Should Ballet Dancers Vary Postures and Underfoot Surfaces When Practicing Postural Balance?

in Motor Control
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $76.00

1 year subscription

USD  $101.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $144.00

2 year subscription

USD  $188.00

Background: Postural balance (PB) is an important component skill for professional dancers. However, the effects of different types of postures and different underfoot surfaces on PB have not adequately been addressed. Purpose: The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different conditions of footwear, surfaces, and standing positions on static and dynamic PB ability of young ballet dancers. Methods: A total of 36 male and female young professional ballet dancers (aged 14–19 years) completed static and dynamic balance testing, measured by head and lumbar accelerometers, while standing on one leg in the turnout position, under six different conditions: (1) “relaxed” posture; (2) “ballet” posture; (3) barefoot; (4) ballet shoes with textured insoles; (5) barefoot on a textured mat; and (6) barefoot on a spiky mat. Results: A condition effect was found for static and dynamic PB. Static PB was reduced when dancers stood in the ballet posture compared with standing in the relaxed posture and when standing on a textured mat and on a spiky mat (p < .05), and static PB in the relaxed posture was significantly better than PB in all the other five conditions tested. Dynamic PB was significantly better while standing in ballet shoes with textured insoles and when standing on a spiky mat compared with all other conditions (p < .05). Conclusions: The practical implications derived from this study are that both male and female dancers should try to be relaxed in their postural muscles when practicing a ballet aligned position, including dance practice on different types of floors and on different types of textured/spiky materials may result in skill transfer to practice on normal floor surfaces, and both static and dynamic PB exercises should be assessed and generalized into practical dance routines.

Steinberg, Waddington, Adams, and Karin are with the Faculty of Health, University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, Canberra, Australia. Steinberg is also with The Wingate College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Wingate Institute, Netanya, Israel. Karin is also with The Australian Ballet School, Melbourne, Australia. Tirosh is with the School Medical and Health Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.

Address author correspondence to Nili Steinberg at knopp@wincol.ac.il.
  • Bronner, S. (2012). Differences in segmental coordination and postural control in a multi-joint dance movement: Develop arabesque. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 16(1), 2635. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cameron, M.L., Adams, R.D., & Maher, C.G. (2008). The effect of neoprene shorts on leg proprioception in Australian football players. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 11(3), 345352. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2007.03.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng, H.S., Law, C.L., Pan, H.F., Hsiao, Y.P., Hu, J.H., Chuang, F.K., & Huang, M.H. (2011). Preliminary results of dancing exercise on postural stability in adolescent females. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 27(12), 566572. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.kjms.2011.06.032

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, R.A., Bell, S.W., Feller, J.A., Whitehead, T.S., & Webster, K.E. (2016). Standing balance and inter-limb balance asymmetry at one year post primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Sex differences in a cohort study of 414 patients. Gait & Posture, 52, 318324. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.12.016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corbin, D.M., Hart, J.M., McKeon, P.O., Ingersoll, C.D., & Hertel, J. (2007). The effect of textured insoles on postural control in double and single limb stance. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 16(4), 363372. PubMed doi:10.1123/jsr.16.4.36

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Costa, M.S.D.S., Ferreira, A.D.S., & Felicio, L.R. (2013). Static and dynamic balance in ballet dancers: A literature review. Fisioterapia e Pesquisa, 20(3), 299305.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Courtney, C.A., Rine, R., Jenk, D.T., Collier, P.D., & Waters, A. (2013). Enhanced proprioceptive acuity at the knee in the competitive athlete. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 43(6), 422426. PubMed doi:10.2519/jospt.2013.4403

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Noronha, M., Refshauge, K.M., Herbert, R.D., Kilbreath, S.L., & Hertel, J. (2006). Do voluntary strength, proprioception, range of motion, or postural sway predict occurrence of lateral ankle sprain? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(10), 824828; discussion 828. 16920769 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2006.029645

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dixon, J., Hatton, A.L., Robinson, J., Gamesby-Iyayi, H., Hodgson, D., Rome, K., … Martin, D.J. (2014). Effect of textured insoles on balance and gait in people with multiple sclerosis: An exploratory trial. Physiotherapy, 100(2), 142149. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.physio.2013.06.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duncan, C.A., Ingram, T.G., Mansfield, A., Byrne, J.M., & McIlroy, W.E. (2016). Population differences in postural response strategy associated with exposure to a novel continuous perturbation stimuli: Would dancers have better balance on a boat? PLoS ONE, 11(11), 0165735. PubMed doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0165735

