To Live, Play, and Die in Tianjin: Football as Biopolitical Assemblage in Contemporary China

in Sociology of Sport Journal
View More View Less
  • 1 Florida State University
  • 2 University of South Carolina
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $65.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $87.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $123.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $165.00

In this article, the authors provide a Deleuzoguattarian tracing of a specific set of relationships between traditional Chinese medicine, life, death, and football (soccer). More specifically, the authors examine political, economic, and cultural associations formed in and around the Quanjian Group, a major traditional Chinese medicine company once located in the burgeoning industrial hub of Tianjin. The authors follow Aihwa Ong in abductively examining (de)territorializations of life, sport, and death; examining how the media publics’ (in China and beyond) awareness of the death of a young girl in 2015 destabilized a network of capital, state, medicine, and sport and in the process revealed how the vitality of major professional sport in China is situated within, and contingent upon, a vast array of material and nonmaterial (bio)political formations.

Newman is with the Department of Sport Management, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA. Yan and Watanabe are with the University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA. Xue is with the Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.

Newman (jinewman@fsu.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Adams, V. (2001). The sacred in the scientific: Ambiguous practices of science in Tibetan medicine. Cultural Anthropology, 16(4), 542 575. PubMed ID: 19172768 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A scandal surrounds a big seller of traditional medicine. How much is local government to blame? (2019March 16). The Economist, pp. 4142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Associated Press. (2017, January 31). Brazil’s Pato signs for Tianjin Quanjian becoming the latest Brazilian to head to the Chinese Super League. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/sport/china/article/2066762/brazils-pato-signs-tianjin-quanjian-becoming-latest-brazilian-head

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Agamben, G. (2005). State of exception. Nova srpska politi č ka misao. 12(01+ 04), 135–145.

  • Autor, D.H., Dorn, D., & Hanson, G.H. (2013). The China syndrome: Local labor market effects of import competition in the United States. American Economic Review, 103(6), 21212168. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barad, K. (2007). Meeting the universe halfway: Quantum physics and the entanglement of matter and meaning. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bairner, A., & Dong-Jhy, H. (2011). Representing Taiwan: International sport, ethnicity and national identity in the Republic of China. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 46(3), 231248. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Birch, K., & Tyfield, D. (2013). Theorizing the bioeconomy: Biovalue, biocapital, bioeconomics or … what? Science, Technology, & Human Values, 38(3), 299327. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blackman, L., & Venn, C. (2013). AffectBody & Society, 16(1), 728.

  • Braidotti, R. (2002). Metamorphoses: Towards a materialist theory of becoming. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

  • Braidotti, R. (2006). Transpositions: On nomadic ethics. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

  • Campbell, T.C. (2011). Improper life: Technology and biopolitics from Heidegger to Agamben. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Castells, M. (1996). The rise of the network society. London, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

  • Chadwick, S. (2019, July 23). China's football future: Back to buying big. Policy Forum. Retrieved from https://www.policyforum.net/chinas-football-future/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, K.-W. (2016, October 22). Hong Kong internationals Festus Baise and Jean Kilama help fire Tianjin and Guizhou into big-money Chinese Super League. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/sport/hong-kong/article/2039268/tianjin-and-guizhou-win-promotion-chinese-super-league

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chemers, B. (2015a, June 23). Cheng: New levels of insanity as Tianjin breaks bank for Sun Ke. WildEast Football. Retrieved from https://wildeastfootball.net/2015/06/cheng-new-levels-of-insanity-as-tianjin-breaks-bank-for-sun-ke/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chemers, B. (2015b, June 23). Quanjian to purchase Tianjin Songiang; Ready to compete with Teda. WildEast Football. Retrieved from https://wildeastfootball.net/2015/06/quanjian-to-purchase-tianjin-songjiang-ready-to-compete-with-teda/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, H. (2014, November 16). Skeptics have challenged TCM practitioners to prove their claims. Global Times. Retrieved from http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/892069.shtml

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chinese Medicine Division. (2019). Common Chinese medicine therapies. Retrieved from http://www.cmd.gov.hk/html/gb/health_info/pamphlet/Health_35780_Booklet_r3.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chinese State Council. (2015). Chinese Football Reform and Development Program. Beijing, China.

