilizatie si Sport, 12(2), 164169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiely, J. (2012). Periodization paradigms in the 21st century: Evidence-led or tradition-driven? International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 7, 242250. PubMed ID: 22356774 doi:10.1123/ijspp.7.3.242

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiely, J. (2018). Periodization theory: Confronting an inconvenient truth. Sports Medicine, 48, 753764. PubMed ID: 29189930 doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0823-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • King, A.C., Stokols, D., Talen, E., Brassington, G.S., & Killingsworth, R. (2002). Theoretical approaches to the promotion of physical activity: Forging a transdisciplinary paradigm. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23(Suppl. 2), 1525. PubMed ID: 12133734 doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00470-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiviniemi, A.M., Hautala, A.J., Kinnunen, H., Nissila, J., Virtanen, P., Karjalainen, J., & Tulppo, M.P. (2010). Daily exercise prescription on the basis of HR variability among men and women. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(7), 13551363. PubMed ID: 20575165 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181cd5f39

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiviniemi, A.M., Hautala, A.J., Kinnunen, H., & Tulppo, M.P. (2007). Endurance training guided individually by daily heart rate variability measurements. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 101(6), 743751. PubMed ID: 17849143 doi:10.1007/s00421-007-0552-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kohl, H.W., 3rd, Craig, C.L., Lambert, E.V., Inoue, S., Alkandari, J.R., Leetongin, G., … Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. (2012). The pandemic of physical inactivity: Global action for public health. Lancet, 380(9838), 294305. PubMed ID: 22818941 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60898-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kraemer, W.J., & Fleck, S.J. (2007). Optimizing strength training: Designing nonlinear periodization workouts. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kwan, B.M., & Bryan, A. (2010). In-task and post-task affective response to exercise: Translating exercise intentions into behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 15(Pt 1), 115131. PubMed ID: 19397847 doi:10.1348/135910709X433267

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • La Vecchia, C., Gallus, S., & Garattini, S. (2012). Effects of physical inactivity on non-communicable diseases. Lancet, 380(9853), 15531554. PubMed ID: 23122239 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61872-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lazarus, R.S. (1974). Psychological stress and coping in adaptation and illness. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 5(4), 321333. PubMed ID: 4618837 doi:10.2190/T43T-84P3-QDUR-7RTP

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lazarus, R.S., & Folkman, S. (1987). Transactional theory and research on emotions and coping. European Journal of Personality, 1(3), 141169. doi:10.1002/per.2410010304

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liao, Y., Chou, C.P., Huh, J., Leventhal, A., & Dunton, G. (2017). Examining acute bi-directional relationships between affect, physical feeling states, and physical activity in free-living situations using electronic ecological momentary assessment. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 40(3), 445457. PubMed ID: 27766481 doi:10.1007/s10865-016-9808-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mann, J.B., Thyfault, J.P., Ivey, P.A., & Sayers, S.P. (2010). The effect of autoregulatory progressive resistance exercise vs. linear periodization on strength improvement in college athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(7), 17181723. PubMed ID: 20543732 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181def4a6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mann, T.N., Lamberts, R.P., & Lambert, M.I. (2014). High responders and low responders: Factors associated with individual variation in response to standardized training. Sports Medicine, 44(8), 11131124. PubMed ID: 24807838 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0197-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, J.E., Dubbert, P.M., Katell, A.D., Thompson, J.K., Raczynski, J.R., Lake, M., … Cohen, R.E. (1984). Behavioral control of exercise in sedentary adults: Studies 1 through 6. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52(5), 795811. PubMed ID: 6501665 doi:10.1037/0022-006X.52.5.795

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, J.W. (1975). A historical view of the stress field. Journal of Human Stress, 1(1), 612. PubMed ID: 798012 doi:10.1080/0097840X.1975.9940399

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mattocks, K.T., Dankel, S.J., Buckner, S.L., Jessee, M.B., Counts, B.R., Mouser, J.G., … Loenneke, J.P. (2016). Periodization: What is it good for? Journal of Trainology, 5, 612. doi:10.17338/trainology.5.1_6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McNamara, J.M., & Stearne, D.J. (2010). Flexible nonlinear periodization in a beginner college weight training class. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(1), 1722. PubMed ID: 20042923 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181bc177b

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McNamara, J.M., & Stearne, D.J. (2013). Effect of concurrent training, flexible nonlinear periodization, and maximal-effort cycling on strength and power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(6), 14631470. PubMed ID: 23037617 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318274f343

