Breaking Down Barriers in Sport Management Internships Using the Universal Design for Learning

in Sport Management Education Journal
View More View Less
  • 1 School of Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
  • | 2 Hart School of Hospitality, Sport, and Recreation Management, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USA
  • | 3 College of Business, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, CO, USA
Restricted access

Sitting at the intersection of the sport management workplace and educational setting, internships are both an important curricular component within undergraduate sport management programs and a common entry point for people beginning careers in sport. Drawing from the literature on diversity and inclusion pertaining to the sport industry, sport management education, and internships, we discuss existing pedagogical and systemic barriers to student learning and professional development within internships. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of the Universal Design for Learning framework for addressing the pedagogical barriers and how it can help to improve sport management policies and practices.

  • Aicher, T.J., & Cunningham, G.B. (2011). Organizational culture and leader sex impacts leader prototypicality and effectiveness. International Journal of Sport Management, 12(3), 344360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aicher, T.J., & Sagas, M. (2009). An examination of homologous reproduction and the effects of sexism. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 3(3), 375386. https://doi.org/10.1179/ssa.2009.3.3.375

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aicher, T.J., & Wells, J.E. (2013). Is it the “Old Boys” of the “Old White Boys” network? A race by gender analysis of homologous reproduction among intercollegiate women’s basketball coaching staffs. Applied Research in Coaching and Athletics Annual, 30, 129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ameri, M., Schur, L., Adya, M., Bentley, F.S., McKay, P., & Kruse, D. (2018). The disability employment puzzle: A field experiment on employer hiring behavior. ILR Review, 71(2), 329364. https://doi.org/10.1177/0019793917717474

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnes, J. (2009). Sports management and administration internships and students with disabilities: Responsibilities and practices for success. Quest, 61(2), 191201. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2009.10483610

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baynton, D. (2001). Disability and the justification of inequality in American history. In P.K. Longmore & L. Umansky (Eds.), The new disability history: American perspectives (pp. 92102). New York University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biernat, M., Tocci, M.J., & Williams, J.C. (2012). The language of performance evaluations: Gender-based shifts in content and consistency of judgment. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(2), 186192. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550611415693

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bopp, T., & Sagas, M. (2012). An examination of African American NCAA DI-FBS football coaches: A five-year update. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 5(2), 153169. https://doi.org/10.1123/jis.5.2.153

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boulton, C. (2015). Under the cloak of whiteness: A circuit of culture analysis of opportunity hoarding and colour-blind racism inside US advertising internship programs. tripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique. Open Access Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society, 13(2), 390403. https://doi.org/10.31269/triplec.v13i2.592

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bowman, C.G., & Lipp, M. (2000). Legal limbo of the student intern: The responsibility of colleges and universities to protect student interns against sexual harassment. Harvard Women’s Law Journal, 23, 95131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Briel, L., & Getzel, E. (2001). Internships in higher education: Promoting success for students with disabilities. Disability Studies Quarterly, 21(1). https://dsq-sds.org/article/view/254/257

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, C., Willett, J., & Goldfine, B. (2016). Sport management internships: Requirements and policies. Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management, 3(2), 122. https://doi.org/10.15640/jpesm.v3n2a1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, C., Willett, J., Goldfine, R., & Goldfine, B. (2018). Sport management internships: Recommendations for improving upon experiential learning. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 22, 7581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2018.02.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broyles, P., & Fenner, W. (2010). Race, human capital, and wage discrimination in STEM professions in the United States. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 30(5–6), 251266. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443331011054226

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bruening, J.E., Dixon, M.A., Tiell, B., Osbourne, B., Lough, N., & Sweeney, K. (2008). Work-life culture of collegiate athletics: Perceptions of supervisors. International Journal of Sport Management, 9, 250272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burgstahler, S., & Bellman, S. (2009). Differences in perceived benefits of internships for subgroups of students with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 31(3), 155165. https://doi.org/10.3233/JVR-2009-0485

