External Focus in Long Jump Performance: A Systematic Review

in Motor Control
View More View Less
  • 1 Federal University of Ceará
  • 2 University Center Estacio do Ceara
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $77.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $103.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $147.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $195.00

External focus is a way to guide human movement based on outcome rather than execution, therefore all instructions are provided based on factors present in the environment. The aim of this review is to search information about the effects of external focus in the long jump task and to compare its outcomes with other learning methods. For the research, online database search engines such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Cinahl, and Scopus were used from January 2010 to June 2020. About 41 articles were identified by searching the online databases, 12 were discarded because they were duplicates, 11 were excluded due to the content of the abstract, and finally, 5 were excluded after evaluating the content of the full text, leaving 13 articles to be included in this review. This review sought to summarize the findings in the literature on the use of external focus in the practice of long jump. The authors concluded that the external focus is a relevant approach and can be used as a tool for the learning process.

Messias da Silva is with the Institute of Physical Education and Sports, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. Crescencio Bezerra is with the University Center Estacio do Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil.

Messias da Silva (geovanimessias@alu.ufc.br) is corresponding author.
  • Araujo, D., Davids, K., & Hristovski, R. (2006). The ecological dynamics of decision making in sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7(6), 653676.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Becker, J., & Wu, W.F.W. (2015). Integrating biomechanical and motor control principles in elite high jumpers: A transdisciplinary approach to enhancing sport performance. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 4(4), 341346. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2015.09.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Becker, K.A., Fairbrother, J.T., & Couvillion, K.F. (2020). The effects of attentional focus in the preparation and execution of a standing long jump. Psychological Research, 84(2), 285291. PubMed ID: 29616337 doi:10.1007/s00426-018-0999-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Becker, K.A., Georges, A.F., & Aiken, C.A. (2019). Considering a holistic focus of attention as an alternative to an external focus. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 7(2), 194203. doi:10.1123/jmld.2017-0065

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Becker, K.A., & Smith, P.J. (2015). Attentional focus effects in standing long jump performance: Influence of a broad and narrow internal focus. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(7), 17801783. PubMed ID: 26102255 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000825

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernstein, N.A. (1967). The co-ordination and regulation of movements. New York: Pergamon Press.

  • Buchanan, J.J., Park, I., Chen, J., Mehta, R.K., McCulloch, A., Rhee, J., & Wright, D.L. (2018). Expert monitoring and verbal feedback as sources of performance pressure. Acta Psychologica, 186, 3946. PubMed ID: 29698846 doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coker, C. (2018). Kinematic effects of varying adolescents’ attentional instructions for standing long jump. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 125(6), 10931102. PubMed ID: 30413138 doi:10.1177/0031512518802903

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davids, K., Glazier, P., Araujo, D., & Bartlett, R. (2003). Movement systems as dynamical systems: The functional role of variability and its implications for sports medicine. Sports Medicine, 33(4), 245260. PubMed ID: 12688825 doi:10.2165/00007256-200333040-00001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ducharme, S.W., Wu, W.F.W., Lim, K., Porter, J.M., & Geraldo, F. (2016). Standing long jump performance with an external focus of attention is improved as a result of a more effective projection angle. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(1), 276281. PubMed ID: 26691415 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001050

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fonseca, S.T., Faria, C.D.C.M., Ocarino, J.M., & Mancini, M.C. (2007). Ecological approach to perception and action: Fundaments for motor behavior. Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior, 2(1), 1–10. doi:10.20338/bjmb.v2i1.12

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frank, T.D., Michelbrink, M., Beckmann, H., & Schollhorn, W.I. (2008). A quantitative dynamical systems approach to differential learning: Self-organization principle and order parameter equations. Biological Cybernetics, 98(1), 1931. PubMed ID: 18026746 doi:10.1007/s00422-007-0193-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gokeler, A., Benjaminse, A., Welling, W., Alferink, M., Eppinga, P., & Otten, B. (2015). The effects of attentional focus on jump performance and knee joint kinematics in patients after ACL reconstruction. Physical Therapy in Sport, 16(2), 114120. PubMed ID: 25443228 doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2014.06.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gokeler, A., Seil, R., Kerkhoffs, G., & Verhagen, E. (2018). A novel approach to enhance ACL injury prevention programs. Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, 5(1), 22. PubMed ID: 29916182 doi:10.1186/s40634-018-0137-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hay, J.G., Miller, J.A., & Canterna, R.W. (1986). The techniques of elite male long jumpers. Journal of Biomechanics, 19(10), 855866. PubMed ID: 3782168 doi:10.1016/0021-9290(86)90136-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koga, H., Nakamae, A., Shima, Y., Iwasa, J., Myklebust, G., Engebretsen, L., & Krosshaug, T. (2010). Mechanisms for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: Knee joint kinematics in 10 injury situations from female team handball and basketball. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(11), 22182225. PubMed ID: 20595545 doi:10.1177/0363546510373570

