Stationary Exercise in Overweight and Normal Weight Children

in Pediatric Exercise Science
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $69.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $92.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $131.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $175.00

Purpose: This study examined differences in lower extremity kinematics and muscle activation patterns between normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) children during stationary exercises (running in place, frontal kick, and butt kick) at submaximal intensity. Methods: Healthy children (aged 10–13 y) were stratified into OW (n = 10; body fat percentage: 34.97 [8.60]) and NW (n = 15; body fat percentage: 18.33 [4.87]). Electromyography was recorded for rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior. In addition, the ratings of perceived exertion and range of motion of hip, knee, and ankle joints were collected during stationary exercises. Repeated-measures analysis of variance compared muscle activation, range of motion, and ratings of perceived exertion between groups and exercises. Friedman test examined sequencing of muscles recruitment. Results: Compared with NW, OW experienced significantly greater ratings of perceived exertion (13.7 [0.8] vs 11.7 [0.7]; P < .001) and electromyography amplitude in all muscles apart from vastus lateralis during stationary exercises. In addition, NW children used more consistent muscles’ recruitment pattern in comparison with OW children. The range of motion was similar between groups at all joints. Conclusion: OW children may adopt a more active neuromuscular strategy to provide greater stability and propulsion during stationary exercises. Stationary exercise can be prescribed to strengthen lower extremity muscles in OW children, but mode and intensity must be considered.

Yaghoubi and Shultz are with the School of Sport Exercise and Nutrition, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand. Fink is with the Human Performance Laboratory, School of Sport Exercise and Nutrition, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Page is with the School of Health Sciences, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand.

Yaghoubi (m.yaghoubi@massey.ac.nz) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Alberton CL, Antunes AH, Beilke DD, et al. Maximal and ventilatory thresholds of oxygen uptake and rating of perceived exertion responses to water aerobic exercises. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(7):1897903. PubMed ID: 23037612 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182736e47

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Alberton CL, Cadore EL, Pinto SS, Tartaruga MP, da Silva EM, Kruel LFM. Cardiorespiratory, neuromuscular and kinematic responses to stationary running performed in water and on dry land. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 2011;111(6):115766. PubMed ID: 21127897 doi:10.1007/s00421-010-1747-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Alberton CL, Pinto SS, da Silva Azenha NA, et al. Kinesiological analysis of stationary running performed in aquatic and dry land environments. J Hum Kinet. 2015;49:514. PubMed ID: 26839601 doi:10.1515/hukin-2015-0103

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Alberton CL, Pinto SS, Cadore EL, et al. Oxygen uptake, muscle activity and ground reaction force during water aerobic exercises. Int J Sports Med. 2014;35(14):11619. PubMed ID: 25144436 doi:10.1055/s-0034-1383597

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Alberton CL, Pinto SS, Nunes GN, et al. Horizontal ground reaction forces to stationary running performed in the water and on dry land at different physiological intensities. Eur J Sport Sci. 2017;17(8):101320. PubMed ID: 28609196 doi:10.1080/17461391.2017.1337814

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Alberton CL, Tartaruga MP, Pinto SS, et al. Vertical ground reaction force during water exercises performed at different intensities. Int J Sports Med. 2013;34(10):8817. PubMed ID: 23549690 doi:10.1055/s-0032-1331757

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Balletti C, Guerra F, Tsioukas V, Vernier P. Calibration of action cameras for photogrammetric purposes. Sensors. 2014;14(9):1747190. PubMed ID: 25237898 doi:10.3390/s140917471

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Bernardina GR, Cerveri P, Barros RM, Marins JC, Silvatti AP. In-air versus underwater comparison of 3D reconstruction accuracy using action sport cameras. J Biomech. 2017;51:7782. PubMed ID: 27974154 doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.11.068

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Blakemore VJ, Fink PW, Lark SD, Shultz SP. Mass affects lower extremity muscle activity patterns in children’s gait. Gait Posture. 2013;38(4):60913. PubMed ID: 23485357 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.02.002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Borg E, Kaijser L. A comparison between three rating scales for perceived exertion and two different work tests. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2006;16(1):5769. PubMed ID: 16430682 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2005.00448.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Burden A. How should we normalize electromyograms obtained from healthy participants? What we have learned from over 25 years of research. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2010;20(6):102335. PubMed ID: 20702112 doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2010.07.004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Cadenas-Sanchez C, Arellano R, Vanrenterghem J, López-Contreras G. Kinematic adaptations of forward and backward walking on land and in water. J Hum Kinet. 2015;49:1524. PubMed ID: 26839602 doi:10.1515/hukin-2015-0104

