Integrating Blended Learning Within Sport Event Management Curriculum

in Sport Management Education Journal
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $52.00

1 year subscription

USD $69.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $98.00

2 year subscription

USD $128.00

Experiential learning is a critical component of sport management education and industry preparation; however, the inclusion of time-intensive experiential projects can displace content learning. Blended learning integrates face-to-face and online instruction to enable the space to maximize multiple learning types. This article proposes an innovative experiential project that integrates blended learning—implemented in a sport event management course—with reflection and scholarship supporting the pedagogical strategies. The article concludes with implications to optimize blended learning (e.g., multimedia, pedagogical workshops, course evaluation), enhance communication (e.g., office hours, discussion forum, orientation video), and expand student learning outcomes (e.g., reading outlines, video lectures, student assessment).

Lower-Hoppe is with The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Wanless is with Ohio University, Athens, OH. Aldridge and Jones were with Ball State University, Muncie, IN, at the time of the writing of this paper.

Lower-Hoppe (Lower-Hoppe.1@osu.edu) is corresponding author.
Sport Management Education Journal
Article Sections
References
  • BeckemJ.M. & WatkinsM. (2012). Bringing life to learning: Immersive experiential learning simulations for online and blended courses. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 16(5) 6171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bello-HaasV.ProctorP. & ScuddsR. (2013). Comparison of knowledge and knowledge application confidence in physical therapist students completing a traditional versus blended learning professional issues course. Journal of Physical Therapy Education 27(1) 1019. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BennettG.HensonR.K. & DraneD. (2003). Student experiences with service-learning in sport management. Journal of Experiential Education 26(2) 6169. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BonkC.J. (2002). Online training in an online world. Bloomington, IN: CourseShare.com.

  • BringleR.G. & HatcherJ.A. (2002). Campus-community partnerships: The terms of engagement. Journal of Social Issues 58 503516. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BruffD.O.FisherD.H.McEwenK.E. & SmithB.E. (2013). Wrapping a MOOC: Student perceptions of an experiment in blended learning. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching 9 187199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CabralisS. (2017). A critical look at the Sports Management Blended Learning Program within the University of West Indies (UWI) St. Augustine campus: Student and teacher perspectives. Poster presented at the 2017 North American Society for Sport Management ConferenceDenver, CO.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CaseR. (2007). Sport management internships can open the door to a student’s future. Virginia Journal 29 4344.

  • ChanP.E.Graham-DayK.J.RessaV.A.PetersM.T. & KonradM. (2014). Beyond involvement: Promoting student ownership of learning in classrooms. Intervention in School and Clinic 50 105113. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CohenA. & NiteC. (2019). Assessing experiential learning with a critical lens. Sport Management Education Journal 13 110. doi:

  • ColbeckC.L.CampbellS.E. & BjorklundS.A. (2000). Grouping in the dark: What college students learn from group projects. The Journal of Higher Education 1 6083.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DarojatO. (2016). Improving curriculum through blended learning pedagogy. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 17 203218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DavidsonJ. (2009). Exhibitions: Connecting classroom assessment with culminating demonstrations of mastery. Theory into Practice 48(1) 3643. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DriscollM. (2002). Blended learning: Let’s get beyond the hype [electronic version]. e-Learning 54.

  • EnghagM. & NieddererH. (2008). Two dimensions of student ownership of learning during small-group work in physics. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education 6 629653. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EryilmazM. (2015). The effectiveness of blended learning environments. Contemporary Issues in Education Research 8(4) 251256. doi:

