Overcoming Gender Barriers in Sports—An Opportunity of Adventure/High Risk Sports?

Click name to view affiliation

Anika Frühauf Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Fürstenweg, Innsbruck, Austria

Search for other papers by Anika Frühauf in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
,
Christiane Pahlke Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Fürstenweg, Innsbruck, Austria

Search for other papers by Christiane Pahlke in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Martin Kopp Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Fürstenweg, Innsbruck, Austria

Search for other papers by Martin Kopp in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Adventure/high risk sports (AHRS) were developed in a different social context and are usually not separated by sex which might lead to differences in gender-related experiences. This study qualitatively compared 10 female traditional sport participants (soccer players) with 10 female AHRS participants (trad climbers [TC]) regarding their experience of possible gender-related advantages and disadvantages in their sports. The TC climbed with more male partners. The TC reported to not consider gender as a determining factor in the choice of climbing partner or their trad climbing experience. The TC mentioned more female advantages in their sport participation and reported fewer gender-related barriers than soccer players. Differences might be explained through mixed gender sports participation and the differing demands in TC. Unlike traditional sports, AHRS does not imply defeating an opponent. The challenge in AHRS is set by the participant and the environmental conditions, which seem to be less related to sex and gender.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Anderson, C. (2010). Presenting and evaluating qualitative research. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(8), Article 141. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj7408141

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atencio, M., Beal, B., & Wilson, C. (2009). The distinction of risk: Urban skateboarding, street habitus and the construction of hierarchical gender relations. Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise, 1(1), 320. https://doi.org/10.1080/19398440802567907

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barlow, M. [Matthew], Woodman, T., & Hardy, L. (2013). Great expectations: Different high-risk activities satisfy different motives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105(3), 458475. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033542

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bennett, G., Henson, R.K., & Zhang, J. (2003). Generation Y’s perceptions of the action sports industry segment. Journal of Sport Management, 17(2), 95115. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.17.2.95

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, V., Clarke, V., & Weate, P. (2016). Using thematic analysis in sport and exercise research. Taylor & Francis (Routledge). https://uwe-repository.worktribe.com/output/3123247/using-thematic-analysis-in-sport-and-exercise-research

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, W.J., Mielke, G.I., & Kolbe-Alexander, T.L. (2016). Gender equality in sport for improved public health. The Lancet, 388(10051), 12571258. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30881-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brymer, E., & Schweitzer, R. (2013). Extreme sports are good for your health: A phenomenological understanding of fear and anxiety in extreme sport. Journal of Health Psychology, 18(4), 477487. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105312446770

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chalabaev, A., Sarrazin, P., Fontayne, P., Boiché, J., & Clément-Guillotin, C. (2013). The influence of sex stereotypes and gender roles on participation and performance in sport and exercise: Review and future directions. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(2), 136144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.10.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clough, P., Houge Mackenzie, S., Mallabon, L., & Brymer, E. (2016). Adventurous physical activity environments: A mainstream intervention for mental health. Sports Medicine, 46(7), 963968. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0503-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Comley, C. (2015). “We have to establish our territory”: How women surfers “carve out” gendered spaces within surfing. Sport in Society, 19(8–9), 12891298. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2015.1133603

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooky, C., Council, L.D., Mears, M.A., & Messner, M.A. (2021). One and done: The long eclipse of women’s televised sports, 1989–2019. Communication & Sport, 9(3), 347371. https://doi.org/10.1177/21674795211003524

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cox, B., & Thompson, S. (2000). Multiple bodies. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 35(1), 520. https://doi.org/10.1177/101269000035001001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dahl, R.E., Allen, N.B., Wilbrecht, L., & Suleiman, A.B. (2018). Importance of investing in adolescence from a developmental science perspective. Nature, 554(7693), 441450. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature25770

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daly, R.M., & Petit, M.A. (2007). Optimizing bone mass and strength (Vol. 51). S. Karger AG. https://doi.org/10.1159/issn.0076-6070

  • Dilley, R.E., & Scraton, S.J. (2010). Women, climbing and serious leisure. Leisure Studies, 29(2), 125141. https://doi.org/10.1080/02614360903401927

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frühauf, A., Hardy, W.A.S., Pfoestl, D., Hoellen, F.-G., & Kopp, M. (2017). A qualitative approach on motives and aspects of risks in freeriding. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article 1998. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01998

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gauster, H., Schwaiger, M., & Hack, J. (2019). Handbuch Sportklettern (4. überarbeitete Auflage). Österreichischer Alpenverein.

