Aim: To compare the markers of inflammation and immune activation in virally suppressed HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy, who practiced regular structured exercise comprising running and yoga to those who did not over a 2-year period. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 72 children aged 8 to 16 years divided into 2 groups, exercisers (n = 36) and the nonexercisers (n = 36) based on their intentional physical activity. The analyses were carried out at baseline and after 2 years (Y2) for the soluble biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interferon gamma, sCD14, and sCD163). In addition, cell-associated biomarker (CD38), lipopolysaccharides, and the gene expression of interleukin-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were also measured at Y2. Results: Reduction in levels of sCD14 (effect size [ES], −0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.08 to −0.14), tumor necrosis factor alpha (ES, −0.7; 95% CI, −1.18 to −0.23), interferon gamma (ES, −0.7; 95% CI, −1.17 to −0.22), and interleukin-10 (ES, −0.6; 95% CI, −1.08 to −0.14) was observed among exercisers as compared with nonexercisers at Y2. In addition, CD38+ expressing CD4+ T cells were found to be lower among exercisers (P = .01) at Y2. However, the differences in levels of interleukin-6, sCD163, lipopolysaccharides, interleukin-2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were not significantly different among the 2 groups. Conclusion: The study result suggests that regular structured physical activity improves the inflammatory profile of antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-infected children.
Gopalan, Dias, Arumugam, D’Souza, and Shet are with the Division of Infectious Diseases, St. John’s Research Institute, St. John’s National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Gopalan is also with the School of Integrative Health Sciences, The University of Trans-Disciplinary Health Sciences and Technology (TDU), Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Perumpil is with Snehagram, Bangalore, Karnataka, India; and is the secretary of health for Catholic Bishops' Conference of India, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Kulkarni is with the Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine (I-AIM) Healthcare Center, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Ranga is with the Molecular Biology and Genetics Unit, HIV/AIDS Laboratory, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.