Gunslinger Effect and Müller-Lyer Illusion: Examining Early Visual Information Processing for Late Limb-Target Control

in Motor Control
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  • 1 McMaster University
  • 2 Liverpool John Moores University
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The multiple process model contends that there are two forms of online control for manual aiming: impulse regulation and limb-target control. This study examined the impact of visual information processing for limb-target control. We amalgamated the Gunslinger protocol (i.e., faster movements following a reaction to an external trigger compared with the spontaneous initiation of movement) and Müller-Lyer target configurations into the same aiming protocol. The results showed the Gunslinger effect was isolated at the early portions of the movement (peak acceleration and peak velocity). Reacted aims reached a longer displacement at peak deceleration, but no differences for movement termination. The target configurations manifested terminal biases consistent with the illusion. We suggest the visual information processing demands imposed by reacted aims can be adapted by integrating early feedforward information for limb-target control.

Roberts, Lyons, Garcia, Burgess and are with the Motor Behaviour Laboratory, Dept. of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada. Elliott is with the Brain and Behaviour Laboratory, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

Address author correspondence to James Lyons at