  • Gubby, L., & Wellard, I. (2016). Sporting equality and gender neutrality in korfball. Sport in Society, 19(8–9), 11711185. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2015.1096261

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hennink, M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2011). Qualitative research methods (Reprinted 2015). SAGE Publications Ltd.

  • Hills, L.A., & Croston, A. (2012). “It should be better all together”: Exploring strategies for “undoing” gender in coeducational physical education. Sport, Education and Society, 17(5), 591605. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2011.553215

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hodges, N.J., Kerr, T., Starkes, J.L., Weir, P.L., & Nananidou, A. (2004). Predicting performance times from deliberate practice hours for triathletes and swimmers: What, when, and where is practice important? Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied, 10(4), 219237. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-898X.10.4.219

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holland-Smith, D. (2016). “All the places we were not supposed to go”: A case study of formative class and gender habitus in adventure climbing. Sport, Education and Society, 21(8), 11761192. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2014.994177

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Homan, K.J., & Tylka, T.L. (2014). Appearance-based exercise motivation moderates the relationship between exercise frequency and positive body image. Body Image, 11(2), 101108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.01.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houge Mackenzie, S., & Hodge, K. (2020). Adventure recreation and subjective well-being: A conceptual framework. Leisure Studies, 39(1), 2640. https://doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2019.1577478

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunter, L. (2018). Surfing, sex, genders and sexualities. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315201238

  • Kågesten, A., Gibbs, S., Blum, R.W., Moreau, C., Chandra-Mouli, V., Herbert, A., & Amin, A. (2016). Understanding factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence globally: A mixed-methods systematic review. PloS One, 11(6), Article e0157805. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157805

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, D.M., Pomerantz, S., & Currie, D. (2006). Skater girlhood and emphasized femininity: “You can’t land an ollie properly in heels.” Gender and Education, 17(3), 229248. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540250500145163

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kerr, J.H., & Houge Mackenzie, S. (2012). Multiple motives for participating in adventure sports. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(5), 649657. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.04.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kilpatrick, M., Hebert, E., & Bartholomew, J. (2005). College students’ motivation for physical activity: Differentiating men’s and women’s motives for sport participation and exercise. Journal of American College Health, 54(2), 8794. https://doi.org/10.3200/JACH.54.2.87-94

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krane, V. (2001). We can be athletic and feminine, but do we want to? Challenging hegemonic femininity in women’s sport. Quest, 53(1), 115133. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2001.10491733

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krane, V., Choi, P.Y.L., Baird, S.M., Aimar, C.M., & Kauer, K.J. (2004). Living the paradox: Female athletes negotiate femininity and muscularity. Sex Roles, 50(5/6), 315329. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:SERS.0000018888.48437.4f

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, I.-M., Shiroma, E.J., Lobelo, F., Puska, P., Blair, S.N., & Katzmarzyk, P.T. (2012). Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: An analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. The Lancet, 380(9838), 219229. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61031-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lincoln, Y.S., Lynham, S.A., & Guba, E.G. (2011). Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences, revisited. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), TheSagehandbook of qualitative research (4th ed., pp. 97128). Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MAXQDA (Version Plus 12) [Computer software]. (1989-2017). VERBI Software - Consult - Sozialforschung GmbH.

  • McPhie, M.L., & Rawana, J.S. (2015). The effect of physical activity on depression in adolescence and emerging adulthood: A growth-curve analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 40, 8392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.01.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mei-Dan, O. (2018). Children and extreme sports: A parent’s perspective. Research in Sports Medicine (Print), 26(Suppl. 1), 14. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2018.1432195

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meier, H.E., Konjer, M., & Strauß, B. (2020). Identification with the women’s national soccer in Germany: Do gender role orientations matter? Soccer & Society, 21(3), 299315. https://doi.org/10.1080/14660970.2019.1629908

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Messner, M.A. (2002). Taking the field: Women, men, and sports. University of Minnesota Press.