  • Chow, R. (1998). Introduction: On Chineseness as a theoretical problem. Boundary 2, 25(3), 124. doi:

  • Church, M. (2017, November 6). Fabio Cannavaro resigns as Tianjin Quanjian boss, Paulo Sousa appointed. ESPN. Retrieved from http://www.espn.com/soccer/tianjin-quanjian/story/3261448/fabio-cannavaro-resigns-as-tianjin-quanjian-boss-replaced-by-paulo-sousa

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Church, M. (2019, February 11). Soccer-Two-time Asian champion Choi joins Dalian. Reuters. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/soccer-china-day/soccer-two-time-asian-champion-choi-joins-dalian-idUKL5N2060EE

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clough, P.T. (2004). Future matters: Technoscience, global politics, and cultural criticism. Social Text, 22(3), 123.

  • Coole, D., & Frost, S. (Eds.). (2010). New materialisms: Ontology, agency, and politics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

  • Connell, J. (2018). Globalisation, soft power, and the rise of football in China. Geographical Research, 56(1), 515.

  • Conolly, M. (2017, January 11). Asia’s top sports media properties: ONE, CSL, IPL, and the continent's other leadersForbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/mattconnolly/2017/01/11/asias-top-sports-media-properties-one-championship-and-the-continents-other-leaders/#34622287115d

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeLanda, M. (2006). A new philosophy of society: Assemblage theory and social complexity. London, UK: Continuum.

  • Deleuze, G. (1988). Foucault (S. Hand, Trans.). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

  • Deleuze, G. (1997). Immanence: A life… Theory, Culture & Society, 14(2), 37. doi:

  • Deleuze, G. (2007). Two regimes of madness: Texts and interviews 1975–1995 (D. Lapoujade, Ed.; M. Taormina & A. Hodges, Trans.). New York, NY: Semiotext(e).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1987). A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (B. Massumi, Trans.). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dong, J. (2003). Women, sport, and society in modern China: Holding up more than half the sky. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

  • Don’t equate medicine as liquor! The advertisement of Hongmao Medicinal Liquor violated law 2630 times. Who has been its protector? (2018April 16). People’s Daily. Retrieved from http://society.people.com.cn/n1/2018/0416/c1008-29927478.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duckett, J. (2011). The Chinese state’s retreat from health: Policy and the politics of retrenchment. London, UK: Routledge.

  • Duckett, J., & Langer, A.I. (2013). Populism versus neoliberalism: Diversity and ideology in the Chinese media’s narratives on health care reform. Modern China, 39(6), 653680. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dutton, M. (2005). Policing Chinese politics: A history. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

  • Fox, N.J., & Alldred, P. (2015a). Inside the research-assemblage: New materialism and the micropolitics of social inquiry. Sociological Research Online, 20(2), 122140. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fox, N.J., & Alldred, P. (2015b). New materialist social inquiry: Designs, methods and the research-assemblage. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(4), 399414. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fruehauf, H. (1999). Chinese medicine in crisis: Science, politics, and the making of “TCM.” Journal of Chinese Medicine, 61(6), 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fung, Y.-L. (1948). A short history of Chinese philosophy. New York, NY: The Free Press.

  • Greenhalgh, S. (2009). The Chinese biopolitical: Facing the twenty-first century. New Genetics and Society, 28(3), 205222. doi:

  • Greenhalgh, S., & Winckler, E.A. (2005). Governing China’s population: From Leninist to neoliberal biopolitics. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu, X. (2008). China’s new round of healthcare reforms. Singapore: East Asian Institute, National University of Singapore.

  • Hayton, J.W., Millward, P., & Petersen-Wagner, R. (2017). Chasing a Tiger in a network society? Hull City’s proposed name change in the pursuit of China and East Asia’s new middle class consumers. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 52(3), 279298. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • He, T. (2018, September 23). Why is this “magical medicine” so resilient? [“神药”的命为啥这么硬? ]. Caijing. Retrieved from http://news.sina.com.cn/s/2018-09-23/doc-ihkmwytn6758171.shtml

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsu, E. (1999). The transmission of Chinese medicine. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

  • Huang, R. (2015). Assessing the sociology of sport: On China and the Olympics. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 50(4–5), 477482. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, D., Chen, M., & Heberer, T. (2017). From “state control” to “business lobbying:” The institutional origin of private entrepreneurs’ policy influence in China (Working Papers on East Asian Studies, No. 118/2017). Duisburg, Germany: University of Duisburg-Essen.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Janes, C.R., & Corbett, K.K. (2009). Anthropology and global health. Annual Review of Anthropology, 38(1), 167183. doi:

