Are Movement Behaviors and Fundamental Motor Skills Associated With Fitness and Fatness in Early Childhood? Findings From the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey

in Pediatric Exercise Science
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $68.00

1 year subscription

USD $90.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $129.00

2 year subscription

USD $168.00

Purpose: Using 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) National Youth Fitness Survey data, the authors conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis to examine the associations of movement behaviors (ie, physical activity [PA] and screen-based sedentary behaviors) and fundamental motor skills (FMS) with fitness (ie, muscular fitness) and fatness (ie, body mass index and waist circumference) in 3- to 5-year-old children. The effect of ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic) on these associations was also examined. Methods: A total of 352 children (173 girls; mean age = 4.02 y) from the 2012 NHANES data set were included. Parents reported their child’s PA and screen-based sedentary behaviors. FMS (ie, locomotor and object control) were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd edition. Other variables used were body mass index, waist circumference, and plank. Results: Hispanic children demonstrated lower levels of PA than non-Hispanic children (P < .05). Children’s FMS emerged as significant predictors of muscular fitness and waist circumference, but not for body mass index in the Hispanic group. In the non-Hispanic group, FMS (ie, object control skills) and PA accounted for significant variances of muscular fitness and waist circumference, respectively. Conclusion: The associations of movement behaviors and FMS with fitness and fatness are different between Hispanic and non-Hispanic young children. Changes in policy or early childhood curriculum may be tailed to promote FMS for an impact on fitness and fatness in both Hispanic and non-Hispanic children.

X. Zhang, Gu, Caçola, and Wang are with the University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX. T. Zhang is with the University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA.

Gu (xiangli.gu@uta.edu) is corresponding author.
Pediatric Exercise Science

Article Sections

References

  • 1.

    Birch LLFisher JO. Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 1998;101(3 Pt 2):53949.

  • 2.

    Butte NFGregorich SETschann JMet al. Longitudinal effects of parental, child and neighborhood factors on moderate-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in Latino children. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11(1):108. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Carson VHunter SKuzik Net al. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth: an update. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(6):S24065. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Carson VLee E-YHewitt Let al. Systematic review of the relationships between physical activity and health indicators in the early years (0–4 years). BMC Public Health. 2017;17(S5):854. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Carson VTremblay MSChaput JChastin SFM. Associations between sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity, and health indicators among Canadian children and youth using compositional analyses. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(6):S294302. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Chaput JPColley RCAubert Set al. Proportion of preschool-aged children meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines and associations with adiposity: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(S5):829. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Clark JEMetcalfe JS. The mountain of motor development: a metaphor. Mot Dev Res Rev. 2002;2:183202.

  • 8.

    Edelson LRMathias KCFulgoni VLKaragounis LG. Screen-based sedentary behavior and associations with functional strength in 6–15 year-old children in the United States. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:116. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Enoka RM. Activation order of motor axons in electrically evoked contractions. Muscle Nerve. 2002;25(6):7634. PubMed ID: 12115963 doi:

  • 10.

    Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. A child poverty: percentage of children ages 0–17 living below selected poverty levels by selected characteristics, 1980–2016. America's children in brief: key national indicators of well-being, 2018 [Internet]. 2018. Available from: https://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/tables/econ1a.asp