  • Forssen-NybergM. & HaramakiJ. (1998). Development of the production using participative simulation games: Two case studies. International Journal of Production Economics 56–57 169178. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FosterS.B. & DollarJ.E. (2010). Experiential learning in sport management: Internships and beyond. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology, Inc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FriedrichT.L.VesseyW.B.SchuelkeM.J.RuarkG.A. & MumfordM.D. (2009). A framework for understanding collective leadership: The selective utilization of leader and team expertise within networks. The Leadership Quarterly 20 933958. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GarnhamC. & KaletaR. (2004). Introduction to hybrid courses. Teaching with Technology Today 8(6). https://www.wisconsin.edu/systemwide-it/teaching-with-technology-today/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GarrisonD.R. & ArcherW. (2000). A transactional perspective on teaching and learning: A framework for adult and higher education. New York, NY: Pergamon.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GarrisonD.R. & KanukaH. (2004). Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. Internet and Higher Education 7(2) 95105. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GarrisonD.R. & VaughanN.D. (2008). Blended learning in higher education: Framework principles and guidelines. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GeorginaD.A. & OlsonM.R. (2008). Integration of technology in higher education: A review of faculty self-perceptions. The Internet and Higher Education 11(1) 18. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GreenwellT.C.Danzey-BussellL. & ShonkD.J. (2014). Managing sport events. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • GerbicP. (2011). Teaching using a blended approach—What does the literature tell us? Educational Media International 48(3) 221234. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GrahamC.R. (2006). Blended learning systems. In C.J. Bonk& C.R. Graham (Eds.) The handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives local designs (pp. 321). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GrahamC.R. & RobisonR. (2007). Realizing the transformational potential of blended learning: Comparing cases of transforming blends and enhancing blends in higher education. In A.G. Picciano& C.D. Dziuban (Eds.) Blended learning: Research perspectives (pp. 83110). Needham, MA: SCOLE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HeaneyC.A. & WalkerN.C. (2012). The challenges and opportunities of teaching sport and exercise psychology at a distance. Sport & Exercise Psychology Review 8(2) 6571.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HenryS.L.Abou-ZahraS. & WhiteK. (2016). Accessibility, usability, and inclusion. Web Accessibility Initiative. Retrieved from https://www.w3.org/WAI/fundamentals/accessibility-usability-inclusion/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HrastinskiS. (2008). Asynchronous and synchronous e-learning. Educause Quarterly 31(4) 5155.

  • JudgeL.W.PierceD.PetersenJ.WanlessE.A.GilreathE. & SimonL. (2011). Engaging experiential service learning through a co-curricular club: The Chase Charlie Races. International Journal of Research in Health Physical Education Recreation Sport & Dance 6(2) 3038.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KarasikR.J. & WallingfordM.S. (2007). Finding community: Developing and maintaining effective intergenerational service-learning partnerships. Educational Gerontology 33 775793. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KilkennyS. (2011). The complete guide to successful event planning (2nd ed.). Ocala, FL: Atlantic Publishing Group, Inc.

  • KleinE. & RiordanM. (2011). Wearing the “student hat”: Experiential professional development in expeditionary learning schools. Journal of Experiential Education 34(1) 3554. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KolbD.A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

  • LawrenceH. & WellsM. (2015). Event management blueprint: Creating & managing successful sport events (2nd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LegonR. & GarrettR. (2017). The changing landscape of online education. Annapolis, MD: Quality Matters.

  • LimD.H. & MorrisM.L. (2009). Learner and instructional factors influencing learning outcomes within a blended learning environment. Journal of Educational Technology & Society 12(4) 282293.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LoonM.EvansJ. & KerridgeC. (2015). Learning with a strategic management simulation game: A case study. The International Journal of Management Education 13 227236. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LoschertK.White HallS. & MurrayT. (2018). Blending teaching and technology: Simple strategies for improved student learning. Washington, DC: The Alliance for Excellent Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LowerL.M.JonesD.W.HuttonT.A. & JarnaginW.N. (2018). “The court is now in session…”: An exploratory case study of the use of mock trial in sport management. Journal of Hospitality Leisure Sport & Tourism Education 22 16. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MaierT.A. & ThomasN.J. (2013). Hospitality leadership course design and delivery: A blended-experiential learning model. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education 25 1121. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ManningR.D.KeiperM.C. & JennyS.E. (2017). Pedagogical innovations for the millennial sport management student: Socrative and Twitter. Sport Management Education Journal 11 4554. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MarinE. (2015). Experiential learning: Empowering students to take control of their learning by engaging them in an interactive course simulation environment. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences 180 854859. PubMed ID: 30255271 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGeeP. & ReisA. (2012). Blended course design: A synthesis of best practices. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 16(4) 7.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MersethK. (1991). The early history of case-based instruction: Insights for teacher education today. Journal of Teacher Education 42 243249. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NiemiecM. & OtteG. (2009). An administrator’s guide to the whys and how of blended learning. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 13 1930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’BoyleI. (2014). Mobilising social media in sport management education. Journal of Hospitality Leisure Sport & Tourism Education 15 5860. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Office for Civil Rights. (2010). Joint “Dear Colleague” letter: Electronic book readers. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague-20100629.html