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Cattuzzo MT, Henrique RS, AHN, et al. Motor competence and health related physical fitness in youth: a systematic review. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19(2):1239. PubMed ID: 25554655 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.12.004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Chan CW, Rudins A. Foot biomechanics during walking and running. Mayo Clin Proc. 1994;69(5):44861. PubMed ID: 8170197 doi:10.1016/S0025-6196(12)61642-5

  • 15.

    Deforche B, De Bourdeaudhuij DI, D’Hondt E, Cardon G. Objectively measured physical activity, physical activity related personality and body mass index in 6- to 10-yr-old children: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2009;6:25.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Ekkekakis P, Lind E. Exercise does not feel the same when you are overweight: the impact of self-selected and imposed intensity on affect and exertion. Int J Obes. 2006;30(4):65260. PubMed ID: 16130028 doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803052

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Ferguson B. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription 9th ed. 2014. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2014;58(3):328.

  • 18.

    Fontana HB, Haupenthal A, Ruschel C, Hubert M, Ridehalgh C, Roesler H. Effect of gender, cadence, and water immersion on ground reaction forces during stationary running. J Orthop Sport Phys. 2012;42(5):43743. PubMed ID: 22402330 doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.3572

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Fontana HB, Ruschel C, Haupenthal A, Hubert M, Roesler H. Ground reaction force and cadence during stationary running sprint in water and on land. Int J Sports Med. 2015;36(6):4903. PubMed ID: 25700098 doi:10.1055/s-0034-1398576

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Gill SV, Hung YC. Effects of overweight and obese body mass on motor planning and motor skills during obstacle crossing in children. Res Dev Disabil. 2014;35(1):4653. PubMed ID: 24230986 doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.10.024

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Gill SV, Hung YC. Influence of weight classification on children stepping over obstacles. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;91(7):62530. PubMed ID: 22469876 doi:10.1097/PHM.0b013e31824fa81e

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Gushue DL, Houck J, Lerner AL. Effects of childhood obesity on three-dimensional knee joint biomechanics during walking. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005;25(6):7638. PubMed ID: 16294133 doi:10.1097/01.bpo.0000176163.17098.f4

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Haddock BL, Siegel SR, Wikin LD. The addition of a video game to stationary cycling: the impact on energy expenditure in overweight children. Open Sports Sci J. 2009;2:426. PubMed ID: 19946380 doi:10.2174/1875399X00902010042

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Hermens HJ, Freriks B, Merletti R, et al. SENIAM 8: European Recommendations for Surface Electromyography. Enschede: Roessingh Research and Development; 1999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Hills AP, Andersen LB, Byrne NM. Physical activity and obesity in children. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(11):86670. PubMed ID: 21836171 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090199

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Howley ET, Bassett DR, Welch HG. Criteria for maximal oxygen uptake: review and commentary. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27(9):1292301. PubMed ID: 8531628 doi:10.1249/00005768-199509000-00009

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Hung YC, Gill SV, Meredith GS. Influence of dual-task constraints on whole-body organization during walking in children who are overweight and obese. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;92(6):46171. PubMed ID: 23552338 doi:10.1097/PHM.0b013e31828cd59d.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Ives JC, Wigglesworth JK. Sampling rate effects on surface EMG timing and amplitude measures. Clin Biomech. 2003;18(6):54352. PubMed ID: 12828904 doi:10.1016/S0268-0033(03)00089-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Jones LM, Meredith-Jones K, Legge M. The effect of water-based exercise on glucose and insulin response in overweight women: a pilot study. J Womens Health. 2009;18(10):16539. doi:10.1089/jwh.2008.1147

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Keller TS, Weisberger AM, Ray JL, Hasan SS, Shiavi RG, Spengler DM. Relationship between vertical ground reaction force and speed during walking, slow jogging, and running. Clin Biomech. 1996;11(5):2539. PubMed ID: 11415629 doi:10.1016/0268-0033(95)00068-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Kelly BT, Roskin LA, Kirkendall DT, Speer KP. Shoulder muscle activation during aquatic and dry land exercises in nonimpaired subjects. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2000;30(4):20410. PubMed ID: 10778797 doi:10.2519/jospt.2000.30.4.204