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burke, D.D., & Carton, R. (2013). The pedagogical, legal, and ethical implications of unpaid internships. Journal of Legal Studies Education, 30(1), 99130. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-1722.2013.01115.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burton, L.J. (2015). Underrepresentation of women in sport leadership: A review of research. Sport Management Review, 18(2), 155165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2014.02.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burton, L.J., Borland, J., & Mazerolle, S.M. (2012). “They cannot seem to get past the gender issue”: Experiences of young female athletic trainers in NCAA Division I intercollegiate athletics. Sport Management Review, 15(3), 304317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2012.01.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cain, C.C., & Trauth, E. (2017). Black men in IT: Theorizing an autoethnography of a black man’s journey into IT within the United States of America. ACM SIGMIS Database: The DATABASE for Advances in Information Systems, 48(2), 3551. https://doi.org/10.1145/3084179.3084184

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Capper, C.A. (2015). The 20th-year anniversary of critical race theory in education: Implications for leading to eliminate racism. Educational Administration Quarterly, 51(5), 791833. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X15607616

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colella, A., & Varma, A. (1999). Disability-job fit stereotypes and the evaluation of persons with disabilities at work. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 9(2), 7995. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021362019948

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cunningham, G.B. (2008). Creating and sustaining gender diversity in sport organizations. Sex Roles, 58(1–2), 136145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9312-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cunningham, G.B. (2009). Understanding the diversity-related change process: A field study. Journal of Sport Management, 23(4), 407428. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.23.4.407

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cunningham, G.B., & Sagas, M. (2005). Access discrimination in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 29(2), 148163. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723504271706

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Darvin, L., & Sagas, M. (2017). An examination of homologous reproduction in the representation of assistant coaches of women’s teams: A 10-year update. Gender Issues, 34(2), 171185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12147-016-9169-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dumont, H., & Ready, D.D. (2020). Do schools reduce or exacerbate inequality? How the associations between student achievement and achievement growth influence our understanding of the role of schooling. American Educational Research Journal, 57(2), 728774. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831219868182

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dwertmann, D.J., & Boehm, S.A. (2016). Status matters: The asymmetric effects of supervisor–subordinate disability incongruence and climate for inclusion. Academy of Management Journal, 59(1), 4464. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2014.0093

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eagly, A.H., & Carli, L.L. (2007). Through the labyrinth of leadership. Harvard Business School Press.

  • Fink, J.S. (2016). Hiding in plain sight: The embedded nature of sexism in sport. Journal of Sport Management, 30(1), 17. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2015-0278

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fnais, N., Soobiah, C., Chen, M.H., Lillie, E., Perrier, L., Tashkhandi, M., Straus, S.E., Mamdani, M., Al-Omran, M., & Tricco, A.C. (2014). Harassment and discrimination in medical training: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Academic Medicine, 89(5), 817827. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000000200

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foster, S.B., & Dollar, J.E. (2010). Experiential learning in sport management: Internships and beyond. Fitness Information Technology.

  • Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Herder and Herder.

  • Gilborn, D. (2015). Intersectionality, critical race theory, and the primacy of racism: Race, class, gender, and disability in education. Qualitative Inquiry, 21(3), 277287.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hancock, M.G., Cintron, A., & Darvin, L. (2018). Socialization to careers in intercollegiate athletics: A comparison of men and women. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 26(1), 1222. https://doi.org/10.1123/wspaj.2017-0002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hancock, M.G., Darvin, L., & Walker, N.A. (2018). Beyond the glass ceiling: Sport management students’ perceptions of the leadership labyrinth. Sport Management Education Journal, 12(2), 100109. https://doi.org/10.1123/smej.2017-0039

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hancock, M.G., & Hums, M.A. (2016). A “leaky pipeline”?: Factors affecting the career development of senior-level female administrators in NCAA Division I athletic departments. Sport Management Review, 19(2), 198210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2015.04.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, K.F.H.F., Grappendorf, H., Aicher, T., & Veraldo, C. (2015). “Discrimination? Low pay? Long hours? I am still excited:” Female sport management students’ perceptions of barriers toward a future career in sport. Advancing Women in Leadership Journal, 35, 1221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hauser, P.C., Maxwell-McCaw, D.L., Leigh, I.W., & Gutman, V.A. (2000). Internship accessibility issues for deaf and hard-of-hearing applications: No cause for complacency. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31(5), 569574. https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.31.5.569