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fabunmi, A.A., & Gbiri, C.A. (2008). Relationship between balance performance in the elderly and some anthropometric variables. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 37(4), 321326. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feldman, A.G. (2011). Space and time in the context of equilibrium-point theory. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 2(3), 287304. PubMed doi:10.1002/wcs.108

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feldman, A.G. (2015). Referent control of action and perception: Challenging conventional theories in behavioral neuroscience. New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feldman, A.G., & Levin, M.F. (2009). The equilibrium-point hypothesis—Past, present and future. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 629, 699726. PubMed doi:10.1007/978-0-387-77064-2_38

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feldman, A.G., & Levin, M.F. (2016). Spatial control of reflexes, posture and movement in normal conditions and after neurological lesions. Journal of Human Kinetics, 52, 2134. PubMed doi:10.1515/hukin-2015-0191

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fernandes, T.L., Felix, E.C., Bessa, F., Luna, N.M., Sugimoto, D., Greve, J.M., & Hernandez, A.J. (2016). Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury—A controlled study. Clinics (Sao Paulo), 71(8), 425429. PubMed doi:10.6061/clinics/2016(08)03

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fong Yan, A., Hiller, C., Smith, R., & Vanwanseele, B. (2011). Effect of footwear on dancers: A systematic review. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 15(2), 8692. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Golomer, E., Cremieux, J., Dupui, P., Isableu, B., & Ohlmann, T. (1999). Visual contribution to self-induced body sway frequencies and visual perception of male professional dancers. Neuroscience Letters, 267(3), 189192. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Han, J., Waddington, G., Anson, J., & Adams, R. (2013). Level of competitive success achieved by elite athletes and multi-joint proprioceptive ability. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(1), 7781. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2013.11.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hatton, A.L., Crossley, K.M., Hug, F., Bouma, J., Ha, B., Spaulding, K.L., & Tucker, K. (2015). Acute experimental hip muscle pain alters single-leg squat balance in healthy young adults. Gait & Posture, 41(4), 871876. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.02.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hatton, A.L., Dixon, J., Rome, K., Brauer, S.G., Williams, K., & Kerr, G. (2016). The effects of prolonged wear of textured shoe insoles on gait, foot sensation and proprioception in people with multiple sclerosis: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 17(1), 208. PubMed doi:10.1186/s13063-016-1337-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hatton, A.L., Dixon, J., Rome, K., Newton, J.L., & Martin, D.J. (2012). Altering gait by way of stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot: The immediate effect of wearing textured insoles in older fallers. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 5, 11. PubMed doi:10.1186/1757-1146-5-11

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hiller, C.E., Kilbreath, S.L., & Refshauge, K.M. (2011). Chronic ankle instability: Evolution of the model. Journal of Athletic Training, 46(2), 133141. PubMed doi:10.4085/1062-6050-46.2.133

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hopper, D.M., Grisbrook, T.L., Newnham, P.J., & Edwards, D.J. (2014). The effects of vestibular stimulation and fatigue on postural control in classical ballet dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 18(2), 6773. PubMed doi:10.12678/1089-313X.18.2.67

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horak, F.B. (1997). Clinical assessment of balance disorders. Gait & Posture, 6(1), 7684. doi:10.1016/S0966-6362(97)00018-0

  • Hrysomallis, C. (2011). Balance ability and athletic performance. Sports Medicine, 41(3), 221232. PubMed doi:10.2165/11538560-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hutt, K., & Redding, E. (2014). The effect of an eyes-closed dance-specific training program on dynamic balance in elite pre-professional ballet dancers: A randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 18(1), 311. PubMed doi:10.12678/1089-313X.18.1.3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jankowicz-Szymanska, A., Mikolajczyk, E., & Wardzala, R. (2015). Arch of the foot and postural balance in young judokas and peers. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B, 24(5), 456460. PubMed doi:10.1097/BPB.0000000000000202

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jarvis, D.N., Smith, J.A., & Kulig, K. (2014). Trunk coordination in dancers and nondancers. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 30(4), 547554. PubMed doi:10.1123/jab.2013-0329

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalron, A., Pasitselsky, D., Greenberg-Abrahami, M., & Achiron, A. (2015). Do textured insoles affect postural control and spatiotemporal parameters of gait and plantar sensation in people with multiple sclerosis? PM&R, 7(1), 1725. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2014.08.942

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keetch, K.M., Schmidt, R.A., Lee, T.D., & Young, D.E. (2005). Especial skills: Their emergence with massive amounts of practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31(5), 970978. PubMed doi:10.1037/0096-1523.31.5.970

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kejonen, P., Kauranen, K., & Vanharanta, H. (2003). The relationship between anthropometric factors and body-balancing movements in postural balance. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84(1), 1722. PubMed doi:10.1053/apmr.2003.50058