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Middleton, K.R., Anton, S.D., & Perri, M.G. (2013). Long-term adherence to health behavior change. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 7(6), 395404. PubMed ID: 27547170 doi:10.1177/1559827613488867

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mokdad, A.H., Marks, J.S., Stroup, D.F., & Gerberding, J.L. (2004). Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(10), 12381245. PubMed ID: 15010446 doi:10.1001/jama.291.10.1238

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moraska, A., Deak, T., Spencer, R.L., Roth, D., & Fleshner, M. (2000). Treadmill running produces both positive and negative physiological adaptations in Sprague-Dawley rats. American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 279(4), R1321R1329. PubMed ID: 11004000 doi:10.1152/ajpregu.2000.279.4.R1321

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, W.P. (1985). Affective beneficence of vigorous physical activity. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 17(1), 94100. PubMed ID: 3157040 doi:10.1249/00005768-198502000-00015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nahum-Shani, I., Smith, S.N., Spring, B.J., Collins, L.M., Witkeiwitz, K., Tawari, A., & Murphy, S.A. (2018). Just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) in mobile health: Key components and design principles for ongoing health behavior support. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 52(6), 446462. PubMed ID: 27663578 doi:10.1007/s12160-016-9830-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newsom, J.T., McFarland, B.H., Kaplan, M.S., Huguet, N., & Zani, B. (2005). The health consciousness myth: Implications of the near independence of major health behaviors in the North American population. Social Science & Medicine, 60(2), 433437. PubMed ID: 15522497 doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.05.015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noar, S.M., & Zimmerman, R.S. (2005). Health behavior theory and cumulative knowledge regarding health behaviors: Are we moving in the right direction? Health Education Research, 20(3), 275290. PubMed ID: 15632099 doi:10.1093/her/cyg113

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Painter, J.E., Borba, C.P., Hynes, M., Mays, D., & Glanz, K. (2008). The use of theory in health behavior research from 2000 to 2005: A systematic review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35(3), 358362. PubMed ID: 18633685 doi:10.1007/s12160-008-9042-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piercy, K.L., Troiano, R.P., Ballard, R.M., Carlson, S.A., Fulton, J.E., Galuska, D.A., … Olson, R.D. (2018). The physical activity guidelines for Americans. JAMA, 320(19), 20202028. PubMed ID: 30418471 doi:10.1001/jama.2018.14854

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Posner, J., Russell, J.A., & Peterson, B.S. (2005). The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 715734. PubMed ID: 16262989 doi:10.1017/S0954579405050340

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prochaska, J.O., & Velicer, W.F. (1997). The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12(1), 3848. PubMed ID: 10170434 doi:10.4278/0890-1171-12.1.38

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raynor, H.A., Bond, D.S., Steeves, J., & Thompson, D.L. (2014). Physical activity variety, energy expenditure, and body mass index. American Journal of Health Behavior, 38(4), 624630. PubMed ID: 24636125 doi:10.5993/AJHB.38.4.16

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhodes, R.E., & Dickau, L. (2012). Experimental evidence for the intention–behavior relationship in the physical activity domain: A meta-analysis. Journal of Health Psychology, 31(6), 724727. doi:10.1037/a0027290

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhodes, R.E., & Kates, A. (2015). Can the affective response to exercise predict future motives and physical activity behavior? A systematic review of published evidence. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 49(5), 715731. PubMed ID: 25921307 doi:10.1007/s12160-015-9704-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhodes, R.E., & Nigg, C.R. (2011). Advancing physical activity theory: A review and future directions. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 39(3), 113119. PubMed ID: 21705861 doi:10.1097/JES.0b013e31821b94c8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riley, W.T., Glasgow, R.E., Etheredge, L., & Abernethy, A.P. (2013). Rapid, responsive, relevant (R3) research: A call for a rapid learning health research enterprise. Clinical and Translational Medicine, 2(1), 10. PubMed ID: 23663660 doi:10.1186/2001-1326-2-10

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Romain, A.J., Bortolon, C., Gourlan, M., Carayol, M., Decker, E., Lareyre, O., … Bernard, P. (2018). Matched or nonmatched interventions based on the transtheoretical model to promote physical activity: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 7(1), 5057. PubMed ID: 30356472 doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Selye, H. (1936). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature, 138(3479), 32. doi:10.1038/138032a0

  • Selye, H. (1938). Experimental evidence supporting the conception of “adaptation energy.” American Journal of Physiology, 123(3), 758765. doi:10.1152/ajplegacy.1938.123.3.758

