“Compatriot” or “Stateless”: Iranian State-Owned Media and Social Media Depictions of Iranian Refugee Kimia Alizadeh’s Match at the Tokyo Olympic Games

Click name to view affiliation

Mahdi Latififard Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Search for other papers by Mahdi Latififard in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3646-0055
,
Andrew C. Billings University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA

Search for other papers by Andrew C. Billings in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4818-5799 *
,
Sean R. Sadri University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA

Search for other papers by Sean R. Sadri in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9904-0461
, and
Amin Yadegari Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

Search for other papers by Amin Yadegari in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

The only Iranian woman to ever win an Olympic medal, Taekwondo Athlete Kimia Alizadeh, immigrated to Germany and became a refugee participant for the 2020/2021 Tokyo Games, competing against her former compatriot, teammate, and friend. This study content analyzes four Iranian media sources as they rendered the story of a former national hero-turned-refugee. A total of 15 frame categories were applied to each of the media sources: (a) Twitter (n = 5,662), (b) television (n = 103), (c) radio (n = 117), and (d) newspapers/digital-native news (n = 119). Television was found to adopt the most critical tones of Alizadeh, with social media, newspapers, and radio offering assessments that ranged from neutral to positive. Interestingly, social media and newspaper frames were significantly correlated, while other media sources were not.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Agergaard, S. (2019). Nationalising minority ethnic athletes: Danish media representations of Nadia Nadim around the UEFA women’s Euro 2017. Sport in History, 39(2), 130146.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ali, A.E. (2022). Economies of mourning, Canadian nationalism, and the Broncos: An affective reading of TSN’s 29 Forever. Sociology of Sport Journal, 39(4), 333341.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities. Verso.

  • Angelini, J.R., Billings, A.C., & MacArthur, P.J. (2012). The nationalistic revolution will be televised: The 2010 Vancouver Olympic Games on NBC. International Journal of Sport Communication, 5(2), 193209.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Angelini, J.R., MacArthur, P.J., Smith, L.R., & Billings, A.C. (2017). Nationalism in the United States and Canadian primetime broadcast coverage of the 2014 Winter Olympics. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 52(7), 779800.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AZERTAC. (2016). Azerbaijani taekwondo fighter into semifinal in Rio 2016. https://azertag.az/en/xeber/Azerbaijani_taekwondo_fighter_into_semifinal_in_Rio_2016-985446

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bairner, A. (1996). Sportive nationalism and nationalist polities: A comparative analysisof Scotland, the Republic of Ireland and Sweden. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 20(3), 314334.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baresch, B., Hsu, S.-H., & Reese, S. (2012). The power of framing: New challenges for researching the structure of meaning in news. In S. Allan (Ed.), Studies in news framing (pp. 637647). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beamish, R., & Ritchie, I. (2006). Fastest, highest, strongest: A critique of high-performance sport. Routledge.

  • Bennett, W.L. (2016). News: The politics of illusion. University of Chicago Press.

  • Bergström, A., & Jervelycke Belfrage, M. (2018). News in social media: Incidental consumption and the role of opinion leaders. Digital Journalism, 6(5), 583598.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berman, A. (2009). Iran’s Twitter revolution. The Nation. www.thenation.com/blogs/notion/443634

  • Billings, A.C., Angelini, J.R., & Wu, D. (2011). Nationalistic notions of the superpowers: Comparative analyses of the American and Chinese telecasts in the 2008 Beijing Olympiad. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 55(2), 251266.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Billings, A.C., Brown, C.L., Crout, J.H., McKenna, K.E., Rice, B.A., Timanus, M.E., & Zeigler, J. (2008). The Games through the NBC lens: Gender, ethnic and national equity in the 2006 Torino Winter Olympics. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 52(2), 215230.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Billings, A.C., & Eastman, S.T. (2002). Selective representation of gender, ethnicity, and nationality in American television coverage of the 2000 Summer Olympics. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37(3–4), 351370.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Billings, A.C., Moscowitz, L.M., Rae, C., & Brown-Devlin, N. (2015). The art of coming out: Traditional and social media frames surrounding the NBA’s Jason Collins. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 92(1), 142160.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Binner, A. (2021, June 6). Meet Kimia Alizadeh: The Olympic medalist refugee fighting for equality. Olympics.com. https://olympics.com/en/news/kimia-alizadeh-refugee-olympian-fighting-for-equality

