Asymmetry of Body Weight Distribution During Quiet and Relaxed Standing Tasks

in Motor Control
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $76.00

1 year subscription

USD  $101.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $144.00

2 year subscription

USD  $188.00

The goal of this work was to investigate body weight distribution during relaxed and quiet (constrained) standing tasks. Forty-one healthy, young adults performed relaxed and quiet standing tasks, and they stood with each leg on a separate force plate. The weight distribution asymmetry across time was computed as the difference between the right and left vertical force time series. The subjects presented a small average across time asymmetry during relaxed and quiet standing. However, during relaxed standing, the subjects alternated between postures, and, as a result, they were largely asymmetrical over time (instant by instant). Two unexpected results that the authors found for the relaxed standing task were that women were more asymmetrical over time than men and that there were two preferential modes of weight distribution.

Prado-Rico is with the Graduate Program in Physical Therapy, University City of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Duarte is with Biomedical Engineering, Federal University of ABC, São Paulo, Brazil.

Duarte (duartexyz@gmail.com) is corresponding author.
  • Anker, L.C., Weerdesteyn, V., van Nes, I.J., Nienhuis, B., Straatman, H., & Geurts, A.C. (2008). The relation between postural stability and weight distribution in healthy subjects. Gait & Posture, 27(3), 471–477. PubMed ID: 17644336 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2007.06.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aruin, A.S., & Kanekar, N. (2013). Effect of a textured insole on balance and gait symmetry. Experimental Brain Research, 231(2), 201–208. PubMed ID: 23979014 doi:10.1007/s00221-013-3685-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blaszczyk, J.W., Prince, F., Raiche, M., & Hebert, R. (2000). Effect of ageing and vision on limb load asymmetry during quiet stance. Journal of Biomechanics, 33(10), 1243–1248. PubMed ID: 10899333 doi:10.1016/S0021-9290(00)00097-X

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borelli, G.A. (1989). On the movement of animals. Berlin, Germany/New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

  • Duarte, M., & Freitas, S.M. (2010). Revision of posturography based on force plate for balance evaluation. Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, 14(3), 183–192. PubMed ID: 20730361 doi:10.1590/S1413-35552010000300003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duarte, M., Harvey, W., & Zatsiorsky, V.M. (2000). Stabilographic analysis of unconstrained standing. Ergonomics, 43(11), 1824–1839. PubMed ID: 11105975 doi:10.1080/00140130050174491

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duarte, M., & Zatsiorsky, V.M. (1999). Patterns of center of pressure migration during prolonged unconstrained standing. Motor Control, 3(1), 12–27. PubMed ID: 9924098 doi:10.1123/mcj.3.1.12

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duarte, M., & Zatsiorsky, V.M. (2000). On the fractal properties of natural human standing. Neuroscience Letters, 283(3), 173–176. PubMed ID: 10754215 doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(00)00960-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feldman, A.G. (1986). Once more on the equilibrium-point hypothesis (λ model) for motor control. Journal of Motor Behavior, 18(1), 17–54. PubMed ID: 15136283 doi:10.1080/00222895.1986.10735369

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feldman, A.G. (2015). Referent control of action and perception. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

  • Hellebrandt, F.A. (1938). Standing as a geotropic reflex. The mechanism of the asynchronous rotation of motor units. American Journal of Physiology, 121(2), 471–474.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jonsson, E., Henriksson, M., & Hirschfeld, H. (2007). Age-related differences in postural adjustments in connection with different tasks involving weight transfer while standing. Gait & Posture, 26(4), 508–515. PubMed ID: 17251026 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.11.206

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelso, L.E., & Hellebrandt, F.A. (1937). Devices for the study of two plane shifts in the center of gravity of a swaying body. Science, 86(2237), 451–452. PubMed ID: 17838966 doi:10.1126/science.86.2237.451

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lafond, D., Champagne, A., Descarreaux, M., Dubois, J.D., Prado, J.M., & Duarte, M. (2009). Postural control during prolonged standing in persons with chronic low back pain. Gait & Posture, 29(3), 421–427. PubMed ID: 19084411 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.10.064

