“It’s Our Responsibility”: Examining the Integration of Sexual Harassment and Assault Education in Sport Management Programs

in Sport Management Education Journal
View More View Less
  • 1 Temple University
  • 2 Bowling Green State University
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $53.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $70.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $100.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $134.00

Colleges and universities provide a practical setting where faculty can integrate a curriculum that teaches sport management students, who are the future sport industry leaders, on critical topics they will encounter while working in the field. In light of the recent cases of sexual violence in the sport world (e.g., USA Gymnastics/Michigan State University, Baylor Football, Carolina Panthers), this study sought to examine the types of education and training on sexual violence that sport management faculty are utilizing in the classroom. Through the use of qualitative methods, 21 sport management faculty from 4-year institutions were interviewed to determine if and how the topic of sexual violence was being integrated in the classroom. Results showed a majority of the faculty were integrating current events and topics related to sexual violence in the classroom. However, faculty perceived that some courses were a “better fit” for these topics than others. Faculty also reported challenges to teaching these topics as the lines between a legal, sociological, and ethical standpoint can become confusing for students.

Taylor is with Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Paule-Koba is with Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, USA.

Taylor (elizabeth.taylor@temple.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Aday, L.A., & Llewellyn, J.C. (2006). Designing and conducting health surveys: A comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aggarwal, A.P., & Gupta, M.M. (2000). Sexual harassment in the workplace (3rd ed.). Vancouver, BC: Butterworths.

  • Armour, N., & Axon, R. (2017, June 27). USA Gymnastics: Sexual assault investigation urges cultural change. USA Today. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/olympics/2017/06/27/sexual-assault-usa-gymnastics-olympics-usoc-larry-nassar-deborah-daniels-usa-gymnastics/431358001/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnhill, C.R., Czekanski, W.A., & Pfleegor, A.G. (2017). Getting to know our students: A snapshot of Sport Management students’ demographics and career expectations in the United States. Sport Management Education Journal, 12(1), 114. doi:10.1123/smej.2015-0030

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barr, J., & Murphy, D. (2018, February 5). The enablers of Larry Nassar. ESPN, pp. 4047.

  • Berg, B.L. (1998). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

  • Brown, S. (2018, February 2). At Michigan State, a shaken campus struggles through its shame. Chronicle of Higher Education, 64(21), 18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burton, L.J. (2015). Underrepresentation of women in sport leadership: A review of research. Sport Management Review, 18, 155165. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2014.02.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chronicle of Higher Education. (2015). Almanac of Higher Education 2015–16. Retrieved from http://www.icuf.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/Chronicle-Almanac-2015-16.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Claringbould, I., & Knoppers, A. (2012). Paradoxical practices of gender in sport-related organizations. Journal of Sport Management, 26(5), 404416. doi:10.1123/jsm.26.5.404

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Connell, R.W., & Messerschmidt, J.W. (2005) Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept. Gender & Society, 19, 829859. doi:10.1177/0891243205278639

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Creswell, J.W. (2013). Research design in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Crosset, T.W., Ptacek, J., McDonald, M.A., & Benedict, J.R. (1996). Male student athletes and violence against women: A survey of campus judicial affairs offices. Violence Against Women, 2(2), 163179. doi:10.1177/1077801296002002004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fink, J.S. (2016). Hiding in plain sight: The embedded nature of sexism in sport. Journal of Sport Management, 30, 17. doi:10.1123/jsm.2015-0278

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fisher, R.J. (1993). Social desirability bias and the validity of indirect questioning. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(2), 303315. doi:10.1086/209351

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fowler, F.J. (2014). Survey research methods (5th ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

  • Fritner, M.P., & Rubinson, L. (1993). Acquaintance rape: The influence of alcohol, fraternity membership, and sports team membership. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 19, 272284. doi:10.1080/01614576.1993.11074089

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardin, R., & Taylor, E.A. (2015). Coaching and sexual abuse. In M. Dodds & J. Reese Jr. (Eds.), Sports leadership: A concise reference guide (pp. 2123). Santa Barbara, CA: Mission Bell Media.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heller, D.E. (2018, February 2). After Michigan State: “Could we be next?” Chronicle of Higher Education, 64(21), 17.