  • Latour, B. (1990). Technology is society made durable. The Sociological Review, 38(1), 103131. doi:

  • Latour, B. (2004). Why has critique run out of steam? From matters of fact to matters of concern. Critical Inquiry, 30(2), 225248. doi:

  • Lee, C.K. (2002). From the specter of Mao to the spirit of the law: Labor insurgency in China. Theory and Society, 31(2), 189228. doi:

  • Lee, M.S., Pittler, M.H., & Ernst, E. (2008). Effects of reiki in clinical practice: A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 62(6), 947954. PubMed ID: 18410352 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, J. (1993). Geopolitics of the Chinese communist party in the twentieth century. Sociological Perspectives, 36(4), 315333. doi:

  • Li, Z., et al. (2016). An analysis of the international market of Chinese traditional medicine. [中药类产品国际市场分析]. International Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine [国际中医中药杂志], 38(5), 385389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, S. (2019, January 12). The destruction of Quanjian Empire: Shu Yuhui arrested and Tianjin urgently detached itself [权健帝国覆灭记: 束昱辉归案 天津紧急切割]. Sina. Retrieved from https://finance.sina.com.cn/chanjing/gsnews/2019-01-12/doc-ihqhqcis5410838.shtml

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, Z., Chen, R., & Newman, J.I. (2019). The Football Dream of a Sleeping Dragon: Media Framing (s), East–West Geopolitics, and the Crisis of the Chinese Men’s National Team. Communication & Sport. Advance online publication. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manning, E. (2010). Always more than one: The collectivity of a life. Body & Society, 16(1), 117127. doi:

  • Manning, E. (2013). Always more than one: Individuation’s dance. Raleigh, NC: Duke University Press.

  • Massumi, B. (1987/2004). Notes on the translation and acknowledgements. In G. Deleuze & F. Guattari (Eds.), A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizoprenia (pp. xvixix). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. (Original work published 1987)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McLeod, C.M., Pu, H., & Newman, J.I. (2018). Blue skies over Beijing: Olympics, environments, and the People’s Republic of China. Sociology of Sport Journal, 35(1), 2938. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mou, W., & Liu, S. (2018, December 18). The industry of traditional Chinese medicine: The sales and revenue growth of Chinese traditional patent medicine is under pressure in the short term. [中药行业:中成药收入及利润增速短期承压, 中药饮片市场迎曙光]. Sohu News. Retrieved from http://www.sohu.com/a/282815449_739558

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murray, S.J. (2006). Thanatopolitics: On the use of death for mobilizing political life. Polygraph: An International Journal of Politics and Culture, 18, 191215.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oludare, S. (2019, January 31). Barcelona confirm Asisat Oshoala signing. Goal.com. Retrieved from https://www.goal.com/en-us/news/barcelona-confirm-asisat-oshoala-signing/4tg1ww9w9mmw1d33cmmiezgiq

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ong, A. (2005). Ecologies of expertise: Assembling flows, managing citizenship. In A. Ong& S.J. Collier (Eds.), Global assemblages: Technology, politics, and ethics as anthropological problems (pp. 337353). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ong, A. (2008). Scales of exception: Experiments with knowledge and sheer life in tropical Southeast Asia. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 29(2), 117129. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ong, A. (2016). Fungible life: Experiment in the Asian city of life. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

  • Rajan, K.S. (2006). Biocapital: The constitution of postgenomic lifeDurham, NCDuke University Press.

  • Reid, D.P. (1987). Chinese herbal medicine. Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications.

  • Reid, C. (2018, December 28). Makers of Chinese herbal ‘anti-cancer drink’ investigated after death of 7 year-old girl. The Telegraph. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/12/28/makers-chinese-herbal-anti-cancer-drink-investigated-death-7/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ringrose, J. (2011). Beyond discourse? Using Deleuze and Guattari’s schizoanalysis to explore affective assemblages, heterosexually striated space, and lines of flight online and at school. Educational Philosophy & Theory, 43(6), 598618. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ringrose, J., & Renold, E. (2014). “F** k rape!” Exploring affective intensities in a feminist research assemblage. Qualitative Inquiry, 20(6), 772780. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riordan, J. (1999). Sport and physical education in China. London, UK: Taylor & Francis.