    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Fitzpatrick CPagani LSBarnett TA. Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:87. PubMed ID: 22793018 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Freitas DLLausen BMaia JAet al. Skeletal maturation, fundamental motor skills, and motor performance in preschool children. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018;28(11):235868. PubMed ID: 29858513 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Gu X. Fundamental motor skill, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. Psychol Health Med. 2016;21:87181. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Gu XChen SZhang X. Young Hispanic and non-Hispanic children’s fundamental motor competence and physical activity behaviors. J Mot Learn Dev. 2018;7(2):180193.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Gu XThomas KTChen YL. The role of perceived and actual motor competency on children’s physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness during middle childhood. J Teach Phys Educ. 2017;36(4):38897. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Hnatiuk JASalmon JHinkley TOkely ADTrost S. A review of preschool children’s physical activity and sedentary time using objective measures. Am J Prev Med. 2014;47(4):48797. PubMed ID: 25084681 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    King-Dowling SRodriguez CMissiuna CTimmons BWCairney J. Health-related fitness in preschool children with and without motor delays. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018;50(7):14428. PubMed ID: 29474207 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Kit BKAkinbami LJIsfahani NSUlrich DA. Gross motor development in children aged 3–5 years, United States 2012. Matern Child Health J. 2017;21(7):157380. PubMed ID: 28197817 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Kuzik NPoitras VJTremblay MSLee E-YHunter SCarson V. Systematic review of the relationships between combinations of movement behaviours and health indicators in the early years (0–4 years). BMC Public Health. 2017;17(S5):849. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Lai SKCostigan SAMorgan PJLubans DRStodden DFSalmon JBarnett LM. Do school-based interventions focusing on physical activity, fitness, or fundamental movement skill competency produce a sustained impact in these outcomes in children and adolescents? A systematic review of follow-up studies. Sports Med. 2014;44(1):6779. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Logan SWRobinson LEWilson AELucas WA. Getting the fundamentals of movement: A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of motor skill interventions in children. Child Care Health Dev. 2012;38(3):30515. PubMed ID: 21880055 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Lopes VPMaia JARodrigues LPMalina R. Motor coordination, physical activity and fitness as predictors of longitudinal change in adiposity during childhood. Eur J Sport Sci. 2012;12(4):38491. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Lutfiyya MNGarcia RDankwa CMYoung TLipsky MS. Overweight and obese prevalence rates in African American and Hispanic children: an analysis of data from the 2003–2004 national survey of children’s health. J Am Board Fam Med. 2008;21(3):1919. PubMed ID: 18467530 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Matarma TLagström HHurme STammelin THKulmala JBarnett LMKoski P. Motor skills in association with physical activity, sedentary time, body fat, and day care attendance in 5–6-year-old children—The STEPS study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018;28(12):266876. PubMed ID: 30003602 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: National Youth Fitness Survey plan operations and analysis 2012 [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2018 Sep 18]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_02/sr02_163.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    National Center for Health Statistics. National Youth Fitness Survey (NYFS) body measures procedures manual [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2018 Sep 18]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nnyfs/body_measures.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    National Center for Health Statistics. National Youth Fitness Survey (NYFS) plank exercise procedures manual [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2018 Sep 18]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nnyfs/plank.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    National Center for Health Statistics. National Youth Fitness Survey (NYFS) test of gross motor development (TGMD-2) procedures manual [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2018 Sep 18]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nnyfs/tgmd.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    National Center for Health Statistics. NNYFS questionnaire data. Physical activity [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2018 Sep 18]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nnyfs/physical_activity_monitor.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Ogden CLCarroll MDLawman HGFryar CDKruszon-Moran DKit BKFlegal KM. Trends in obesity prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988–1994 through 2013–2014. JAMA. 2016;315(21):2292. PubMed ID: 27272581 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Okely ADGhersi DHesketh KDet al. A collaborative approach to adopting/adapting guidelines—the Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (birth to 5 years): an integration of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(S5):869. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Okely ADTremblay MSReilly JJDraper CEBull F. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep: movement behaviours in early life. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2018;2(3):2335. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Piercy KLTroiano RPBallard RMet al. The physical activity guidelines for Americans. JAMA. 2018;320(19):20208. PubMed ID: 30418471 doi:

  • 34.

    Poitras VJGray CEJanssen Xet al. Systematic review of the relationships between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in the early years (0–4 years). BMC Public Health. 2017;17(S5):868. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Rankin JMatthews LCobley SHan ASanders RWiltshire HDBaker JS. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention. Adolesc Health Med Ther. 2016;7:12546. PubMed ID: 27881930 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Sahoo KSahoo BChoudhury AKSofi NYKumar RBhadoria AS. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences. J Family Med Prim care. 2015;4(2):18792. doi:

  • 37.

    Stodden DFGoodway JDLangendorfer SJet al. A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: an emergent relationship. Quest. 2008;60(2):29006. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Stodden DFLangendorfer SRoberton MA. The association between motor skill competence and physical fitness in young adults. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2009;80(2):2239. PubMed ID: 19650387 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    The Annie E. Casey Foundation. 2017 Kids count data book: state trends in child well-being. Baltimore, MD: Author; 2017.

    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Tong TKWu SNie J. Sport-specific endurance plank test for evaluation of global core muscle function. Phys Ther Sport. 2014;15(1):5863. PubMed ID: 23850461 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Tremblay MSCarson VChaput JPet al. Introduction to the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(6):S31127. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Tremblay MSChaput JPAdamo KBet al. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0–4 years): an integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(5):874. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Ulrich DA. TGMD 2–Test of Gross Motor Development Examiner’s Manual (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED; 2000.

  • 44.

    Whitt-Glover MCTaylor WCFloyd MFYore MMYancey AKMatthews CE. Disparities in physical activity and sedentary behaviors among US children and adolescents: prevalence, correlates, and intervention implications. J Public Health Policy. 2009;30:S30934. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Wrotniak BHEpstein LHDorn JMJones KEKondilis VA. The relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity in children. Pediatrics. 2006;118(6):e175865. PubMed ID: 17142498 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Article Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 138 138 138
Full Text Views 2 2 2
PDF Downloads 2 2 2

Altmetric Badge

PubMed

Google Scholar