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, J. (2016). ‘As British as fish and chips’: British newspaper representations of Mo Farah during the 2012 London Olympic Games. Media, Culture & Society, 38(7), 979996.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bleiker, R., Campbell, D., Hutchison, E., & Nicholson, X. (2013). The visual dehumanisation of refugees. Australian Journal of Political Science, 48(4), 398416.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blumell, L.E., Bunce, M., Cooper, G., & McDowell, C. (2020). Refugee and asylum news coverage in UK print and online media. Journalism Studies, 21(2), 162179.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brader, T., Valentino, N.A., & Suhay, E. (2008). What triggers public opposition to immigration? Anxiety, group cues, and immigration threat. American Journal of Political Science, 52(4), 959978.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • British Broadcast Corporation. (2019). BBC 100 Women 2019: Who is on the list this year? https://www.bbc.com/news/world-50042279

  • British Broadcast Corporation. (2020, Janurary 13). Kimia Alizadeh: A guide to Iran’s defecting athletes. https://www.bbc.com/sport/taekwondo/51090585

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • British Broadcast Corporation. (2021, July 25). Tokyo Olympics; Kimia Alizadeh attained fourth place. https://www.bbc.com/persian/sport-57959119

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, K.A., Brown-Devlin, N., Devlin, M.B., & Billings, A.C. (2019). The evolution and fragmentation of Olympic media consumption and its impact on the entertainment value of the 2018 Winter Olympics. Communication Research Reports 36(2), 103113.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brunken, B.L. (2006). Hurricane Katrina: A content analysis of media framing, attribute agenda setting, and tone of government response. Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buhmann, A., & Ingenhoff, D. (2015). The 4D Model of the country image: An integrative approach from the perspective of communication management. International Communication Gazette, 77(1), 102124.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burch, L.M., Frederick, E.L., & Pegoraro, A. (2015). Kissing in the carnage: An examination of framing on Twitter during the Vancouver riots. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 59(3), 399415.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burdsey, D. (2016). One guy named Mo: Race, nation and the London 2012 Olympic Games. Sociology of Sport Journal, 33(1), 1425.

  • Butler, N. (2015, June 18). Beigi-Harchegani continues home golden streak in taekwondo at Baku 2015. Inside the Games. https://www.insidethegames.biz/articles/1028101/beigi-harchegani-continues-home-golden-streak-in-taekwondo-at-baku-2015

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butterworth, M.L. (2007). The politics of the pitch: Claiming and contesting democracy through the Iraqi national soccer team. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 4(2), 184203.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, D., Hutchison, E., & Nicholson, X. (2013). The visual dehumanisation of refugees. Australian Journal of Political Science, 48(4), 398416.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, C.C., & Colapinto, C. (2010). Beijing Olympics between media sport and politics: Perspectives from the Swiss and Italian media. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 27(9–10), 16941716.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cho, Y. (2009). Unfolding sporting nationalism in South Korean media representations of the 1968, 1984 and 2000 Olympics. Media, Culture & Society, 31(3), 347364.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chong, D., & Druckman, J. (2007). Framing theory. Annual Review of Political Science, 10(1), 103126.

  • Christensen, C. (2011). Discourses of technology and liberation: State aid to net activists in an era of “Twitter Revolutions”. The Communication Review, 14(3), 233253.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clarke, A., & Clarke, J. (1982). Highlights and action replays: Ideology, sport, and the media. In J. Hargreaves (Ed.) Sport, culture, and ideology (pp. 6287). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, B.C. (1963). The press and foreign policy. Princeton University Press.

  • Cooper, G., Blumell, L., & Bunce, M. (2021). Beyond the ‘refugee crisis’: How the UK news media represent asylum seekers across national boundaries. International Communication Gazette, 83(3), 195216.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, S., Olejniczak, E., Lenette, C., & Smedley, C. (2017). Media coverage of refugees and asylum seekers in regional Australia: A critical discourse analysis. Media International Australia, 162(1), 7889.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cornelissen, S. (2010). The geopolitics of global aspiration: Sport mega-events and emerging powers. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 27(16–18), 30083025.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Couldry, N. (2008). Mediatization or mediation? Alternative understandings of the emergent space of digital storytelling. New Media & Society, 10(3), 373391.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dayan, D., & Katz, E. (1992). Media events: The live broadcasting of history. Harvard University Press.

