Impact of Martial Arts (Judo, Karate, and Kung Fu) on Bone Mineral Density Gains in Adolescents of Both Genders: 9-Month Follow-Up

in Pediatric Exercise Science
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Purpose: To compare bone mineral density (BMD) gains in adolescents of both genders stratified according to different martial art styles in a 9-month follow-up study. Methods: The longitudinal study consisted of 29 adolescents of both genders and age between 11 and 17 years stratified into a control group (not engaged in any sport) and 50 fighters (kung fu/karate, n = 29; judo, n = 21). All 79 subjects underwent anthropometric measures (weight, height, leg length, and height set) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (BMD, in g/cm2) at 2 moments, baseline and 9 months later. Maturity offset (age at peak height velocity), lean soft tissue, chronological age, and resistance training were treated as covariates. Results: Male judoists presented higher gains in BMD-spine [0.098 g/cm2 (95% confidence interval, 0.068–0.128)] than control group [0.040 g/cm2 (95% confidence interval, 0.011–0.069)] (post hoc test with P = .030). There was no effect of martial art on BMD gains among girls. Independently of gender, in all multivariate models, lean soft tissue constituted the most relevant covariate. Conclusions: Judo practice in adolescents affected the bone accrual significantly after 9-month follow-up compared with controls, mainly in boys.

Ito and Agostinete are with the Laboratory of InVestigation in Exercise (LIVE), Dept. of Physical Education, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. Kemper is with the Dept. of Occupational Health, EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Agostinete, Christofaro, and Fernandes are with the Post-Graduation Program in Physical Therapy, Dept. of Physical Therapy, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. Lynch, Christofaro, and Fernandes are with the Post-Graduation Program in Kinesiology, Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil. Ronque is with Post-Graduation Program in Physical Education, Center of Physical Education and Sports, Londrina State University (UEL), Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

Address author correspondence to Igor H. Ito at hidekincubus@yahoo.com.br.
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