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hawzen, M.G., McLeod, C.M., Holden, J.T., & Newman, J.I. (2018). Cruel optimism in sport management: Fans, affective labor, and the political economy of internships in the sport industry. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 42(3), 184204. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723518758457

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hickman, B., & Thompson, C. (2013, August 9). How unpaid interns aren’t protected against sexual harassment. ProPublica. https://www.propublica.org/article/how-unpaid-interns-arent-protected-against-sexual-harassment

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogan, A., Kyaw-Myint, S., Harris, D., & Denronden, H. (2012). Workforce participation barriers for people with disability. International Journal of Disability Management, 7, 19. https://doi.org/10.1017/idm.2012.1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hollenbeck, K., & Kimmel, J. (2008). Differences in the returns to education for males by disability status and age of disability onset. Southern Economic Journal, 74(3), 707724. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2325-8012.2008.tb00860.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ilgen, D.R., & Youtz, M.A. (1986). Factors affecting the evaluation and development of minorities in organizations. In K. Rowland & G. Ferris (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resource management: A research annual (pp. 307337). JAI Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • James, K. (1996). Making change: Recognizing culture. Journal of Experiential Education, 19(3), 127134. https://doi.org/10.1177/105382599601900305

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, J.R. (2004). Universal instructional design and critical (communication) pedagogy: Strategies for voice, inclusion, and social justice/change. Equity & Excellence in Education, 37(2), 145153. https://doi.org/10.1080/10665680490453995

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, D.F., Brooks, D.D., & Mak, J.Y. (2008). Examining sport management programs in the United States. Sport Management Review, 11(1), 7791. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1441-3523(08)70104-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, P. (2014). Situating universal design architecture: Designing with whom? Disability and Rehabilitation, 36(16), 13691374. https://doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2014.944274

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalleberg, A.L., & Vallas, S.P. (2018). Precarious work: Causes, characteristics, and consequences. Research in the Sociology of Work, 31, 131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanter, R.M. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. Basic Books.

  • Keller, J.M. (1987). Development and use of the ARCS model of instructional design. Journal of Instructional Development, 10(3), 2. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02905780

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keller, J.M. (2010). Motivational design for learning and performance. Springer.

  • Kilty, K. (2006). Women in coaching. Sport Psychologist, 20(2), 222234. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.20.2.222

  • Kraft, C., Jeske, D., & Bayerlein, L. (2019). Seeking diversity? Consider virtual internships. Strategic HR Review, 18(3), 133137. https://doi.org/10.1108/SHR-12-2018-0100

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krause, J.S. (1992). Adjustment to life after spinal cord injury: A comparison among three participant groups based on employment. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 35, 218229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kvasny, L., Trauth, E.M., & Morgan, A.J. (2009). Power relations in IT education and work: The intersectionality of gender, race, and class. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, 7(2–3), 96118. https://doi.org/10.1108/14779960910955828

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ladson-Billings, G., & Tate, W.F. (1995). Toward a critical race theory of education. Teachers College Record, 97(1), 4768.

  • Lastuka, A., & Cottingham, M. (2016). The effect of adaptive sports on employment among people with disabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation, 38(8), 742748. https://doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2015.1059497

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liasidou, A. (2013). Intersectional understandings of disability and implications for a social justice reform agenda in education policy and practice. Disability & Society, 28(3), 299312. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2012.710012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, S. (2007). The labyrinth to leadership. Monitor on Psychology, 38(7), 90.

  • Mazerolle, S.M., Burton, L., & Cotrufo, R.J. (2015). The experiences of female athletic trainers in the role of the head athletic trainer. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(1), 7181. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.50

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McClean, C., Odio, M.A., & Kerwin, S. (2020). Exploring the influence of stimulus events: A case study of undergraduate student internships. Sport Management Education Journal, 14(1), 1224. https://doi.org/10.1123/smej.2018-0026

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDowell, J., Cunningham, G.B., & Singer, J.N. (2009). The supply and demand side of occupational segregation: The case of an intercollegiate athletic department. Journal of African American Studies, 13(4), 431454. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12111-008-9057-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGarry, J.E. (2020). Enact, discard, transform: An impact agenda. Journal of Sport Management, 34(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2019-0391

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McLeod, C.M., Holden, J.T., Hawzen, M.G., & Chahardovali, T. (2019). Do influxes of atypical labor make sport event workers prone to exploitation? Sport Management Review, 22(4), 527539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2018.07.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meyer, A., Rose, D.H., & Gordon, D.T. (2014). Universal design for learning: Theory and practice. CAST Professional Publishing.