  • DeLuca, K.M., Lawson, S., & Sun, Y. (2012). Occupy Wall Street on the public screens of social media: The many framings of the birth of a protest movement. Communication, Culture & Critique, 5(4), 483509.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Devlin, M.B., Billings, A.C., & Brown, K.A. (2017). Interwoven statesmanship and sports fandom: World Cup consumption antecedents through joint lenses of nationalism and fanship. Communication & Sport, 5(2), 186204.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Devlin, M.B., Brown, K.A., Brown-Devlin, N., & Billings, A.C. (2020). ‘My country is better than yours’: Delineating differences between six countries’ national identity, fan identity, and media consumption during the 2018 Olympic Games. Sociology of Sport Journal, 37(3), 254263.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Druckman, J. (2001). The implications of framing effects for citizen competence. Political Behavior, 23(3), 225256.

  • Druckman, J. (2004). Political preference formation: Competition, deliberation, and the (ir)relevance of framing effects. American Political Science Review, 98(4), 671686.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubinsky, Y. (2019). From soft power to sports diplomacy: A theoretical and conceptual discussion. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 15(3), 156164.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eagleman, A., Burch, L.M., & Vooris, R. (2014). A unified version of London 2012: New-media coverage of gender, nationality, and sport for Olympics consumers in six countries. Journal of Sport Management, 28(4), 457470.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Edney, K. (2012). Soft power and the Chinese propaganda system. Journal of Contemporary China, 21, 899914.

  • Entman, R.M. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 5158.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Entman, R.M. (2007). Framing bias: Media in the distribution of power. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 163173.

  • Falcous, M., & Silk, M.L. (2010). Olympic bidding, multicultural nationalism, terror, and the epistemological violence of ‘making Britain proud.’ Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 10,(2) 167186.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freeman, K. (2012). Sport as swaggering: Utilizing sport as soft power. Sport in Society, 15(9), 12601274.

  • Gever, C.V. (2019). When solution triggers more conflicts: Frames and tone of media coverage of the anti-open grazing law of Benue State, Nigeria. Media, War & Conflict, 12(4), 468482.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gitlin, T. (1980). The whole world is watching: Mass media in the making & unmaking of thenew left. University of California Press.

  • Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Harvard University Press.

  • Guggenheim, L., Jang, S.M., Bae, S.Y., & Neuman, W.R. (2015). The dynamics of issue frame competition in traditional and social media. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 659(1), 207224.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hermida, A. (2010). Twittering the news: The emergence of ambient journalism. Journalism Practice, 4(3), 297308.

  • Hester, J.B., & Gibson, R. (2007). The relationship between tone of TV news coverage and public opinion for a controversial issue. Electronic News, 1(2), 89102.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ho, G., & Bairner, A. (2013). One country, two systems, three flags: Imagining Olympic nationalism in Hong Kong and Macao. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48(3), 349365.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogan, J. (2003). Staging the nation: Gendered and ethnicized discourses of national identity in Olympic Opening Ceremonies. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 27(2), 100123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoominfar, E., & Zanganeh, N. (2021). The brick wall to break: Women and the labor market under the hegemony of the Islamic Republic of Iran. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 23(2), 263286.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hosseini, Z., Honari, H., & Ghafouri, F. (2019). Identification the factors affecting the sports migration of elite Iranian athletes. Organizational Behavior Management in Sport Studies, 7(25), 95109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • International Judo Federation. (2019, October 29). Final suspension for Iran Judo Federation. https://www.ijf.org/news/show/final-suspension-for-iran-judo-federation

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • International Olympic Committee. (2021, June 8). 29 refugee athletes to send a message of solidarity and hope to the world at the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020. IOC. https://olympics.com/ioc/news/29-refugee-athletes-to-send-a-message-of-solidarity-and-hope-to-the-world-at-the-olympic-games-tokyo-2020