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Kruel LFM, Beilke DD, Kanitz AC, et al. Cardiorespiratory responses to stationary running in water and on land. J Sports Sci Med. 2013;12(3):594600. PubMed ID: 24149170

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Li X, Aruin A. Muscle activity onset time detection using Teager-Kaiser energy operator. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005;7:754952. PubMed ID: 17282028

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Lopes VP, Stodden DF, Bianchi MM, Maia JAR, Rodrigues LP. Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(1):3843. PubMed ID: 21831708 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2011.07.005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    McCarthy HD, Cole TJ, Fry T, Jebb SA, Prentice AM. Body fat reference curves for children. Int J Obes. 2006;30(4):598602. PubMed ID: 16570089 doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803232

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    McGraw B, McClenaghan BA, Williams HG, Dickerson J, Ward DS. Gait and postural stability in obese and nonobese prepubertal boys. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81(4):4849. PubMed ID: 10768540 doi:10.1053/mr.2000.3782

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    McMillan AG, Auman NL, Collier DN, Blaise Williams DS. Frontal plane lower extremity biomechanics during walking in boys who are overweight versus healthy weight. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2009;21(2):18793. PubMed ID: 19440128 doi:10.1097/PEP.0b013e3181a348be

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    McMillan AG, Phillips KA, Collier DN, Blaise Williams DS. Frontal and sagittal plane biomechanics during drop jump landing in boys who are obese. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2010;22(1):3441. PubMed ID: 20142703 doi:10.1097/PEP.0b013e3181cd1868

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    de Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E. Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(5):125764. PubMed ID: 20861173 doi:10.3945/ajcn.2010.29786

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Raffaelli C, Galvani C, Lanza M, Zamparo P. Different methods for monitoring intensity during water-based aerobic exercises. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(1):12534. PubMed ID: 21503697 doi:10.1007/s00421-011-1963-7

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Rush EC, Puniani K, Valencia ME, Davies PS, Plank LD. Estimation of body fatness from body mass index and bioelectrical impedance: comparison of New Zealand European, Maori and Pacific Island children. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57(11):1394401. PubMed ID: 14576752 doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601701

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Shelbourne KD, Nitz P. Accelerated rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 1990;18(3):2929. PubMed ID: 2372081 doi:10.1177/036354659001800313

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Shultz SP, D’Hondt E, Fink PW, Lenoir M, Hills AP. The effects of pediatric obesity on dynamic joint malalignment during gait. Clin Biomech. 2014;29(7):8358. PubMed ID: 24889987 doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2014.05.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Shultz SP, Hills AP, Sitler MR, Hillstrom HJ. Body size and walking cadence affect lower extremity joint power in children’s gait. Gait Posture. 2010;32(2):24852. PubMed ID: 20570152 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.05.001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Shultz SP, Sitler MR, Tierney RT, Hillstrom HJ, Song J. Effects of pediatric obesity on joint kinematics and kinetics during 2 walking cadences. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;90(12):214654. PubMed ID: 19969183 doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2009.07.024

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Soderberg GL. Selected Topics in Surface Electromyography for Use in the Occupational Setting: Expert Perspectives. Rockville, MD: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 1992.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Soderberg GL, Knutson LM. A guide for use and interpretation of kinesiologic electromyographic data. Phys Ther. 2000;80(5):48598. PubMed ID: 10792859

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Walaszek MC, Ransom AL, Capehart S, Pohl MB, Shapiro R, Bollinger LM. External loading alters trunk kinematics and lower extremity muscle activity in a distribution-specific manner during sitting and rising from a chair. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2017;34:1028. PubMed ID: 28460239 doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2017.04.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Wang Y, Lim H. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2012;24(3):17688. PubMed ID: 22724639 doi:10.3109/09540261.2012.688195

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Yaghoubi M, Esfehani MM, Hosseini HA, Alikhajeh Y, Shultz SP. Comparative electromyography analysis of the upper extremity between inexperienced and elite water polo players during an overhead shot. J Appl Biomech. 2015;31(2):7987. PubMed ID: 25387072 doi:10.1123/JAB.2014-0068

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 184 106 19
Full Text Views 6 2 1
PDF Downloads 1 1 1