Mental Fatigue Impairs Physical Performance in Young Swimmers

in Pediatric Exercise Science
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $68.00

1 year subscription

USD $90.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $129.00

2 year subscription

USD $168.00

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on heart rate variability, subjective measures of fatigue, and swimming performance in young athletes. Methods: Sixteen swimmers [15.45 (0.51) y old, 7.35 (2.20) y of swimming experience] performed a 1500-m time trial on 2 occasions separated by an interval of at least 72 hours. The 1500-m swimming was preceded by a 30-minute treatment that consisted of performing the Stroop Color and Word test to induce mental fatigue (experimental trial) or watching an emotionally neutral video (control trial). Results: Participants reported higher ratings of mental fatigue and mental effort following the Stroop test when compared with the control trial, but no differences in motivation were observed. The induction of mental fatigue impaired swimming performance, as evidenced by a slower time (1.2%) to complete the 1500-m trial. No intertrial differences were identified for rating of perceived exertion during the swimming test or in heart rate variability after the Stroop and swimming tests. Conclusion: The results indicate that induction of mental fatigue impairs 1500-m swimming performance without changing heart rate variability.

Penna, Wanner, Campos, Quinan, Mendes, and Prado are with the Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Penna is also with the Universidade Federal do Pará-Campus Universitário de Castanhal, Castanhal, Brazil. Filho is with Social Interaction and Performance Science Laboratory, School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom. Mendes is also with the Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luiz, Brazil. Smith is with The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.

Address author correspondence to Eduardo Macedo Penna at em.penna@yahoo.com.br.
Pediatric Exercise Science
Article Sections
References
  • 1.

    Atlaoui DPichot VLacoste LBarale FLacour JRChatard JC. Heart rate variability, training variation and performance in elite swimmers. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28(5):394400. PubMed doi:10.1055/s-2006-924490

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Badin OSmith MRConte DCoutts AJ. Mental fatigue: impairment of technical performance in small-sided soccer games. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11(8):11005. PubMed doi:10.1123/ijspp.2015-0710

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Baumert MBrechtel LLock JHermsdorf MWolff RBaier VVoss A. Heart rate variability, blood pressure variability, and baroreflex sensitivity in overtrained athletes. Clin J Sport Med. 2006;16(5):4127. PubMed doi:10.1097/01.jsm.0000244610.34594.07

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Boksem MAMeijman TFLorist MM. Effects of mental fatigue on attention: an ERP study. Cogn Brain Res. 2005;25(1):10716. doi:10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.04.011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Boksem MATops M. Mental fatigue: costs and benefits. Brain Res Rev. 2008;59(1):12539. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2008.07.001

  • 6.

    Borg GA. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14(5):37781. PubMed doi:10.1249/00005768-198205000-00012

  • 7.

    Brownsberger JEdwards ACrowther RCottrell D. Impact of mental fatigue on self-paced exercise. Int J Sports Med. 2013;34(12):102936. PubMed doi:10.1055/s-0033-1343402

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Chalencon SBusso TLacour JRet al. A model for the training effects in swimming demonstrates a strong relationship between parasympathetic activity, performance and index of fatigue. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(12):52636. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052636

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Fullagar HHSkorski SDuffield RHammes DCoutts AJMeyer T. Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Sports Med. 2015;45(2):16186. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0260-0

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Gergelyfi MJacob BOlivier EZénon A. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity. Front Behav Neurosci. 2015;9:176. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00176

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Hopkins WGMarshall SWBatterham AMHanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(1):313. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Hutchinson JCTenenbaum G. Attention focus during physical effort: the mediating role of task intensity. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2007;8(2):23345. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.03.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Kato YEndo HKizuka T. Mental fatigue and impaired response processes: event-related brain potentials in a Go/NoGo task. Int J Psychophysiol. 2009;72(2):20411. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.12.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Kenttä GHassmén P. Overtraining and recovery: a conceptual model. Sports Med. 1998;26(1):116. doi:10.2165/00007256-199826010-00001

  • 15.

    Lorist MMBoksem MASRidderinkhof KR. Impaired cognitive control and reduced cingulate activity during mental fatigue. Cogn Brain Res. 2005;24(2):199205. doi:10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.01.018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    MacMahon CSchücker LHagemann NStrauss B. Cognitive fatigue effects on physical performance during running. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2014;36(4):37581. PubMed doi:10.1123/jsep.2013-0249

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Marcora SMStaiano WManning V. Mental fatigue impairs physical performance in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106(3):85764. PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.91324.2008

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Martin KThompson KGKeegan RBall NRattray B. Mental fatigue does not affect maximal anaerobic exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015;115(4):71525. PubMed doi:10.1007/s00421-014-3052-1

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Mizuno KTanaka MYamaguti KKajimoto OKuratsune HWatanabe Y. Mental fatigue caused by prolonged cognitive load associated with sympathetic hyperactivity. Behav Brain Funct. 2011;7(1):17. doi:10.1186/1744-9081-7-17

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Nummela AHynynen EKaikkonen PRusko H. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants. Biol Sport. 2016;33(1):713. PubMed doi:10.5604/20831862.1180171

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Pageaux BLepers RDietz KCMarcora SM. Response inhibition impairs subsequent self-paced endurance performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014;114(5):1095105. doi:10.1007/s00421-014-2838-5

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Raglin JSawamura SAlexiou SHassmen PKentta G. Training practices and staleness in 13–18-year-old swimmers: a cross-cultural study. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2000;12(1):6170. doi:10.1123/pes.12.1.61

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Rajendra Acharya UPaul Joseph KKannathal NLim CMSuri JS. Heart rate variability: a review. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2006;44(12):103151. PubMed doi:10.1007/s11517-006-0119-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Renfree AMartin LMicklewright DSt Clair Gibson A. Application of decision-making theory to the regulation of muscular work rate during self-paced competitive endurance activity. Sports Med. 2014;44(2):14758. doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0107-0

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Saul JP. Beat-to-beat variations of heart-rate reflect modulation of cardiac autonomic outflow. Physiology. 1990;5(1):327.

  • 26.

    Smith MRCoutts AJMerlini MDeprez DLenoir MMarcora SM. Mental fatigue impairs soccer-specific physical and technical performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48(2):26776. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000762

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Smith MRMarcora SMCoutts AJ. Mental fatigue impairs intermittent running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(8):168290. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000592

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Smith MRZeuwts LLenoir MHens NDe Jong LMCoutts AJ. Mental fatigue impairs soccer-specific decision-making skill. J Sports Sci. 2016;34(14):1297304. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1156241

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Tanaka MMizuno KTajima SSasabe TWatanabe Y. Central nervous system fatigue alters autonomic nerve activity. Life Sci. 2009;84(7–8):2359. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2008.12.004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and The North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Circulation. 1996;93:104365. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.93.5.1043

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Tenenbaum GConnolly CT. Attention allocation under varied workload and effort perception in rowers. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2008;9(5):70417. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.09.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Van Cutsem JMarcora SDe Pauw KBailey SMeeusen RRoelands B. The effects of mental fatigue on physical performance: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2017;47(8):156988. doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0672-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    van der Linden DFrese MMeijman TF. Mental fatigue and the control of cognitive processes: effects on perseveration and planning. Acta Psychol. 2003;113(1):4565. doi:10.1016/S0001-6918(02)00150-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 188 188 69
Full Text Views 7 7 2
PDF Downloads 4 4 2
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar
Cited By