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Javani, V. (2022). Sport and gender equity: The case of Iran. In C. Sobry & K. Hozhabri (Eds.), International perspectives on sport for sustainable development (pp. 181193). Springer Nature.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kangarlou, T. (2021, July 23). Once friends, now rivals: The Iranian athletes facing off under different flags at the 2020 Tokyo Games. Time. https://time.com/6083159/iran-taekwondo-refugee-athlete-tokyo-2020/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kargar, S., & Rauchfleisch, A. (2019). State-aligned trolling in Iran and the double-edged affordances of Instagram. New Media & Society, 21(7), 15061527.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kermani, H. (2023). #MahsaAmini: Iranian Twitter Activism in Times of Computational Propaganda. Social Movement Studies. Advance online publication.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kermani, H., & Adham, M. (2021). Mapping Persian Twitter: Networks and mechanism of political communication in Iranian 2017 presidential election. Big Data & Society, 8(1), 116.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kertscher, T. (2020, January 24). Yes, Iran does ban Twitter. Politifact. https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jan/24/facebook-posts/yes-iran-does-ban-twitter/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khabaronline. (2021, July 26). Strange TV report on the game between Kimia Alizadeh and Nahid Kiani. Khabar Online. https://www.khabaronline.ir/news/1538646

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, J. (2019). Why we cheer for Viktor Ahn: Changing characteristics of sporting nationalism and citizenship in South Korea in the era of neoliberal globalization. Communication & Sport, 7(4), 488509.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, J., & Wanta, W. (2018). News framing of the US immigration debate during election years: Focus on generic frames. The Communication Review, 21(2), 89115.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levermore, R. (2004). Sport’s role in constructing the ‘inter-state’ worldview. In R. Levermore & A. Budd (Eds.), Sport and international relations (pp. 2842). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, B., Stokowski, S., Dittmore, S.W., & Scott, O.K. (2016). How mediated sporting events constitute nationalism: Chinese newspapers covering the 2014 Incheon Asian Games. International Journal of Sport Communication, 9(1), 7996.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mashregh News. (2020, January 14). Kimia Alizadeh’s disrespect to millions of Iranian girls/“Censored Identity” revealed by Kimia herself!. https://www.mashreghnews.ir/news/1030817

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mehdi, S.Z. (2021, July 26). ‘Hard day’ for Iran as ex-teammates face off at Olympics. Anadolu Agency. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/middle-east/hard-day-for-iran-as-ex-teammates-face-off-at-olympics/2313960

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meraz, S., & Papacharissi, Z. (2013). Networked gatekeeping and networked framing on# Egypt. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 18(2), 138166.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moshe, M. (2004). Between national and constitutional patriotism: Framing financial patriotic discourse. Journalism Studies, 5(4), 497509.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Najibullah, F. (2008). Tehran debates breaking dress code to broadcast women at Olympics. www.rferl.org/a/1185739.html

  • Nassar, R. (2020). Framing refugees: The impact of religious frames on US partisans and consumers of cable news media. Political Communication, 37(5), 593611.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neuendorf, K.A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook. SAGE.

  • Nisbet, M. (2010). Knowledge into action: Framing the debates over climate change and poverty. In P. D’Angelo & J. Kuypers (Eds.), Doing frame analysis: Empirical and theoretical perspectives (pp. 4383). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nye, J.S. (2004). Soft power: The means to success in world politics. Public Affairs Press.