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lederman, L.M., & Hill, C.T. (2007). Symmetry and the beautiful universe. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

  • Ma, C.C., Lee, Y.J., Chen, B., & Aruin, A.S. (2016). Immediate and short-term effects of wearing a single textured insole on symmetry of stance and gait in healthy adults. Gait & Posture, 49, 190–195. PubMed ID: 27448047 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.07.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, C.C., Rao, N., Muthukrishnan, S., & Aruin, A.S. (2018). A textured insole improves gait symmetry in individuals with stroke. Disability and Rehabilitation, 40(23), 2798–2802. doi:10.1080/09638288.2017.1362477

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mullick, A.A., Turpin, N.A., Hsu, S.-C., Subramanian, S.K., Feldman, A.G., & Levin, M.F. (2018). Referent control of the orientation of posture and movement in the gravitational field. Experimental Brain Research, 236(2), 381–398. doi:10.1007/s00221-017-5133-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murray, M.P., Seireg, A.A., & Sepic, S.B. (1975). Normal postural stability and steadiness: Quantitative assessment. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, 57(4), 510–516. PubMed ID: 1141262 doi:10.2106/00004623-197557040-00012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Porac, C., & Coren, S. (1981). Lateral preferences and human behavior. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

  • Prado, J.M., Dinato, M.C., & Duarte, M. (2011). Age-related difference on weight transfer during unconstrained standing. Gait & Posture, 33(1), 93–97. PubMed ID: 21041088 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.10.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinovitch, S.N., Feldman, F., Yang, Y., Schonnop, R., Leung, P.M., Sarraf, T., . . . Loughin, M. (2013). Video capture of the circumstances of falls in elderly people residing in long-term care: An observational study. The Lancet, 381(9860), 47–54. PubMed ID: 23083889 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61263-X

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rougier, P.R., & Genthon, N. (2009). Dynamical assessment of weight-bearing asymmetry during upright quiet stance in humans. Gait & Posture, 29(3), 437–443. PubMed ID: 19070493 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.11.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sackley, C.M., & Lincoln, N.B. (1991). Weight distribution and postural sway in healthy adults. Clinical Rehabilitation, 5(3), 181–186. doi:10.1177/026921559100500302

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, L.K., Lelas, J.L., & Kerrigan, D.C. (2002). Gender differences in pelvic motions and center of mass displacement during walking: Stereotypes quantified. Journal of Women’s Health & Gender-Based Medicine, 11(5), 453–458. doi:10.1089/15246090260137626

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vierordt, K. (1864). Grundriss der physiologie des menschen (3. verb. aufl. ed.). Tübingen, Germany: H. Laupp.

  • Whistance, R.S., Adams, L.P., van Geems, B.A., & Bridger, R.S. (1995). Postural adaptations to workbench modifications in standing workers. Ergonomics, 38(12), 2485–2503. PubMed ID: 8586077 doi:10.1080/00140139508925282

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winter, D.A., Patla, A.E., & Frank, J.S. (1990). Assessment of balance control in humans. Medical Progress Through Technology, 16(1–2), 31–51.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wong, F.S., & Chen, Q. (2015). Posture analysis in ergonomic study for bus station design. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), Singapore, 701–705. doi:10.1109/IEEM.2015.7385738

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zatsiorsky, V.M., & Duarte, M. (1999). Instant equilibrium point and its migration in standing tasks: Rambling and trembling components of the stabilogram. Motor Control, 3(1), 28–38. PubMed ID: 9924099 doi:10.1123/mcj.3.1.28

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zatsiorsky, V.M., & Duarte, M. (2000). Rambling and trembling in quiet standing. Motor Control, 4(2), 185–200. PubMed ID: 11500575 doi:10.1123/mcj.4.2.185

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 140 140 51
Full Text Views 14 14 4
PDF Downloads 7 7 2