  • Moorman, A. (2004). Legal issues and the supervised internship relationship: Who is responsible for what? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 75(2), 1924. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2004.10608554

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, J.I. (2014). Sport without management. Journal of Sport Management, 28(6), 603615. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2012-0159

  • Odio, M. (2017). Students’ search behaviors and career alignment for internships. Journal of Applied Sport Management, 9(4) 2238. https://doi.org/10.18666/JASM-2017-V9-I4-8140

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Odio, M., & Kerwin, S. (2016). Internship characteristics, critical events, and intent to enter the vocation. Sport Management Education Journal, 10(2), 103114. https://doi.org/10.1123/smej.2015-0028

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Odio, M., Sagas, M., & Kerwin, S. (2014). The influence of the internship on students’ career decision making. Sport Management Education Journal, 8(1), 4657. https://doi.org/10.1123/smej.2013-0011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Odio, M.A. (2017). Managing internships in sport and entertainment: Law, ethics, and practice. Sport & Entertainment Review, 3(1), 1521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Odio, M.A., Keller, P.R., & Shaw, D.D. (2019). Protecting our students: Title IX, sexual harassment, and internships. Sport Management Education Journal, 13(2), 117125. https://doi.org/10.1123/smej.2019-0007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, J.J., Kim, Y.K., Salazar, C., & Hayes, S. (2019). Student-faculty interaction and discrimination from faculty in STEM: The link with retention. Research in Higher Education, 61(3), 330356. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-019-09564-w

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pate, J.R., & Hardin, R. (2019). Discrimination or oversight? Making disability visible in the sport management classroom. In Y. Kiuchi (Ed.), Playing on an uneven field: Essays on exclusion and inclusion in sports (pp. 109128). McFarland & Company Inc. Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perlin, R. (2012). Intern nation: How to earn nothing and learn little in the brave new economy. Verso Books.

  • Pitts, B.G., & Shapiro, D.R. (2017). People with disabilities and sport: An exploration of topic inclusion in sport management. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 21, 3345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2017.06.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sanger, C.S. (2020). Inclusive pedagogy and universal design approaches for diverse learning environments. In Diversity and inclusion in global higher education (pp. 3171). Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sartore, M.L., & Cunningham, G.B. (2007). Explaining the under-representation of women in leadership positions of sport organizations: A symbolic interactionist perspective. Quest, 59(2), 244265. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2007.10483551

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sattler, L.A. (2018). From classroom to courtside: An examination of the experiential learning practices of sport management faculty. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 22, 5262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2018.02.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sauder, M.H., Mudrick, M., Strassle, C.G., Maitoza, R., Malcarne, B., & Evans, B. (2019). What did you expect? Divergent perceptions among internship stakeholders. Journal of Experiential Education, 42(2), 105120. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053825918818589

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneider, R.C., & Stier, W.F. (2006). Sport management field experiences as experiential learning: Ensuring beneficial outcomes and preventing exploitation. The Sport Management and Related Topics Journal, 2(2), 3643.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shapiro, D.R., Pitts, B.G., Hums, M.A., & Calloway, J. (2012). Infusing disability sport into the sport management curriculum. Choregia: Sport Management International Journal, 8(1), 101118. https://doi.org/10.4127/ch.2012.0067

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sharby, N., & Roush, S.E. (2008). The application of universal instructional design in experiential education. In J.L. Higbee & E. Goff (Eds.), Pedagogy and student services for institutional transformation: Implementing universal design in higher education (pp. 305320). The Learning Assistance Review.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shier, M., Graham, J.R., & Jones, M.E. (2009). Barriers to employment as experienced by disabled people: A qualitative analysis in Calgary and Regina, Canada. Disability & Society, 24(1), 6375. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687590802535485