  • Offenhauer, P., & Buchalter, A.R. (2005). Women in Islamic societies: A selected review of social scientific literature. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pan, Z., & Kosicki, G.M. (2001). Framing as a strategic action in public deliberation. In S.D. Reese, O.H. Gandy, & A.E. Grant (Eds.), Framing public life: Perspectives on media and our understanding of the social world (pp. 3565). Erlbaum.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parrott, S., Hoewe, J., Fan, M., & Huffman, K. (2019). Portrayals of immigrants and refugees in US news media: Visual framing and its effect on emotions and attitudes. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 63(4), 677697.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pöyhtäri, R., Nelimarkka, M., Nikunen, K., Ojala, M., Pantti, M., & Pääkkönen, J. (2021). Refugee debate and networked framing in the hybrid media environment. International Communication Gazette, 83(1), 81102.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rahbari, L. (2022). Beyond ‘defecting’and ‘swapping’ nationality: Emigrant women athletes and the Iranian gendered bio-politics. In P.M. Brannagan & D. Reiche (Eds.), Routledge handbook of sport in the middle east (pp. 354363). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rahbari, L., Dierickx, S., Coene, G., & Longman, C. (2021). Transnational solidarity with which Muslim women? The case of the My Stealthy Freedom and World Hijab Day campaigns. Politics & Gender, 17(1), 112135.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rahbari, L., Longman, C., & Coene, G. (2019). The female body as the bearer of national identity in Iran: A critical discourse analysis of the representation of women’s bodies in official online outlets. Gender, Place & Culture, 26(10), 14171437.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sanderson, J. (2010). Framing Tiger’s troubles: Comparing traditional and social media. International Journal of Sport Communication, 3(4), 438453.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sanderson, J., & Hambrick, M.E. (2012). Covering the scandal in 140 characters: A case study of Twitter’s role in coverage of the Penn State saga. International Journal of Sport Communication, 5(3), 384402.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scheufele, D.A., & Tewksbury, D. (2006). Framing, agenda setting, and priming: The evolution of three media effects models. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 920.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shirazi, F. (2017). Iran’s compulsory hijab: From politics and religious authority to fashion shows. In A. Almila & D. Inglis (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook to veils and veiling practices (pp. 95115). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soroka, S., Daku, M., Hiaeshutter-Rice, D., Guggenheim, L., & Pasek, J. (2018). Negativity and positivity biases in economic news coverage: Traditional versus social media. Communication Research, 45(7), 10781098.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Specia, M. (2020). Iran’s only female Olympic medalist defects over ‘lies’ and ‘injustice’. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/13/world/middleeast/kimia-alizadeh-iran-defection.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Talebian, S. (2020). Understanding the characteristics of broadcast media policy in Iran: A thematic policy analysis. Global Media and Communication, 16(2), 148166.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, J. (2021, July 29). An Iranian athlete left his country after being told to lose on purpose, won silver at the Olympics for Mongolia, and dedicated the medal to Israel. Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.in/sports/news/an-iranian-athlete-left-his-country-after-being-told-to-lose-on-purpose-won-silver-at-the-olympics-for-mongolia-and-then-dedicated-the-medal-to-israel/articleshow/84830385.cms

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turcott, R., & Ariyo, E.S. (2022). Disrupting the global refugee crisis or celebrity humanitarianism? Media frames of the refugee Olympic team at 2016 Rio and 2020 Tokyo summer games. Sport in Society, 25(3), 671686.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UNHCR. (2021, November 10). UNHCR’s refugee population statistics database. https://www.unhcr.org/refugee-statistics/

  • Valente, A., Tudisca, V., Pelliccia, A., Cerbara, L., & Caruso, M.G. (2023). Comparing liberal and conservative newspapers: Diverging narratives in representing migrants? Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 21(3), 411427.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vincent, J., & Hill, J.S. (2013). Media coverage of international sport. In P.M. Pedersen (Ed.), Routledge handbook of sport communication (pp. 398407). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vliegenthart, R., & Boomgaarden, H.G. (2007). Real-world indicators and the coverage of immigration and the integration of minorities in Dutch newspapers. European Journal of Communication, 22(3), 293314.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Von der Lippe, G. (2002). Media image: Sport, gender and national identities in five European countries. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37(3–4), 371395.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waslin, M. (2021, August 9). Immigrants’ pivotal role in TeamUSA’s Olympic success. The Hill. https://thehill.com/opinion/immigration/566991-immigrants-pivotal-role-in-teamusas-olympic-success/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watanabe, N.M., Nie, T., & Yan, G. (2013). Evolution of sport-broadcast commentary: The case of China. International Journal of Sport Communication, 6(3), 288311.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wojcieszak, M., & Smith, B. (2014). Will politics be tweeted? New media use by Iranian youth in 2011. New Media & Society, 16(1), 91109.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, Q., & Billings, A.C. (2020). The medal war in peacetime: Examining nationalistic notions embedded in CCTV’s coverage of gymnastics in the 2016 Rio Summer Olympics. Journal of Global Sport Management, 5(3), 243261.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YJC. (2020, January 11). Ungratefulness of Kimia Alizadeh in the style of quisling/turning her back on the people, facing false promises. https://www.yjc.ir/fa/news/7205193

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, L., & Soroka, S. (2012). Affective news: The automated coding of sentiment in political texts. Political Communication, 29(2), 205231.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ziaee, A., Adib-Moghaddam, A., Elling, A., van Sterkenburg, J., & van Hilvoorde, I. (2021). Football and the media construction of Iranian national identity during the FIFA World Cup 2018 and AFC Asian Cup 2019. Soccer & Society, 22(6), 613625.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1151 1151 372
Full Text Views 61 61 19
PDF Downloads 42 42 0