Children Who Are Overweight Display Altered Vertical Jump Kinematics and Kinetics From Children Who Are Not Overweight

in Pediatric Exercise Science
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $68.00

1 year subscription

USD $90.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $129.00

2 year subscription

USD $168.00

Purpose: Children who are overweight typically do not perform motor skills as well as normal-weight peers. This study examined whether vertical jump kinetics and kinematics of children who are overweight differ from nonoverweight peers. Methods: Thirty-nine children completed maximum-effort countermovement vertical jumps. Motion capture was used to complete lower extremity kinematic and kinetic analyses. Results: The overweight group (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile; N = 11; age = 6.5 [1.6] y) jumped lower relative to their mass (0.381 cm/kg lower; P < .001) than normal-weight peers (N = 28; age = 6.4 [1.7] y). Compared with children who are normal weight, children who were overweight exhibited a shallower countermovement (knee: 12° less flexion, P = .02; hip: 10° less flexion, P = .045), lower hip torque (0.06 N·m/kg lower, P = .01) and hip work (40% less work, P = .01), and earlier peak joint angular velocities (knee: 9 ms earlier, P = .001; hip: 14 ms earlier, P = .004). Conclusion: Children who are overweight do not achieve optimal jumping mechanics and exhibit jumping characteristics of an earlier developmental stage compared with their peers. Interventions should help children who are overweight learn to execute a proper countermovement.

Cowley is with the Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Wisconsin-Platteville, Platteville, WI, USA. McCaw, Laurson, and Torry are with the School of Kinesiology and Recreation, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA.

Cowley (cowleyj@uwplatt.edu) is corresponding author.
Pediatric Exercise Science
Article Sections
References
  • 1.

    Abdelmoula AMartin VBouchant Aet al. Knee extension strength in obese and nonobese male adolescents. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012;37(2):26975. PubMed ID: 22448629 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Aouichaoui CTrabelsi YBouhlel ETabka ZDogui MRichalet JPBuvry AB. The relative contributions of anthropometric variables to vertical jumping ability and leg power in Tunisian children. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(3):77788. PubMed ID: 22289700 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Bobbert MF. Why do people jump the way they do? Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2001;29(3):95102. PubMed ID: 11474963 doi:

  • 4.

    Clark JEPhillips SJPetersen R. Developmental stability in jumping. Dev Psychol. 1989;25(6):92935. doi:

  • 5.

    Cunningham SAKramer MRNarayan KV. Incidence of childhood obesity in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(5):40311. PubMed ID: 24476431 doi:

  • 6.

    Deforche BIHills APWorringham CJDavies PSMurphy AJBouckaert JJDe Bourdeaudhuij IM. Balance and postural skills in normal-weight and overweight prepubertal boys. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2009;4(3):17582. PubMed ID: 18972242 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    D’Hondt EDeforche BDe Bourdeaudhuij ILenoir M. Childhood obesity affects fine motor skill performance under different postural constraints. Neurosci Lett. 2008;440(1):725. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    D’Hondt EDeforche BDe Bourdeaudhuij ILenoir M. Relationship between motor skill and body mass index in 5- to 10-year-old children. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2009;26(1):2137. PubMed ID: 19246771 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    D’Hondt EDeforche BGentier Iet al. A longitudinal study of gross motor coordination and weight status in children. Obesity. 2014;22(6):150511. doi:

  • 10.

    Dowling JJVamos L. Identification of kinetic and temporal factors related to vertical jump performance. J Appl Biomech. 1993;9(2):95110. doi:

  • 11.

    Floría PHarrison AJ. The influence of range of motion versus application of force on vertical jump performance in prepubescent girls and adult females. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14(suppl 1)S197204. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Freedman DSSherry B. The validity of BMI as an indicator of body fatness and risk among children. Pediatrics. 2009;124(suppl 1):S2334. doi:

  • 13.

    Gallahue DLDonnelly FC. Developmental Physical Education for All Children. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2007.

  • 14.

    Gentier ID’Hondt EShultz Set al. Fine and gross motor skills differ between healthy-weight and obese children. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34(11):404351. PubMed ID: 24036485 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Harrison AJGaffney S. Motor development and gender effects on stretch-shortening cycle performance. J Sci Med Sport. 2001;4(4):40615. PubMed ID: 11905935 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Hellebrandt FARarick GLGlassow RCarns ML. Physiological analysis of basic motor skills: I. growth and development of jumping. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1961;40(1):1425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Jensen JLPhillips SJClark JE. For young jumpers, differences are in the movement’s control, not its coordination. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1994;65(3):25868. PubMed ID: 7973075 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Linthorne NP. Analysis of standing vertical jumps using a force platform. Am J Phys. 2001;69(11):1198204. doi:

  • 19.