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shim, K., Carter-Francique, A.R., & Singer, J.N. (2020). The foreigner: Race-based experiences of Asian employees in intercollegiate athletics administration. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 13, 7093.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silverman, A.M., & Cohen, G.L. (2014). Stereotypes as stumbling-blocks: How coping with stereotype threat affects life outcomes for people with physical disabilities. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(10), 13301340. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167214542800

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Singer, J.N., Shaw, S., Hoeber, L., Walker, N.A., Agyemang, K.J.A., & Rich, K. (2019). Critical conversations about qualitative research in sport management. Journal of Sport Management, 33(1), 5063. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2018-0085

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Standing, G. (2016). The precariat: A dangerous new class. Bloomsbury Academic.

  • Stauffer, J.M., & Buckley, M.R. (2005). The existence and nature of racial bias in supervisory ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(3), Article 586. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.3.586

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steward, A.D., & Cunningham, G.B. (2015). Racial identity and its impact on job applicants. Journal of Sport Management, 29(3), 245256. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2014-0017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stratta, T. (2004). The needs and concerns of students during sport management internship experience. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 75(2), 2529. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2004.10608555

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, E.A., Hardin, R., & Rode, C.R. (2017). Contrapower harassment in the sport management classroom. NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education, 11(1), 1732. https://doi.org/10.1080/19407882.2017.1378113

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, E.A., Smith, A.B., Rode, C.R., & Hardin, R. (2017). Women don’t know anything about sports: Contrapower harassment in the sport management classroom. Sport Management Education Journal, 11(2), 6171. https://doi.org/10.1123/smej.2016-0013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2020). Persons with a disability: Labor force characteristics summary. https://www.bls.gov/news.release/disabl.nr0.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verner, M.E. (2004). Internship search, selection, and solidification strategies. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 75(1), 2527. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2004.10608537

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, N.A., Agyemang, K.J.A., Washington, M., Hindman, L.C., & MacCharles, J. (2021). Getting an internship in the sport industry: The institutionalization of privilege. Sport Management Education Journal, 15(1), 2033.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, N.A., & Bopp, T. (2011). The underrepresentation of women in the male-dominated sport workplace: Perspectives of female coaches. Journal of Workplace Rights, 15(1), 4764. https://doi.org/10.2190/WR.15.1.d

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, N.A., & Sartore-Baldwin, M.L. (2013). Hegemonic masculinity and the institutionalized bias toward women in men’s collegiate basketball: What do men think? Journal of Sport Management, 27(4), 303315. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.27.4.303

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warren, K. (1998). Educating students for social justice in service learning. Journal of Experiential Education, 21(3), 134139. https://doi.org/10.1177/105382599802100305

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warren, K., Roberts, N.S., Breunig, M., & Alvarez, M.A.T.G. (2014). Social justice in outdoor experiential education: A state of knowledge review. Journal of Experiential Education, 37(1), 89103. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053825913518898

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whaley, D.E., & Krane, V. (2012). Resilient excellence: Challenges faced by trailblazing women in U.S. sport psychology. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 83(1), 6576. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2012.10599826

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whisenant, W.A., Pedersen, P.M., & Obenour, B.L. (2002). Success and gender: Determining the rate of advancement for intercollegiate athletic directors. Sex Roles, 47(9), 485491. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021656628604

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiest, A., & King-White, R. (2013). Selling out (in) sport management: Practically evaluating the state of the American (Sporting) Union. Sport, Education and Society, 18(2), 200221. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2011.558571

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, J. (2004). Sport management internships: Agency perspectives, expectations, and concerns. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 75(2), 3033. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2004.10608556

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yamada, D.C. (2002). The employment law rights of student interns. Connecticut Law Review, 35, 215.

  • Young, D.S., & Baker, R.E. (2004). Linking classroom theory to professional practice: The internship as a practical learning experience worthy of academic credit. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 75(1), 2224. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2004.10608536

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 252 252 28
Full Text Views 12 12 2
PDF Downloads 18 18 3