A Pilot Study of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Adiposity, and Cardiometabolic Health in Youth With Overweight and Obesity

in Pediatric Exercise Science
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Objective: To conduct a preliminary assessment of the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity, and cardiometabolic health using gold standard measures in diverse youth ranging from overweight to severe obesity. Methods: Twenty of 30 participants (mean [SD]; age 13.2 [1.8] y, 55% female, 45% African American) met the criteria for VO2peak during a graded cycle ergometer test to volitional fatigue. The body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (percentage of body fat, fat mass index, and fat-free mass) and magnetic resonance imaging (abdominal visceral and subcutaneous [SAT] adipose tissue). The VO2peak was expressed relative to fat-free mass. Fasting lipid levels, glycemic biomarkers, and vital signs were examined individually and used in a composite cardiometabolic risk score. Accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time were included as covariates. Results: VO2peak was negatively associated with abdominal SAT (r = −.49, P < .05), but not visceral adipose tissue or markers of cardiometabolic health. The association between SAT and VO2peak was partly explained by habitual sedentary time. Conclusions: We demonstrated a significant negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness and SAT in a diverse group of high-risk youth. The inclusion of rigorous, laboratory-based measures and youth with severe obesity extends the previous work in pediatric populations.

Fearnbach, Johannsen, Martin, Katzmarzyk, Beyl, Hsia, Carmichael, and Staiano are with the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. Johannsen is also with the School of Kinesiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Fearnbach (Nicole.Fearnbach@pbrc.edu) is corresponding author.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table S1 (pdf 521 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S2 (pdf 209 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S3 (pdf 432 KB)