Performance-Stabilizing Synergies in a Complex Motor Skill: Analysis Based on the Uncontrolled Manifold Hypothesis

in Motor Control
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $76.00

1 year subscription

USD  $101.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $144.00

2 year subscription

USD  $188.00

The authors studied indices of stability (ΔV) of two time-varying variables, hand coordinate and velocity, during accurate throw of a small ball into the basket. Ten participants performed the throwing task with eyes-open (vision) and -closed (no vision) conditions. In the latter condition, participants closed their eyes prior to initiating the throw. The intertrial variance in the joint configuration space (and joint velocity space) was analyzed based on the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. The results confirmed the presence of both coordinate- and velocity-stabilizing synergies (ΔV > 0). Intertrial variance was larger in the no-vision condition compared with the vision condition. Over the movement duration, ΔV did not change for the coordinate-related analysis but dropped consistently for the velocity-related analysis. The authors interpret the findings within the idea of hierarchical control and trade-off between synergy indices at different levels of the hierarchy.

Hasanbarani is with the School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Latash and Hasanbarani are with the Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Hasanbarani (fariba.hasanbarani@mail.mcgill.ca) is corresponding author.
  • Ambike, S., Zatsiorsky, V.M., & Latash, M.L. (2015). Processes underlying unintentional finger force changes in the absence of visual feedback. Experimental Brain Research, 233, 711721. PubMed ID: 25417192 doi:10.1007/s00221-014-4148-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernstein, N.A. (1967). The co-ordination and regulation of movements. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.

  • Cusumano, J.P., & Cesari, P. (2006). Body-goal variability mapping in an aiming task. Biological Cybernetics, 94(5), 367379. PubMed ID: 16501988 doi:10.1007/s00422-006-0052-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feldman, A.G. (2015). Referent control of action and perception: Challenging conventional theories in behavioral neuroscience. New York, NY: Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gorniak, S.L., Feldman, A.G., & Latash, M.L. (2009). Joint coordination during bimanual transport of real and imaginary objects. Neuroscience Letters, 456(2), 8084. PubMed ID: 19429138 doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2009.03.084

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gorniak, S.L., Zatsiorsky, V.M., & Latash, M.L. (2007a). Emerging and disappearing synergies in a hierarchically controlled system. Experimental Brain Research, 183(2), 259270. doi:10.1007/s00221-007-1042-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gorniak, S.L., Zatsiorsky, V.M., & Latash, M.L. (2007b). Hierarchies of synergies: An example of two-hand, multi-finger tasks. Experimental Brain Research, 179(2), 167180. doi:10.1007/s00221-006-0777-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gorniak, S.L., Zatsiorsky, V.M., & Latash, M.L. (2010). Manipulation of a fragile object. Experimental Brain Research, 202(2), 413430. PubMed ID: 20043148 doi:10.1007/s00221-009-2148-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lam, W.K., Maxwell, J.P., & Masters, R.S.W. (2009). Analogy versus explicit learning of a modified basketball shooting task: Performance and kinematic outcomes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(2), 179191. PubMed ID: 19153868 doi:10.1080/02640410802448764

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landin, D.K., Hebert, E.P., & Fairweather, M. (1993). The effects of variable practice on the performance of a basketball skill. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64(2), 232237. PubMed ID: 8341849 doi:10.1080/02701367.1993.10608803

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latash, M.L. (2008). Synergy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

  • Latash, M.L. (2010). Motor synergies and the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Motor Control, 14, 294322. doi:10.1123/mcj.14.3.294

  • Latash, M.L. (2012). The bliss (not the problem) of motor abundance (not redundancy). Experimental Brain Research, 217(1), 15. PubMed ID: 22246105 doi:10.1007/s00221-012-3000-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latash, M.L. (2017). Biological movement and laws of physics. Motor Control, 21(3), 327344. PubMed ID: 27633077 doi:10.1123/mc.2016-0016

  • Latash, M.L., Scholz, J.P., & Schöner, G. (2007). Toward a new theory of motor synergies. Motor Control, 11, 276308. PubMed ID: 17715460 doi:10.1123/mcj.11.3.276

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Müller, H., & Sternad, D. (2003). A randomization method for the calculation of covariation in multiple nonlinear relations: Illustrated with the example of goal-directed movements. Biological Cybernetics, 89(1), 2233.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Müller, H., & Sternad, D. (2004). Decomposition of variability in the execution of goal-oriented tasks: Three components of skill improvement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 30(1), 212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parsa, B., O’shea, D.J., Zatsiorsky, V.M., & Latash, M.L. (2016). On the nature of unintentional action: A study of force/moment drifts during multi-finger tasks. Journal of Neurophysiology, 116, 698708. PubMed ID: 27193319 doi:10.1152/jn.00180.2016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reisman, D.S., Scholz, J.P., & Schöner, G. (2002). Coordination underlying the control of whole body momentum during sit-to-stand. Gait & Posture, 15(1), 4555. PubMed ID: 11809580 doi:10.1016/S0966-6362(01)00158-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reschechtko, S., & Latash, M.L. (2017). Stability of hand force production: I. Hand level control variables and multi-finger synergies. Journal of Neurophysiology, 118, 31523164. PubMed ID: 28904102 doi:10.1152/jn.00485.2017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosenblatt, N.J., Hurt, C.P., Latash, M.L., & Grabiner, M.D. (2014). An apparent contradiction: Increasing variability to achieve greater precision? Experimental Brain Research, 232(2), 403413. PubMed ID: 24162866 doi:10.1007/s00221-013-3748-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scholz, J.P., & Schöner, G. (1999). The uncontrolled manifold concept: Identifying control variables for a functional task. Experimental Brain Research, 126, 289306. PubMed ID: 10382616 doi:10.1007/s002210050738

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scholz, J.P., Schöner, G., & Latash, M.L. (2000). Identifying the control structure of multijoint coordination during pistol shooting. Experimental Brain Research, 135(3), 382404. PubMed ID: 11146817 doi:10.1007/s002210000540

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schöner, G. (1995). Recent developments and problems in human movement science and their conceptual implications. Ecological Psychology, 7(4), 291314. doi:10.1207/s15326969eco0704_5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Singh, T., Zatsiorsky, V.M., & Latash, M.L. (2012). Effects of fatigue on synergies in a hierarchical system. Human Movement Science, 31(6), 13791398. PubMed ID: 23182434 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2012.06.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sternad, D., Abe, M.O., Hu, X., & Müller, H. (2011). Neuromotor noise, error tolerance and velocity-dependent costs in skilled performance. PLoS Computational Biology, 7(9), e1002159. PubMed ID: 21966262 doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002159

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vaillancourt, D.E., & Russell, D.M. (2002). Temporal capacity of short-term visuomotor memory in continuous force production. Experimental Brain Research, 145, 275285. PubMed ID: 12136377 doi:10.1007/s00221-002-1081-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, J.F., & Scholz, J.P. (2005). Learning a throwing task is associated with differential changes in the use of motor abundance. Experimental Brain Research, 163(2), 137158. PubMed ID: 15657698 doi:10.1007/s00221-004-2149-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, T., Solnik, S., Wu, Y.H., & Latash, M.L. (2014). Equifinality and its violations in a redundant system: Control with referent configurations in a multi-joint positional task. Motor Control, 18(4), 405424. PubMed ID: 24717213 doi:10.1123/mc.2013-0105

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 208 208 52
Full Text Views 14 14 3
PDF Downloads 15 15 4