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Selye, H. (1950). Stress and the general adaptation syndrome. British Medical Journal, 1(4667), 13831392. PubMed ID: 15426759 doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4667.1383

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheeran, P., Klein, W.M., & Rothman, A.J. (2017). Health behavior change: Moving from observation to intervention. Annual Review of Psychology, 68, 573600. PubMed ID: 27618942 doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherwood, N.E., & Jeffery, R.W. (2000). The behavioral determinants of exercise: Implications for physical activity interventions. Annual Review of Nutrition, 20, 2144. PubMed ID: 10940325 doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.20.1.21

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shiffman, S., Stone, A.A., & Hufford, M.R. (2008). Ecological momentary assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 132. PubMed ID: 18509902 doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091415

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siff, M.C. (2003). Supertraining (6th ed.). Denver, CO: Supertraining Institute.

  • Simenz, C.J., Dugan, C.A., & Ebben, W.P. (2005). Strength and conditioning practices of National Basketball Association strength and conditioning coaches. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(3), 495504. PubMed ID: 16095396

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Solomon, S., & Kington, R. (2002). National efforts to promote behavior-change research: Views from the office of behavioral and social sciences research. Health Education Research, 17(5), 495499. PubMed ID: 12408194 doi:10.1093/her/17.5.495

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stokols, D., Fuqua, J., Gress, J., Harvey, R., Phillips, K., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., … Trochim, W. (2003). Evaluating transdisciplinary science. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 5(1), S21S39. doi:10.1080/14622200310001625555

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stone, M., Keith, R., Kearney, J., Fleck, S.J., Willson, G., & Triplett, N.T. (1991). Overtraining: A review on the signs, symptoms, and possible causes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 5(1), 3550.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strohacker, K., Boyer, W.R., Smitherman, K.N., Cornelius, E., & Fazzino, D. (2017). Assessing energy level as a marker of aerobic exercise readiness: A pilot investigation. International Journal of Exercise Science, 10(1), 6275. PubMed ID: 28479948

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strohacker, K., Fazzino, D., Breslin, W.L., & Xu, X. (2015). The use of periodization in exercise prescriptions for inactive adults: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine Reports, 2, 385396. PubMed ID: 26844095 doi:10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.04.023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strohacker, K., & Zakrajsek, R.A. (2016). Determining dimensionality of exercise readiness using exploratory factor analysis. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 15(2), 229238. PubMed ID: 27274659

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strohacker, K., Zakrajsek, R.A., Schaltegger, E.T., & Springer, C.M. (2019). Readiness to perform aerobic activity in adults with obesity: A thematic analysis of online surveys. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 90(4), 619628. PubMed ID: 31437112 doi:10.1080/02701367.2019.1642439

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Unick, J.L., Strohacker, K., Papandonatos, G.D., Williams, D., O’Leary, K.C., Dorfman, L., … Wing, R.R. (2015). Examination of the consistency in affective response to acute exercise in overweight and obese women. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 37(5), 534546. PubMed ID: 26524099 doi:10.1123/jsep.2015-0104

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Venhorst, A., Micklewright, D., & Noakes, T.D. (2018). Towards a three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour: A narrative review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(15), 957966. PubMed ID: 28835409 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096907

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wathan, D., Baechle, T.R., & Earle, R.W. (2008). Periodization. In E.R. Baechle (Ed.), Essentials of strength training and conditioning (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, D.M., Dunsiger, S., Ciccolo, J.T., Lewis, B.A., Albrecht, A.E., & Marcus, B.H. (2008). Acute affective response to a moderate-intensity exercise stimulus predicts physical activity participation 6 and 12 months later. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9(3), 231245. PubMed ID: 18496608 doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.04.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, D.M., Dunsiger, S., Jennings, E.G., & Marcus, B.H. (2012). Does affective valence during and immediately following a 10-min walk predict concurrent and future physical activity? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 44(1), 4351. PubMed ID: 22532005 doi:10.1007/s12160-012-9362-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, D.M., & Rhodes, R.E. (2016). The confounded self-efficacy construct: Conceptual analysis and recommendations for future research. Health Psychology Review, 10(2), 113128. PubMed ID: 25117692 doi:10.1080/17437199.2014.941998

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, T.D., Tolusso, D.V., Fedewa, M.V., & Esco, M.R. (2017). Comparison of periodized and non-periodized resistance training on maximal strength: A meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 47(10), 20832100. PubMed ID: 28497285 doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0734-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 138 138 50
Full Text Views 10 10 3
PDF Downloads 7 7 1