Relationship Among Changes in Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index in Young Schoolchildren: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

in Pediatric Exercise Science
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $68.00

1 year subscription

USD  $90.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $129.00

2 year subscription

USD  $168.00

Purposes: To examine the association between sedentary time (ST) and light physical activity (LPA), moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and body mass index (BMI), and to track these behaviors over a 3-year follow-up in young schoolchildren. Methods: The final sample was 64 children (female: n = 36 or 56.3%), enrolled in schools in Porto, Portugal. Height and mass of children were measured by standard methods, and BMI was then calculated. ST, LPA, and MVPA were measured by accelerometer. Changes (Δ) and relative changes (Δ%) between 2009/2010 and 2012/2013 of ST, LPA, MVPA, and BMI were computed. Multiple linear regression analyses were fit to predict Δ%ST (outcome variable), by Δ%LPA, Δ%MVPA, and Δ%BMI (exposure variables). Results: ST increased and LPA decreased significantly for whole sample (both Ps < .05). No statistically significant difference was found for MVPA over time. There were no differences for ΔST, ΔLPA, ΔMVPA, and ΔBMI between boys and girls. The Δ%LPA and Δ%MVPA were negatively associated with Δ%ST, whereas Δ%BMI was positively associated. Tracking coefficients varied from moderate to strong. Conclusions: Time spent in ST increases due to displacement of time in LPA. This reinforces public health measures and suggests the need for interventions focusing on offsetting the decline ST and increasing MVPA during childhood.

Santos, Silva-Santos, Lagoa, Vale, and Mota are with the Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Duncan is with the School of Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom. Lagoa is also with the University Institute of Maia (ISMAI), Porto, Portugal. Vale is also with the Dept. of Sport Sciences, High School of Education, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Address author correspondence to Amanda Santos at amanda637@hotmail.com.
  • 1.

    Aggio D, Ogunleye AA, Voss C, Sandercock GRH. Temporal relationships between screen-time and physical activity with cardiorespiratory fitness in English schoolchildren: a 2-year longitudinal study. Prev Med. 2012;55(1):37–9. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.04.012

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Atkin AJ, Corder K, Ekelund U, Wijndaele K, Griffin SJ, van Sluijs EM. Determinants of change in children’s sedentary time. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(6):67627. PubMed doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067627

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Basterfield L, Adamson AJ, Frary JK, Parkinson KN, Pearce MS, Reilly JJ; Gateshead Millennium Study Core Team. Longitudinal study of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children. Pediatrics. 2011;127(1):e24–30. PubMed doi:10.1542/peds.2010-1935

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Basterfield L, Jones AR, Parkinson KN, et al. Physical activity, diet and BMI in children aged 6–8 years: a cross-sectional analysis. Br Med J Open. 2014;4(6):e005001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Basterfield L, Pearce MS, Adamson AJ, et al. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and adiposity in English children. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(5):445–51. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.01.007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Biddle SJ, Pearson N, Ross GM, Braithwaite R. Tracking of sedentary behaviours of young people: a systematic review. Prev Med. 2010;51(5):345–51. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.07.018

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Borghese MM, Tremblay MS, LeBlanc AG, Leduc G, Boyer C, Chaput JP. Comparison of ActiGraph GT3X+ and Actical accelerometer data in 9-11-year-old Canadian children. J Sports Sci. 2017;35(6):517–24. PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parenting tips for healthy child development: middle childhood (6–8 Years of Age) [Internet]. Atlanta, USA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2005 [cited 2016 Nov 24] Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/pdfs/middle-childhood-6-8-w-npa.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Cliff DP, Hesketh KD, Vella SA, et al. Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and health and development in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2016;17(4):330–44. PubMed doi:10.1111/obr.12371

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale, MI: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988, pp. 20–6.

  • 11.

    Corder K, Sharp SJ, Atkin AJ, Griffin SJ, Jones AP, Ekelund U, van Sluijs EM. Change in objectively measured physical activity during the transition to adolescence. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(11):730–6. PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-093190

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Corder K, van Sluijs EMF, Ekelund U, Jones AP, Griffin SJ. Changes in children’s physical activity over 12 months: longitudinal results from the SPEEDY study. Pediatrics. 2010;126(4):e926–35. PubMed doi:10.1542/peds.2010-0048

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Cumming SP, Sherar LB, Esliger DW, Riddoch CJ, Malina RM. Concurrent and prospective associations among biological maturation, and physical activity at 11 and 13 years of age. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014;24(1):e20–8. PubMed doi:10.1111/sms.12103

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Cureau F, Ekelund U, Bloch K, Schaan B. Does body mass index modify the association between physical activity and screen time with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents? Findings from a country-wide survey. Int J Obes. 2017;41:551–9. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.210

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Department of Health. At least five a week: evidence on the impact of physical activity and its relationship to health. A report from the Chief Medical Officer. London, UK: Department of Health, HMSO; 2004, p. 128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Dowda M, Taverno Ross SE, McIver KL, Dishman RK, Pate RR. Physical activity and changes in adiposity in the transition from elementary to middle school. Child Obes. 2017;13(1):53–62. PubMed doi:10.1089/chi.2016.0103