    Lopes VPRodrigues LPMaia JAMalina RM. Motor coordination as predictor of physical activity in childhood. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21(5):6639. PubMed ID: 21917017 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Mignardot JBOlivier IPromayon ENougier V. Origins of balance disorders during a daily living movement in obese: can biomechanical factors explain everything? PLoS ONE. 2013;8(4):e60491. PubMed ID: 23560097 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Morano MColella DCaroli M. Gross motor skill performance in a sample of overweight and non-overweight preschool children. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011;6(suppl2):426. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Müürsepp IEreline JGapeyeva HPääsuke M. Motor performance in 5-year-old preschool children with developmental speech and language disorders. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98(8):13348. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Ogden CLKuczmarski RJFlegal KMet al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts for the United States: improvements to the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics version. Pediatrics. 2002;109(1):4560. PubMed ID: 11773541 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Raudsepp LPäll P. The relationship between fundamental motor skills and outside-school physical activity of elementary school children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2006;18(4):42635. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Richter AJekauc DWoll ASchwameder H editors. Effects of age, gender and activity level on counter-movement jump performance and variability in children and adolescents. ISBS-Conference Proceedings Archive Marquette MI; 2010.

    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Riddiford-Harland DLSteele JRBaur LA. Upper and lower limb functionality: are these compromised in obese children? Int J Pediatr Obes. 2006;1(1):429. PubMed ID: 17902214 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Roberts DVeneri DDecker RGannotti M. Weight status and gross motor skill in kindergarten children. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2012;24(4):35360. PubMed ID: 22965211 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Robinson LEStodden DFBarnett LMLopes VPLogan SWRodrigues LPD'Hondt E. Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health. Sports Med. 2015;45(9):127384. PubMed ID: 26201678 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Rubinstein MEliakim ASteinberg Net al. Biomechanical characteristics of overweight and obese children during five different walking and running velocities. Footwear Sci. 2017;9(3):14959. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Ryan WHarrison AHayes K. Functional data analysis of knee joint kinematics in the vertical jump. Sports Biomech. 2006;5(1):12138. PubMed ID: 16521626 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Siahkouhian MMahmoodi HSalehi M. Relationship between fundamental movement skills and body mass index in 7-To-8 year-old children. World Appl Sci J. 2011;15(9):135460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Simoneau MTeasdale N. Balance control impairment in obese individuals is caused by larger balance motor commands variability. Gait Posture. 2015;41(1):2038. PubMed ID: 25455209 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Skinner ACSkelton JA. Prevalence and trends in obesity and severe obesity among children in the United States, 1999–2012. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(6):5616. PubMed ID: 24710576 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Swartz EEDecoster LCRussell PJCroce RV. Effects of developmental stage and sex on lower extremity kinematics and vertical ground reaction forces during landing. J Athl Train. 2005;40(1):914. PubMed ID: 15902318

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    van Beurden EBarnett LMZask ADietrich UCBrooks LOBeard J. Can we skill and activate children through primary school physical education lessons? “Move it Groove it”—a collaborative health promotion intervention. Prev Med. 2003;36(4):493501. PubMed ID: 12649058 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    van InganSchenau GJ. From rotation to translation: constraints on multi-joint movements and the unique action of bi-articular muscles. Hum Mov Sci. 1989;8(4):30137. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Wang LLi JXXu DQHong YL. Proprioception of ankle and knee joints in obese boys and nonobese boys. Med Sci Monit. 2008;14(3):CR12935. PubMed ID: 18301356

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Wearing SCHennig EMByrne NMSteele JRHills AP. The impact of childhood obesity on musculoskeletal form. Obes Rev. 2006;7(2):20918. PubMed ID: 16629876 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Wells JFewtrell MWilliams JHaroun DLawson MCole T. Body composition in normal weight, overweight and obese children: matched case–control analyses of total and regional tissue masses, and body composition trends in relation to relative weight. Int J Obes. 2006;30(10):150613. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Williams HGPfeiffer KAO’neill JRDowda MMcIver KLBrown WHPate RR. Motor skill performance and physical activity in preschool children. Obesity. 2008;16(6):14216. PubMed ID: 18388895 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Wrotniak BHEpstein LHDorn JMJones KEKondilis VA. The relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity in children. Pediatrics. 2006;118(6):e175865. PubMed ID: 17142498 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 278 278 43
Full Text Views 6 6 4
PDF Downloads 6 6 5
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar