Lifestyle Behaviors Associated With Body Fat Percent in 9- to 11-Year-Old Children

in Pediatric Exercise Science
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  • 1 Swansea University
  • | 2 Liverpool John Moores University
  • | 3 Edge Hill University
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Purpose:To examine (1) associations between body fat percent (BF) and lifestyle behaviors in children aged 9–11 years and (2) the consistency of these associations over a 10-year period. Methods: In this repeat, cross-sectional study, 15,977 children aged 9–11 years completed an anthropometric assessment and the SportsLinx Lifestyle survey between 2004 and 2013. Body fat was estimated according to the sum of the triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements. Multilevel models were utilized to examine associations between BF and responses to the lifestyle survey while controlling for known covariates. Results: Lifestyle behaviors explained 8.6% of the total variance in body fat. Specifically, negative associations were found between BF and active transport to school ( β = −0.99 [0.19], P < .001), full-fat milk (−0.07 [0.15], P < .001), and sweetened beverage consumption (−0.40 [0.15], P = .007). Relative to the reference group of ≤8:00 PM, later bedtime was positively associated with BF: 8:00 to 8:59 PM ( β = 1.60 [0.26], P < .001); 9:00 to 10:00 PM ( β = 1.04 [0.24], P < .001); ≥10:00 PM ( β = 1.18 [0.30], P < .001). Two-way interactions revealed opposing associations between BF and the consumption of low-calorie beverages for boys ( β = 0.95 [0.25], P < .001) and girls ( β = −0.85 [0.37], P = .021). There was no significant change in these associations over a 10-year period. Conclusions: In this population-level study covering a decade of data collection, lifestyle behaviors were associated with BF. Policies and interventions targeting population-level behavior change, such as active transport to school, sleep time, and consumption of full-fat milk, may offer an opportunity for improvements in BF.

Swindell, McNarry, Mackintosh, and Stratton are with the Applied Sports Science Technology and Medicine Research Centre, School of Sport and Exercise Science, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom. Berridge is with the Swansea Medical School, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom. Boddy is with the The Physical Activity Exchange, Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Fairclough is with the Physical Activity and Health Research Group, Department of Sport and Physical Activity, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, United Kingdom.

Swindell (N.J.swindell@swansea.ac.uk) is corresponding author.

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