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Dumuid D, Olds T, Lewis LK, et al. Health-related quality of life and lifestyle behavior clusters in school-aged children from 12 countries. J Pediatr. 2017;183:178–83.e2. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.12.048

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Ekelund U, Brage S, Froberg K, et al. TV viewing and physical activity are independently associated with metabolic risk in children: the European Youth Heart Study. PLoS Med. 2006;3(12):e488. PubMed doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030488

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Evensen E, Wilsgaard T, Furberg A-S, Skeie G. Tracking of overweight and obesity from early childhood to adolescence in a population-based cohort—the Tromsø Study, Fit Futures. BMC Pediatr. 2016;16(1):64. doi:10.1186/s12887-016-0599-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Evenson KR, Catellier DJ, Gill K, Ondrak KS, McMurray RG. Calibration of two objective measures of physical activity for children. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(14):1557–65. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640410802334196

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang AG, Buchner A. G*Power 3: a flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behav Res Methods. 2007;39(2):175–91. PubMed doi:10.3758/BF03193146

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Ford ES, Li C. Defining the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: will the real definition please stand up? J Pediatr. 2008;152(2):160–64.e13. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.07.056

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Janssen X, Basterfield L, Parkinson KN, Pearce M, Reilly JK, Adamson AJ, Reilly JJ. Determinants of changes in sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time among 9 and 12 year old children. Prev Med Rep. 2015;2:880–5. doi:10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.10.007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Janz KF, Burns TL, Levy SM. Tracking of activity and sedentary behaviors in childhood: the Iowa Bone Development Study. Am J Prev Med. 2005;29(3):171–8. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2005.06.001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Jones RA, Hinkley T, Okely AD, Salmon J. Tracking physical activity and sedentary behavior in childhood: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2013;44(6):651–8. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.03.001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Kang H-T, Lee H-R, Shim J-Y, Shin Y-H, Park B-J, Lee Y-J. Association between screen time and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents in Korea: the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;89(1):72–8. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2010.02.016

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Kwon S, Burns TL, Levy SM, Janz KF. Which contributes more to childhood adiposity-high levels of sedentarism or low levels of moderate-through-vigorous physical activity? The Iowa Bone Development Study. J Pediatr. 2013;162(6):1169–74. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.11.071

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Lee ST, Wong JE, Shanita SN, Ismail MN, Deurenberg P, Poh BK. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;12(1):146–61. doi:10.3390/ijerph120100146

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    McClain JJ, Abraham TL, Brusseau TA Jr, Tudor-Locke C. Epoch length and accelerometer outputs in children: comparison to direct observation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(12):2080–7. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181824d98

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Mitchell JA, Pate RR, Beets MW, Nader PR. Time spent in sedentary behavior and changes in childhood BMI: a longitudinal study from ages 9 to 15 years. Int J Obes. 2013;37(1):54–60. doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.41

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Pate RR, Mitchell JA, Byun W, Dowda M. Sedentary behaviour in youth. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(11):906–13. PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090192

  • 32.

    Pearce MS, Basterfield L, Mann KD, Parkinson KN, Adamson AJ. Early predictors of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 8–10 year old children: the Gateshead Millennium Study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(6):e37975. PubMed doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037975

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Rey-Lopez JP, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Biosca M, Moreno LA. Sedentary behaviour and obesity development in children and adolescents. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008;18(3):242–51. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2007.07.008

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Sandercock GRH, Ogunleye AA. Screen time and passive school travel as independent predictors of cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. Prev Med. 2012;54(5):319–22. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.03.007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Singh AS, Mulder C, Twisk JWR, Van Mechelen W, Chinapaw MJM. Tracking of childhood overweight into adulthood: a systematic review of the literature. Obes Rev. 2008;9(5):474–88. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00475.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Stierlin AS, De Lepeleere S, Cardon G, et al. A systematic review of determinants of sedentary behaviour in youth: a DEDIPAC-study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12(1):133. doi:10.1186/s12966-015-0291-4

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Tanaka C, Reilly JJ, Huang WY. Longitudinal changes in objectively measured sedentary behaviour and their relationship with adiposity in children and adolescents: systematic review and evidence appraisal. Obes Rev. 2014;15(10):791–803. PubMed doi:10.1111/obr.12195

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Telama R. Tracking of physical activity from childhood to adulthood: a review. Obes Facts. 2009;2(3):187–95. PubMed doi:10.1159/000222244

  • 39.

    Trost SG, Loprinzi PD, Moore R, Pfeiffer KA. Comparison of accelerometer cut points for predicting activity intensity in youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):1360–8. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318206476e

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    US.GOV Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. Physical activity guidelines for Americans. Department of Health and Human Services. Okla Nurse. 2008;53(4):25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Vale S, Santos R, Silva P, Soares-Miranda L, Mota J. Preschool children physical activity measurement: importance of epoch length choice. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2009;21(4):413–20. PubMed doi:10.1123/pes.21.4.413

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    WHO. Growth Reference Data for 5–19 Years. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2007.

  • 43.

    WHO. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2010.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 90 90 4
Full Text Views 8 8 5
PDF Downloads 7 7 4