  • Herek, G.M. (1986). On heterosexual masculinity: Some psychical consequences of the social construction of gender and sexuality. American Behavioral Scientist, 29, 563577. doi:10.1177/000276486029005005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, D.F., Brooks, D.D., & Mak, J.Y. (2008). Examining sport management programs in the United States. Sport Management Review, 11, 7791. doi:10.1016/S1441-3523(08)70104-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Judkis, M. (2018, March 4). Oscar winner Kobe Bryant’s sexual assault allegations resurface in the #MeToo era. Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/arts-and-entertainment/wp/2018/03/04/at-the-metoo-oscars-kobe-bryants-win-brings-back-memories-of-his-allegations/?utm_term=.b2df5a975e87

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katz, M., Walker, N.A., & Hindman, L.C. (2018). Gendered leadership networks in the NCAA: Analyzing affiliation networks of senior woman administrators and athletic directors. Journal of Sport Management, 32(2), 135149. doi:10.1123/jsm.2017-0306

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krane, V. (2001). We can be athletic and feminine, but do we want to? Challenging hegemonic femininity in women’s sport. Quest, 53, 115133. doi:10.1080/00336297.2001.10491733

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krumpal, I. (2013). Determinants of social desirability bias in sensitive surveys: A literature review. Quality & Quantity, 47(4), 20252047. doi:10.1007/s11135-011-9640-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumashiro, K.K. (2000). Toward a theory of anti-oppressive education. Review of Educational Research, 70(1), 2553. doi:10.3102/00346543070001025

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lavigne, P. (2018, July 13). Baylor University settles Title IX lawsuit in which gang rape by up to 8 football players was alleged. ESPN. Retrieved from http://www.espn.com/college-football/story/_/id/24090683/baylor-university-settles-title-ix-lawsuit-which-gang-rape-8-football-players-was-alleged

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mayhew, M.J., & Grunwald, H.E. (2006). Factors contributing to faculty incorporation of diversity related course content. Journal of Higher Education, 77, 148168.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merriam, S.B. (2009). Qualitative research a guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • Mervosh, S. (2017, January 27). New Baylor lawsuit alleges 52 rapes by football players in 4 years, ‘show ‘em a good time’ culture. Dallas News. Retrieved from https://www.dallasnews.com/news/baylor/2017/01/27/new-baylor-lawsuit-describes-show-em-good-time-culture-cites-52-rapes-football-players-4-years

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Messner, M.A. (1990). When bodies are weapons: Masculinity and violence in sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 25(3), 203220.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, M.E., Parkhouse, B.L., & Konrad, A.M. (2004). Diversity programs: Influencing female students to sport management? Women in Management Review, 19, 304316. doi:10.1108/09649420410555079

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, R.J., & Maynard, D.W. (2002), Achieving understanding in the standardized survey interview: Repair sequences. In D.W. Maynard, H. Houtkoop-Steenstra, N.C. Schaeffer, & J. van der Zouwen (Eds.), Standardization and tacit knowledge: Interaction and practice in the survey interview (pp. 281311). New York, NY: John Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nederhof, A.J. (1985). Methods of coping with social desirability bias: A review. European Journal of Social Psychology, 15, 263280. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2420150303

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patton, M.Q. (2015). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Patton, Q.M. (1987). How to use qualitative methods in evaluation. Newbury Park, CA/London, UK/New Delhi, India: Sage.