    • Export Citation
  • OliverM. & TrigwellK. (2005). Can ‘blended learning’ be redeemed? e-learning and Digital Media 2(1) 1726.

  • OsguthorpeR.T. & GrahamC.R. (2003). Blended learning environments. Quarterly Review of Distance Education 4(3) 227233.

  • PercyS. (2018). The five golden rules of communication. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/sallypercy/2018/08/02/the-five-golden-rules-of-communication/#e28d11c18b02

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PetersenJ. & PierceD. (2009). Professional sport league assessment of sport management curriculum. Sport Management Education Journal 3(1) 110124. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PierceD.A.PetersenJ. & MeadowsB. (2011). Authentic assessment of experiential learning in sport sales. Sport Marketing Quarterly 20 7583.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PierceD.WanlessE.A. & JohnsonJ. (2014). Assessing outcomes of a realistic major previewing an introductory sport management course. SCHOLE: A Journal of Leisure Studies and Recreation Education 29 6074. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RainerJ.D. & MatthewsM.W. (2002). Ownership of learning in teacher education. Action in Teacher Education 24(1) 2230. doi:

  • RichardJ. (2011). Reframing the concept of reflection: Consciousness, experiential learning and reflective learning practices. Adult Education Quarterly 61 181197. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RossC. & BeggsB. (2007). Campus recreational sports internships: A comparison of student and employer perspectives. Recreational Sports Journal 31(1) 313. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SalomonG. (2002). Technology and pedagogy: Why don’t we see the promised revolution? Educational Technology 42(2) 7175.

  • The Ohio State University. (2018). The Ohio State University launches first-of-its-kind comprehensive esports program. Retrieved from https://news.osu.edu/the-ohio-state-university-launches-first-of-its-kind-comprehensive-esports-program/

    • Export Citation
  • UpholdN. & HudsonM. (2012). Student-focused planning. In D.W. Test (Ed.) Evidence-based instructional strategies for transition: Brookes transition to adulthood series (pp. 5578). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Company.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WallJ. & AhmedV. (2008). Use of a simulation game in delivering blended lifelong learning in the construction industry–opportunities and challenges. Computers & Education 50 13831393. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WangD.WaldmanD.A. & ZhangZ. (2014). A meta-analysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology 99 181198. PubMed ID: 24188392 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WanlessE.A.BrewerR.M.JohnsonJ.E. & JudgeL.W. (2016). Ticket and sponsorship sales: Student perceptions of learning through revenue generation projects. Sport Management Education Journal 10(12) 115126. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WelchJ.L.JeffriesP.R.LyonB.L.BolandD.L. & BackerJ.H. (2001). Experiential learning: Integrating theory and research into practice. Nurse Educator 26 240243. PubMed ID: 12144343 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WhitleyM.A. & WalshD.S. (2014). A framework for the design and implementation of service-learning courses. Journal of Physical Education Recreation & Dance 85 3439. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilliamsJ. & ParkerH.M. (2016). Integration of experiential learning and leadership development in a sport management classroom. Sport Management Education Journal 10 5463. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZhangX. & BartolK.M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. Academy of Management Journal 53 107128. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 69 69 69
Full Text Views 4 4 4
PDF Downloads 1 1 1
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar