Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities Rely on Somatosensory Information Rather Than Visual Information to Catch a Ball

in Motor Control
View More View Less
  • 1 University of São Paulo
  • 2 German Sport University Cologne
  • 3 University of Münster
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $77.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $103.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $147.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $195.00

According to the literature, persons with intellectual disabilities have poor motor control in tasks in which motor anticipation is needed. Our study aimed to assess their motor behavior during interceptive tasks (a tennis ball interception with external-and-oneself throw conditions). A stick-bar was used as a reference or to support cloth to occlude a ball’s trajectory. Catch performance and interceptive behavior were analyzed (26 persons). The results show that high/low values of the initial approaching movement led to successful/successful catches, respectively. Our results are in line with the literature about the impact of poor motor control on performance in those with intellectual disabilities. We suggest that low anticipation may relate to problems in real-life situations.

Tolentino-Castro and Mochizuki are with the Department of Movement Science, College of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Tolentino-Castro is also with the Department of Performance Psychology, Institute of Psychology, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany. Tolentino-Castro and Wagner are with the Department of Movement Science, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; and the Otto Creutzfeldt Center for Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Tolentino-Castro (w.tolentino.castro@gmail.com) is corresponding author.
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Anxiety Disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders,(p. 33, 5th Ed.). doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, J.S., Nielsen, J.A., Ferguson, M.A., Burback, M.C., Cox, E.T., Dai, L., … Korenberg, J.R. (2013). Abnormal brain synchrony in Down Syndrome. NeuroImage: Clinical, 2, 703715. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Astill, S. (2007). Can children with developmental coordination disorder adapt to task constraints when catching two-handed? Disability and rehabilitation, 29(1), 5767. PubMed ID: 17364757 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Astill, S., & Utley, A. (2006). Two-handed catching in children with developmental coordination disorder. Motor Control, 10(2), 109124. doi:

  • Bertelli, M.O., Munir, K., Harris, J., & Salvador-Carulla, L. (2016). Intellectual developmental disorders: reflections on the international consensus document for redefining mental retardation-intellectual disability in ICD 11. Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 10(1), 3658. PubMed ID: 27066217 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Capio, C.M., Sit, C.H., Eguia, K.F., Abernethy, B., & Masters, R.S. (2015). Fundamental movement skills training to promote physical activity in children with and without disability: A pilot study. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 4(3), 235243. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carmeli, E., Bar-Yossef, T., Ariav, C., Levy, R., & Liebermann, D.G. (2008). Perceptual-motor coordination in persons with mild intellectual disability. Disability and Rehabilitation, 30(5), 323329. PubMed ID: 17852209 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cesqui, B., d’Avella, A., Portone, A., & Lacquaniti, F. (2012). Catching a ball at the right time and place: Individual factors matter. PLoS One, 7(2), e31770. PubMed ID: 22384072 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chiurazzi, P.& Pirozzi, F. (2016). Advances in understanding—Genetic basis of intellectual disability. F1000Research, 5, 599. doi:

  • Debrabant, J., Vingerhoets, G., Van Waelvelde, H., Leemans, A., Taymans, T., & Caeyenberghs, K. (2016). Brain connectomics of visual-motor deficits in children with developmental coordination disorder. The Journal of Pediatrics, 169, 2127.e2. PubMed ID: 26526363 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Decobert, F., Grabar, S., Merzoug, V., Kalifa, G., Ponsot, G., & des Portes, V. (2005). Unexplained mental retardation: Is brain MRI useful? Pediatric Radiology, 35(6), 587596. PubMed ID: 15739114 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dirksen, T., De Lussanet, M.H.E., Zentgraf, K., Slupinski, L., & Wagner, H. (2016). Increased throwing accuracy improves children’s catching performance in a ball-catching task from the movement assessment battery (MABC-2). Frontiers in Psychology, 7(JUL), 18

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodley, D., Lawthom, R., Liddiard K., & Runswick-Cole, K. (2019). Provocations for critical disability studies. Disability & Society, 34(6), 972997, doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hill, E.L., & Wing, A.M. (1999). Coordination of grip force and load force in developmental coordination disorder: A case study. Neurocase, 5(6), 537544. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogan, N. (1984). An organizing principle for a class of voluntary movements. The Journal of Neuroscience, 4(11), 27452754. doi:

