Strike a Pose! The Femininity Effect in Collegiate Women’s Sport

in Sociology of Sport Journal
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  • 1 University of Southern California
  • 2 University of Michigan
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The apologetic strategies women employ to manage the cultural tension between athleticism and hegemonic femininity are well documented. Existing research, however, tends to be small-scale. The cumulative symbolic implications of female athlete appearance on cultural ideals remain under-theorized as a result. Our quantitative content analysis of a stratified, random sample of 4,799 collegiate women athletes’ roster photos examined whether sport, school type, and geographical location are related to gendered appearance. Despite important contextual variation, we found overwhelming homogeneity across settings. Our results suggest that the normalization of women’s athleticism is limited and depends on subordinated femininities. Thus, despite some positive changes, team sport still helps stabilize and naturalize the gender order.

Musto is with the Department of Sociology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. McGann is with the Department of Sociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Address author correspondence to Michela Musto at
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