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kilby, M.C., & Newell, K.M. (2012). Intra- and inter-foot coordination in quiet standing: Footwear and posture effects. Gait & Posture, 35(3), 511516. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.11.018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, J.W., Kwon, Y., Ho, Y., Jeon, H.M., Bang, M.J., Jun, J.H., … Cho, Y.B. (2014). Age-gender differences in the postural sway during squat and stand-up movement. Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering, 24(6), 27072713. PubMed doi:10.3233/BME-141088

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ku, P.X., Abu Osman, N.A., Yusof, A., & Wan Abas, W.A. (2012). Biomechanical evaluation of the relationship between postural control and body mass index. Journal of Biomechanics, 45(9), 16381642. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.03.029

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lepelley, M.C., Thullier, F., Koral, J., & Lestienne, F.G. (2006). Muscle coordination in complex movements during Jeté in skilled ballet dancers. Experimental Brain Research, 175, 321331. PubMed doi:10.1007/s00221-006-0552-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, C.W., Lin, C.F., Hsue, B.J., & Su, F.C. (2014). A comparison of ballet dancers with different level of experience in performing single-leg stance on retire position. Motor Control, 18(2), 199212. PubMed doi:10.1123/mc.2013-0021

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lobo da Costa, P.H., Azevedo Nora, F.G., Vieira, M.F., Bosch, K., & Rosenbaum, D. (2013). Single leg balancing in ballet: Effects of shoe conditions and poses. Gait & Posture, 37(3), 419423. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.08.015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martinez-Mendez, R., Sekine, M., & Tamura, T. (2012). Postural sway parameters using a triaxial accelerometer: Comparing elderly and young healthy adults. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 15(9), 899910. PubMed doi:10.1080/10255842.2011.565753

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maurer, C., Mergner, T., Bolha, B., & Hlavacka, F. (2001). Human balance control during cutaneous stimulation of the plantar soles. Neuroscience Letters, 302(1), 4548. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKeon, P.O., & Hertel, J. (2007). Diminished plantar cutaneous sensation and postural control. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 104(1), 5666. PubMed doi:10.2466/pms.104.1.56-66

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKeon, P.O., Stein, A.J., Ingersoll, C.D., & Hertel, J. (2012). Altered plantar-receptor stimulation impairs postural control in those with chronic ankle instability. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 21(1), 16. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meyer, P.F., Oddsson, L.I., & De Luca, C.J. (2004). The role of plantar cutaneous sensation in unperturbed stance. Experimental Brain Research, 156(4), 505512. PubMed doi:10.1007/s00221-003-1804-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mickle, K.J., Munro, B.J., & Steele, J.R. (2011). Gender and age affect balance performance in primary school-aged children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14(3), 243248. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2010.11.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, C.D., Paulos, L.E., Parker, R.D., & Fishell, M. (1990). The ballet technique shoe: A preliminary study of eleven differently modified ballet technique shoes using force and pressure plates. Foot & Ankle, 11(2), 97100. PubMed doi:10.1177/107110079001100207

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mouchnino, L., Aurenty, R., Massion, J., & Pedotti, A. (1992). Coordination between equilibrium and head-trunk orientation during leg movement: A new strategy build up by training. Journal of Neurophysiology, 67(6), 15871598. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muaidi, Q.I., Nicholson, L.L., & Refshauge, K.M. (2009). Do elite athletes exhibit enhanced proprioceptive acuity, range and strength of knee rotation compared with non-athletes? Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19(1), 103112. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00783.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paillard, T., & Noe, F. (2006). Effect of expertise and visual contribution on postural control in soccer. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 16(5), 345348. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2005.00502.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pappas, E., Kremenic, I., Liederbach, M., Orishimo, K.F., & Hagins, M. (2011). Time to stability differences between male and female dancers after landing from a jump on flat and inclined floors. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 21(4), 325329. PubMed doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e31821f5cfb

