Effect of Low- Versus High-Intensity Exercise Training on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Adolescents With Obesity: A 6-Month Randomized Exercise Intervention Study

in Pediatric Exercise Science
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Purpose: To investigate the effects of a low- versus high-intensity aerobic training on biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in adolescents with obesity. Methods: Sixty-two adolescents with obesity [age = 15 (14) y, body mass index = 34.87 (4.22) kg·m−2] were randomized to receive either a high-intensity training (HIT, n = 31) or a low-intensity training (LIT, n = 31) for 24 weeks. All participants also received nutritional, psychological, and clinical counseling. Leptin, total and subtype leukocyte counts, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were obtained at baseline and after 24 weeks. Results: HIT reduced neutrophils [from 4.4 (1.9) to 3.6 (1.3) µL−1 × 103; P = .01] and monocytes [from 7.2 (2.5) to 5.2 (1.8) µL−1 × 102; P < .01], but LIT increased neutrophils [from 4.5 (1.7) to 5.2 (3.3) µL−1 × 103; P = .01]. Although tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased in LIT [from 13.3 (7.5) to 17.7 (10.8) pg·mL−1; P = .01], it decreased in HIT [from 12.4 (7.5) to 11.3 (6.2) pg·mL−1; P = .01]. No changes in leukocyte counts, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance were observed. Conclusions: Both HIT and LIT improved the inflammatory profile. The study, however, indicated that the number of biomarkers and the magnitude of changes were higher in the HIT compared with LIT.

Tenório is with the Associate Program of Post-Graduation in Physical Education, University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil; and also with the Federal Institute of the Sertão Pernambucano, Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil. Balagopal is with the Nemours Children’s Clinic and Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL. Andersen is with the Sogn and Fjordane University College, Sogndal, Norway. Ritti-Dias is with the Graduate Program in Science of Rehabilitation, Nine of July University, São Paulo, Brazil. Hill is with the Anschutz Health and Wellness Center, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO. Lofrano-Prado is with the Psychology Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Prado is with the Department of Human Movement Science, Federal University of São Paulo-Santos, São Paulo, Brazil.

Address author correspondence to Wagner L. Prado at wagner.prado@unifesp.br.
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