One-Year Follow-up of the CAPO Kids Trial: Are Physical Benefits Maintained?

in Pediatric Exercise Science
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Purpose: To determine the 12-month maintenance of a 9-month, thrice-weekly, 10-minute high-intensity exercise program, delivered in schools, on bone and other health-related performance variables in prepubertal children. Methods: All participants (N = 311) of the CAPO kids trial (testing times T1–T2) were contacted to undergo retesting (T3) of all original measures—including weight, standing and sitting height, calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (Achilles, GE), and stiffness index (Achilles, GE)—waist circumference, resting heart rate, blood pressure, vertical jump, and aerobic capacity. Maturity was determined by estimating age of peak height velocity using sex-specific regression equations. Results: A total of 240 children [12.3 (0.6) y old] were included in the current study (77% of initial follow-up sample at T2). Between the T2 and T3 time points, both exercise (EX) group and control (CON) group increased broadband ultrasound attenuation (EX: 5.6%, P ≤ .001; CON: 6.5%, P ≤ .001), stiffness index (EX: 7.3%, P ≤ .001; CON: 5.2%, P ≤ .001), vertical jump (EX: 5.9%, P ≤ .001; CON: 6.3%, P ≤ .001), estimated maximal oxygen consumption (EX: 13.3%, P ≤ .001; CON: 12.1%, P ≤ .001), and reduced waist circumference (EX: −5.2%, P ≤ .001; CON: −5.6%, P ≤ .001), with no between-group differences in the magnitude of those changes. No differences were detected in absolute values between groups at T3. Conclusion: Although the statistically significant differences observed between groups following the intervention were no longer significant 1 year after withdrawal of the intervention, the between-group similarities in growth trajectories of those parameters could suggest that some benefit of the intervention for bone health, waist circumference, and physical performance endured.

Nogueira, Weeks, and Beck are with the School of Allied Health Sciences and Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Address author correspondence to Rossana C. Nogueira at r.nogueira@griffith.edu.au.
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