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pearson, S.J., & Whitaker, A.F. (2012). Footwear in classical ballet: A study of pressure distribution and related foot injury in the adolescent dancer. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 16(2), 5156. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Percy, M.L., & Menz, H.B. (2001). Effects of prefabricated foot orthoses and soft insoles on postural stability in professional soccer players. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 91(4), 194202. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perrin, P., Deviterne, D., Hugel, F., & Perrot, C. (2002). Judo, better than dance, develops sensorimotor adaptabilities involved in balance control. Gait & Posture, 15(2), 187194. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qu, X. (2015). Impacts of different types of insoles on postural stability in older adults. Applied Ergonomics, 46(Pt. A), 3843. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2014.06.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rein, S., Fabian, T., Zwipp, H., Rammelt, S., & Weindel, S. (2011). Postural control and functional ankle stability in professional and amateur dancers. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122(8), 16021610. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2011.01.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robbins, S., Waked, E., & McClaran, J. (1995). Proprioception and stability: Foot position awareness as a function of age and footwear. Age and Ageing, 24(1), 6772. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robbins, S., Waked, E., & Rappel, R. (1995). Ankle taping improves proprioception before and after exercise in young men. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(4), 242247. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sekulic, D., Spasic, M., Mirkov, D., Cavar, M., & Sattler, T. (2013). Gender-specific influences of balance, speed, and power on agility performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(3), 802811. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825c2cb0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shah, S. (2008). Caring for the dancer: Special considerations for the performer and troupe. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 7(3), 128132. PubMed doi:10.1097/01.CSMR.0000319716.56169.29

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shumway-Cook, A., & Horak, F.B. (1986). Assessing the influence of sensory interaction on balance. Suggestion from the field. Physical Therapy, 66(10), 15481550. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shumway-Cook, A., & Woollacott, M.H. (1995). Motor control: Theory and practical applications. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.

  • Sofianidis, G., Elliott, M.T., Wing, A.M., & Hatzitaki, V. (2015). Interaction between interpersonal and postural coordination during frequency scaled rhythmic sway: The role of dance expertise. Gait & Posture, 41(1), 209216. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.10.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steinberg, N., Siev-Ner, I., Peleg, S., Dar, G., Masharawi, Y., Zeev, A., & Hershkovitz, I. (2011). Injury patterns in young, non-professional dancers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(1), 4754. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2010.521167

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steinberg, N., Tirosh, O., Adams, R., Karin, J., & Waddington, G. (2015). Does wearing textured insoles during non-class time improve proprioception in professional dancers? International Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(13), 10931099. PubMed doi:10.1055/s-0035-1554633

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steinberg, N., Tirosh, O., Adams, R., Karin, J., & Waddington, G. (2017). The influence of textured insoles on dynamic postural balance of young dancers. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 32(2), 6370. PubMed doi:10.21091/mppa.2017.2012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steinberg, N., Waddington, G., Adams, R., Karin, J., Begg, R., & Tirosh, O. (2015). Can textured insoles improve ankle proprioception and performance in dancers? Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(15), 14301437. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1117120

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steinberg, N., Waddington, G., Adams, R., Karin, J., & Tirosh, O. (2015a). The effect of textured ballet shoe insoles on ankle proprioception in dancers. Physical Therapy in Sport, 17, 3844. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2015.04.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steinberg, N., Waddington, G., Adams, R., Karin, J., & Tirosh, O. (2015b). Use of a textured insole to improve the association between postural balance and ankle discrimination in young male and female dancers. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 30(4), 217223. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steinberg, N., Waddington, G., Adams, R., Karin, J., & Tirosh, O. (2016). Is there a correlation between static and dynamic postural balance among young male and female dancers? Journal of Motor Behavior, 47(2), 163171. PubMed doi:10.1080/00222895.2016.1161595

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waddington, G., & Adams, R. (2000). Textured insole effects on ankle movement discrimination while wearing athletic shoes. Physical Therapy in Sport, 1, 119128.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waddington, G., & Adams, R. (2003). Football boot insoles and sensitivity to extent of ankle inversion movement. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(2), 170174; discussion 175. 12663362

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, T.Y., & Lin, S.I. (2008). Sensitivity of plantar cutaneous sensation and postural stability. Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), 23(4), 493499. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2007.11.014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitney, S.L., Roche, J.L., Marchetti, G.F., Lin, C.C., Steed, D.P., Furman, G.R., … Redfern, M.S. (2011). A comparison of accelerometry and center of pressure measures during computerized dynamic posturography: A measure of balance. Gait & Posture, 33(4), 594599. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.01.015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willems, T., Witvrouw, E., Verstuyft, J., Vaes, P., & De Clercq, D. (2002). Proprioception and muscle strength in subjects with a history of ankle sprains and chronic instability. Journal of Athletic Training, 37(4), 487493. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winter, D.A., Patla, A.E., & Frank, J.S. (1990). Assessment of balance control in humans. Medical Progress Through Technology, 16(1–2), 3151.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wyon, M.A., Deighan, M.A., Nevill, A.M., Doherty, M., Morrison, S.L., Allen, N., … George, S. (2007). The cardiorespiratory, anthropometric, and performance characteristics of an international/national touring ballet company. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(2), 389393. PubMed doi:10.1519/R-19405.1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 250 250 21
Full Text Views 16 16 0
PDF Downloads 3 3 0