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Linthorne, N.P., Guzman, M.S., & Bridgett, L.A. (2005). Optimum take-off angle in the long jump. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(7), 703712. PubMed ID: 16195020 doi:10.1080/02640410400022011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Makaruk, H., Porter, J.M., Czaplicki, A., Sadowski, J., & Sacewicz, T. (2012). The role of attentional focus in plyometric training. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 52(3), 319327. PubMed ID: 22648471

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marchant, D.C., Griffiths, G., Partridge, J.A., Belsley, L., & Porter, J.M. (2018). The influence of external focus instruction characteristics on children’s motor performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 89(4), 418428. PubMed ID: 30257136 doi:10.1080/02701367.2018.1512075

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neilson, P.D., Neilson, M.D., & Bye, R.T. (2015). A Riemannian geometry theory of human movement: The geodesic synergy hypothesis. Human Movement Science, 44, 4272. PubMed ID: 26302481 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2015.08.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newell, K.M. (1986). Constraints on the development of coordination. Motor development in children: Aspects of coordination and control, 6(3), 341360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Porter, J.M., Anton, P.M., Wikoff, N.M., & Ostrowski, J.B. (2013). Instructing skilled athletes to focus their attention externally at greater distances enhances jumping performance. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(8), 20732078. PubMed ID: 23222082 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31827e1521

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Porter, J.M., Anton, P.M., & Wu, W.F. (2012). Increasing the distance of an external focus of attention enhances standing long jump performance. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(9), 23892393. PubMed ID: 22067252 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823f275c

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Porter, J.M., Ostrowski, E.J., Nolan, R.P., & Wu, W.F. (2010). Standing long-jump performance is enhanced when using an external focus of attention. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(7), 17461750. PubMed ID: 20543731 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181df7fbf

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schöllhorn, W.I. (2012). The nonlinear nature of learning—A differential learning approach. The Open Sports Sciences Journal, 5(1), 100112.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schöllhorn, W.I., Beckmann, H., Janssen, D., & Drepper, J. (2010). Stochastic perturbations in athletic field events enhance skill acquisition. In I. Renshaw, K. Davids, & G. Savelsbergh (Eds.), Motor learning in practice: A constraints-led approach (pp. 6992). London: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seifert, L., & Davids, K. (2017). Ecological dynamics: A theoretical framework for understanding sport performance, physical education and physical activity. In P. Bourgine, P. Collet, & P. Parrend (Eds.), First complex systems digital campus world e-conference 2015 (pp. 2940). Switzerland: Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vance, J., Wulf, G., Töllner, T., McNevin, N., & Mercer, J. (2004). EMG activity as a function of the performer’s focus of attention. Journal of Motor Behavior, 36(4), 450459. PubMed ID: 15695233 doi:10.3200/JMBR.36.4.450-459

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vidal, A., Wu, W., Nakajima, M., & Becker, J. (2018). Investigating the constrained action hypothesis: A movement coordination and coordination variability approach. Journal of Motor Behavior, 50(5), 528537. PubMed ID: 28925816 doi:10.1080/00222895.2017.1371111

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, W.F., Porter, J.M., & Brown, L.E. (2012). Effect of attentional focus strategies on peak force and performance in the standing long jump. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(5), 12261231. PubMed ID: 22082793 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318231ab61

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wulf, G. (2007). Attentional focus and motor learning: A review of 10 years of research. E-Journal Bewegung und Training, 1, 164.

  • Wulf, G. (2013). Attentional focus and motor learning: A review of 15 years. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6(1), 77104. doi:10.1080/1750984X.2012.723728

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wulf, G., Dufek, J.S., Lozano, L., & Pettigrew, C. (2010). Increased jump height and reduced EMG activity with an external focus. Human Movement Science, 29(3), 440448. PubMed ID: 20409600 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2009.11.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wulf, G., McNevin, N., & Shea, C.H. (2001). The automaticity of complex motor skill learning as a function of attentional focus. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54(4), 11431154. PubMed ID: 11765737 doi:10.1080/713756012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yamada, M., Raisbeck, L.D., & Porter, J.M. (2020). The effects of using imagery to elicit an external focus of attention. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 17. doi:10.1080/02701367.2020.1733455

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 592 592 261
Full Text Views 8 8 4
PDF Downloads 3 3 1