  • Messner, M.A. (2011). Gender ideologies, youth sports, and the production of soft essentialism. Sociology of Sport Journal, 28, 151170.

  • Meyer-Parlapanis, D., Siefert, S., & Weierstall, R. (2017). More than the win: The relation between appetitive competition motivation, socialization, and gender role orientation in women’s football. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article 547. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00547

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nemani, M., & Thorpe, H. (2016). The experiences of “brown” female bodyboarders: Negotiating multiple axes of marginality. In H. Thorpe & R. Olive (Eds.), Women in action sport cultures (pp. 213233). Palgrave Macmillan UK. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-45797-4_11

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olive, R., McCuaig, L., & Phillips, M.G. (2012). Women’s recreational surfing: A patronising experience. Sport, Education and Society, 20(2), 258276. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2012.754752

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patton, M.Q. (1990). Qualitative research & evaluation methods. SAGE Publications, Inc.

  • Procter, E., Strapazzon, G., Dal Cappello, T., Castlunger, L., Staffler, H.P., & Brugger, H. (2014). Adherence of backcountry winter recreationists to avalanche prevention and safety practices in northern Italy. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(5), 823829. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12094

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roy, G. (2016). Coming together and paddling out: Lesbian identities and british surfing spaces. In H. Thorpe & R. Olive (Eds.), Women in action sport cultures (pp. 193211). Palgrave Macmillan UK. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-45797-4_10

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmalz, D.L., & Kerstetter, D.L. (2006). Girlie girls and manly men: Chidren’s stigma consciousness of gender in sports and physical activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 38(4), 536557. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2006.11950091

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmitt, A., & Bohuon, A. (2021). When women surf the world’s biggest waves: Breaking gender barriers. Sport in Society, 116. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2021.1897108

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Slater, A., & Tiggemann, M. (2010). “Uncool to do sport”: A focus group study of adolescent girls’ reasons for withdrawing from physical activity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11(6), 619626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.07.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B., & Sparkes, A.C. (2009). Narrative analysis and sport and exercise psychology: Understanding lives in diverse ways: Understanding lives in diverse ways. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(2), 279288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.07.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sparkes, A.C., & Smith, B. (2014). Qualitative research methods in sport, exercise and health: From process to product. Routledge.

  • Thorpe, H. (2005). Jibbing the gender order: Females in the snowboarding culture. Sport in Society, 8(1), 76100. https://doi.org/10.1080/1743043052000316632

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thorpe, H., & Dumont, G. (2018). The professionalization of action sports: Mapping trends and future directions. Sport in Society, 1(1), 116. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2018.1440715

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waitt, G. (2008). “Killing waves”: Surfing, space and gender: Surfing, space and gender. Social & Cultural Geography, 9(1), 7594. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649360701789600

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wheaton, B. (2010). Introducing the consumption and representation of lifestyle sports. Sport in Society, 13(7–8), 10571081. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430431003779965

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wheaton, B. (2015). Assessing the sociology of sport: On action sport and the politics of identity. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 50(4–5), 634639. https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690214539160

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wheaton, B., & Thorpe, H. (2018). Action sports, the olympic games, and the opportunities and challenges for gender equity: The cases of surfing and skateboarding. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 42(5), 315342. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723518781230

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willig, C. (2008). A phenomenological investigation of the experience of taking part in “extreme sports.” Journal of Health Psychology, 13(5), 690702. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105307082459

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, J. (2003). The fastest growing sport? Women’s football in England. Soccer & Society, 4(2–3), 112127. https://doi.org/10.1080/14660970512331390865

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woodman, T., Barlow, M. [Matt], Bandura, C., Hill, M., Kupciw, D., & MacGregor, A.L. (2013). Not all risks are equal: The risk taking inventory for high-risk sports. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35(5), 479492. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.35.5.479

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 2529 852 86
Full Text Views 530 307 74
PDF Downloads 528 289 82