  • Holmes, P., & Calmels, C. (2008). A neuroscientific review of imagery and observation use in sport. Journal of Motor Behavior, 40(5), 433445. PubMed ID: 18782718 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hommel, B., Müsseler, J., Aschersleben, G., & Prinz, W. (2001). The theory of event coding (TEC): A framework for perception and action planning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24(5), 849878. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houwen, S., van der Putten, A., & Vlaskamp, C. (2014). A systematic review of the effects of motor interventions to improve motor, cognitive, and/or social functioning in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(9), 20932116. PubMed ID: 24878631 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houwen, S., Visser, L., van der Putten, A., & Vlaskamp, C. (2016). The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 53–54, 1931. PubMed ID: 26851384 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jeoung, B.J. (2013). Objective control skills among students with intellectual disability at special school in Korea. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 9(5), 477480. PubMed ID: 24282808 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaplan, B.J., Wilson, B.N., Dewey, D., & Crawford, S.G. (1998). DCD may not be a discrete disorder. Human Movement Science, 17(4-5), 471490. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kistemaker, D.A., Wong, J.D., & Gribble, P.L. (2014). The cost of moving optimally: kinematic path selection. Journal of Neurophysiology, 112(8), 18151824. PubMed ID: 24944215 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • López-Moliner, J., Brenner, E., Louw, S., & Smeets, J.B.J. (2010). Catching a gently thrown ball. Experimental Brain Research, 206(4), 409417. PubMed ID: 20862460 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mandich, A., & Polatajko, H.J. (2003). Developmental coordination disorder: Mechanisms, measurement, and management. Human Movement Science, 22(4-5), 407411. PubMed ID: 14624825 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murias, K., Moir, A., Myers, K.A., Liu, I., & Wei, X.C. (2017). Systematic review of MRI findings in children with developmental delay or cognitive impairment. Brain and Development, 39(8), 644655. PubMed ID: 28457518 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murray, G.K., Jones, P.B., Kuh, D., & Richards, M. (2007). Infant developmental milestones and subsequent cognitive function. Annals of Neurology, 62(2), 128136. PubMed ID: 17487877 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakken, H., & Vlaskamp, C. (2007). A need for new taxonomy for profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Journal of Policy and practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 4(2), 8387. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ondobaka, S., Kilner, J., & Friston, K. (2017). The role of interoceptive inference in theory of mind. Brain and Cognition, 112, 6468. PubMed ID: 26275633 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peper, C.E., Bootsma, R.J., Mestre, D.R., & Bakker, F.C. (1994). Catching balls: How to get the hand to the right place at the right time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 20(3), 591612. PubMed ID: 8027714 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Potier, M.-C., & Reeves, R.H. (2016). Editorial: Intellectual disabilities in Down syndrome from birth and throughout life: Assessment and treatment. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 10, 120. PubMed ID: 27378871 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Przysucha, E.P., & Maraj, B.K.V. (2014). Interlimb coordination and control in boys with and without DCD in ball catching. Acta Psychologica, 151, 6273. PubMed ID: 24951917 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reiss, A., Abrams, M., Singer, H., Ross, J., & Denckla, M. (1996). Brain development, gender, and IQ in children. A volumetric imaging study. Brain, 119(5), 17631774. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reynolds, J.E., Licari, M.K., Billington, J., Chen, Y., Aziz-Zadeh, L., Werner, J., Bynevelt, M. (2015). Mirror neuron activation in children with developmental coordination disorder: A functional MRI study. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 47, 309319. PubMed ID: 26523778 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riddell, H., Tolentino-Castro, J., Wagner, H., & Lappe, M. (2017). Impairments in the visual processing of global biological motion cues in Down syndrome. Perception, 46(11), 12831297. PubMed ID: 28675962 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schaer, M., & Eliez, S. (2007). From genes to brain: Understanding brain development in neurogenetic disorders using neuroimaging techniques. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 16(3), 557579. PubMed ID: 17562579 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sekaran, S.N., Reid, S.L., Chin, A.W., Ndiaye, S., & Licari, M.K. (2012). Catch! Movement kinematics of two-handed catching in boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder. Gait and Posture, 36(1), 2732. PubMed ID: 22464636 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shmuelof, L., & Krakauer, J.W. (2011). Are we ready for a natural history of motor learning? Neuron, 72(3), 469476. PubMed ID: 22078506 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sinha, P., Kjelgaard, M.M., Gandhi, T., Tsourides, K., Cardinaux, A.L., Pantazis, D., … Held, R.M. (2014). Autism as a disorder of prediction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, (42) 1522015225.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Slupinski, L., de Lussanet, M.H.E., & Wagner, H. (2017). Analyzing the kinematics of hand movements in catching tasks—An online correction analysis of movement toward the target’s trajectory. Behavior Research Methods, 50(6), 23162324. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tolentino-Castro, J.W., Riddell, H., & Wagner, H. (2017). Perception of biological motion speed in individuals with Down syndrome. Journal of Down Syndrome & Chromosome Abnormalities, 3, 16.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Utley, A., & Astill, S.L. (2007). Developmental sequences of two-handed catching: How do children with and without developmental coordination disorder differ? Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 23:2(2), 6582. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Waelvelde, H., De Weerdt, W., De Cock, P., & Engelsman, B.C.M.S. (2003). Ball catching. Can it be measured? Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 19(4), 259267. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vuijk, P.J., Hartman, E., Scherder, E., & Visscher, C. (2010). Motor performance of children with mild intellectual. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54 (11), 955965. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wechsler, D. (1955). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Psychological Corp. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1955-07334-000

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Westendorp, M., Houwen, S., Hartman, E., & Visscher, C. (2011). Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities? Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(3), 11471153. PubMed ID: 21310587 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woll, A., Albrecht, C., & Worth, A. (2017). Motorik-Modul (MoMo)—das Modul zur Erfassung der motorischen Leistungsfähigkeit und der körperlich-sportlichen Aktivität in KiGGS Welle. Journal of Health Monitoring, 2(S3), 3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, X., & Bhattacharyya, A. (2018). Human models are needed for studying human neurodevelopmental disorders. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 103(6), 829857. PubMed ID: 30526865 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zwicker, J.G., Missiuna, C., Harris, S.R., & Boyd, L.A. (2011). Brain activation associated with motor skill practice in children with developmental coordination disorder: An fMRI study. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 29(2), 145152. PubMed ID: 21145385 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zwicker, J.G., Missiuna, C., Harris, S.R., & Boyd, L.A. (2012). Developmental coordination disorder: A review and up-date. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 16(6), 573581. PubMed ID: 22705270 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 149 149 41
Full Text Views 4 4 2
PDF Downloads 4 4 3