  • Pilon, M. (2018, December 24). How to clean up a #metoo mess. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2018-12-20/the-dallas-mavericks-new-ceo-is-cleaning-up-a-metoo-mess

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Plaza, M., Boiche, J., Brunel, L., & Ruchaurd, F. (2017). Sport = male . . . but not all sports: Investigating the gender stereotypes of sport activities at the explicit and implicit levels. Sex Roles, 76, 202217.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reyes, L. (2018, June 28). Outgoing Panthers owner Jerry Richardson fined $2.75 million by NFL for workplace misconduct. USA Today. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/nfl/panthers/2018/06/28/jerry-richardson-fined-carolina-panthers-owner-nfl/742482002/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rice, P.L., & Ezzy, D. (1999). Qualitative research methods: A health focus (Vol. 720). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.

  • Rubin, H.J., & Rubin, I.S. (2011). Qualitative interviewing: The art of hearing data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Saldana, J. (2015). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Sawyer, R.G., Thompson, E.E., & Chicorelli, A. (2002). Rape myth acceptance among intercollegiate student athletes: A preliminary examination. American Journal of Health Studies, 18(1), 1925.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Staff, B. (2015, December 8). There are 44 NFL players who have been accused of sexual or physical abuse. VICE. Retrieved from https://broadly.vice.com/en_us/article/8qwpm4/2015-nfl-report

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steinfeldt, J., Carter, H., Benton, E., & Steinfeldt, M. (2011). Muscularity beliefs of female athletes. Sex Roles, 64(7), 543554. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-9935-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, E.A., & Hardin, R. (2017). A gap in the sport management curriculum: An analysis of sexual harassment and sexual assault education. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 20, 6575. doi:10.1016/j.jhlste.2017.04.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, E.A., Hardin, R., & Rode, C. (2018). Contrapower harassment in the sport management classroom. NASPA Journal about Women in Higher Education, 11(1), 1732. doi:10.1080/19407882.2017.1378113

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, E.A., Johnson, A., Hardin, R., & Dzikus, L. (2018). Kinesiology students’ perceptions of ambivalent sexism. NASPA Journal about Women in Higher Education, 11(3), 233246. doi:10.1080/19407882.2017.1423080

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, E.A., Siegele, J., Smith, A.B., & Hardin, R. (2018). Career progression and experiences of female Division I conference commissioners. Journal of Sport Management, 32(4), 321333. doi:10.1123/jsm.2017-0179

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, E.A., Smith, A.B., Rode, C.R., & Hardin, R. (2017). Women don’t know anything about sports: Female faculty members and contra power harassment. Sport Management Education Journal, 11, 6171. doi:10.1123/smej.2016-0013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, E.A., Smith, A.B., Welch, N.M., & Hardin, R. (2018). “You should be flattered!”: Female sport management faculty experiences of sexual harassment and sexism. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 26, 4353. doi:10.1123/wspaj.2017-0038

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thayer-Hart, N., Dykema, J., Elver, K., Schaeffer, N., & Stevenson, J. (2010). Survey fundamentals: A guide to designing and implementing surveys (2nd ed.). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Office of Quality Improvement.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tofler, I.R. (2016). Bullying, hazing, and workplace harassment: The nexus in professional sports as exemplified by the first NFL Wells report. International Review of Psychiatry, 28(6), 623628. PubMed ID: 27541590 doi:10.1080/09540261.2016.1208163

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Manen, M. (2015). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

  • Walker, N., & Satore-Baldwin, M. (2013). Hegemonic masculinity and the institutional bias toward women in men’s collegiate basketball: What do men think? Journal of Sport Management, 27, 303315. doi:10.1123/jsm.27.4.303

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, B.R., Desmarais, S.L., Baldwin, J.A., & Chandler, R. (2017). Sexual coercion practices among undergraduate male recreational athletes, intercollegiate athletes, and non-athletes. Violence Against Women, 23, 795812. doi:10.1177/1077801216651339

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 397 397 74
Full Text Views 21 21 5
PDF Downloads 10 10 2