  • Salter, B., & Waldby, C. (2011). Biopolitics in China: An introduction. East Asian Science, Technology and Society: An International Journal, 5(3), 287290. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sankar, A. (2015, December 4). Luis Fabiano has accepted an offer from Chinese second-division side Tianjin Songjiang. Sambafoot.com. Retrieved from http://www.sambafoot.com/en/news/78214_luis_fabiano_has_accepted_an_offer_from_chinese_second-division_side_tianjin_songjiang.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shih, S.-M. (2001). The lure of the modern: Writing modernism in semicolonial China, 1917–1937. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shih, G., & Li, L. (2018, December 28). A Chinese alternative medicine empire is under fire after doctors say it gave jujube tea to a 4-year old cancer patient. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2018/12/28/chinese-alternative-medicine-empire-is-under-fire-after-doctors-say-it-gave-jujube-tea-year-old-cancer-patient/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.c2c900e2becf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • State Council. (2016). Traditional Chinese medicine in China. Retrieved from http://english.gov.cn/archive/white_paper/2016/12/06/content_281475509333700.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Su, F., & Yang, D. (2000). Political institutions, provincial interests, and resource allocation in reformist China. Journal of Contemporary China, 9(24), 215230. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tan, T.C., Bairner, A., & Chen, Y.W. (2020). Managing compliance with the World Anti-Doping Code: China’s strategies and their implications. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 55(3), 251271. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tierra, M., & Lesley, T. (1998). Chinese traditional herbal medicine: Diagnosis and treatment (Vol. 1). Twin Lakes, WI: Lotus Press.

  • Traditional medicine: Health care with Chinese characteristics. (2017September 2–8). The Economist, pp. 3738.

  • Vatter, M. (2009). Biopolitics: From surplus value to surplus life. Theory & Event, 12(2). doi:

  • Waldby, C., & Mitchell, R. (2006). Tissue economies: Blood, organs, and cell lines in late capitalism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

  • Wang Yongpo once used Quanjian plaster to treat fractures and stated that he would soon recover: Wang Dalei laughed and cried the magic drug. (2018, December 26). Sohu. Retrieved from https://www.sohu.com/a/284677611_785372

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Y. (2018, December 27). Chinese health product giant investigated for false advertising. Sixth Tone. Retrieved from https://www.sixthtone.com/news/1003389/chinese-health-product-giant-investigated-for-false-advertising

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Y., & Yao, Y. (2001, July 31). Sources of China’s economic growth, 1952–99: incorporating human capital accumulation. Report for The World Bank (Report no. WPS2650). Washington, DC: The World Bank.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wen, C.-C., Chen, H.-M., & Yang, N.-S. (2012). Developing phytocompounds from medicinal plants as immunomodulators. In L.-F. Shyur& A.S.Y. Lau (Eds.), Recent trends in medicinal plants research (pp. 197272). New York, NY: Academic Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Which pharmaceutical corporations received substantial government subsidies in 2008? [[医药企业2018年政府补贴哪家强?]. (2019, January 11). Sohu. Retrieved from http://tech.sina.com.cn/d/i/2018-12-30/doc-ihqfskcn2685480.shtml

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White, J. (2018, October 4). Paulo Sousa leaves Chinese Super League side Tianjin Quanjian by mutual consent with club in relegation dogfight. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/sport/china/article/2166914/paulo-sousa-leaves-chinese-super-league-side-tianjin-quanjian-mutual

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, M. (2018, October 24). Contemporary relationship between Chinese government and enterprises. [当下中国政府与企业家关系]. Lianhe Zaobao [联合早报]. Retrieved from http://m.unzbw.com/mon/keji/20181024/50446.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xiong, H. (2007). The evolution of urban society and social changes in sports participation at the grassroots in China. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 42(4), 441471. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xue, H., Watanabe, N.M., Chen, R., Newman, J.I., & Yan, G. (2020). Football (as) Guanxi: A relational analysis of actor reciprocity, state capitalism, and the Chinese football industry. Sport in Society, 23(12), 20052030. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, C. (2019, February 18). Father of a 7-year-old girl to keep suing drug manufacturer. China Daily. Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201902/18/WS5c6aa33da3106c65c34e9f2b.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, L., Newman, J., Xue, H., & Pu, H. (2019). The transition game: Toward a cultural economy of football in post-socialist China. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 54(6), 711737. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, L., Xue, H., & Newman, J.I. (2018). Sporting Shanghai: Haipai cosmopolitanism, glocal cityness, and urban policy as mega-event. Sociology of Sport Journal, 35(4), 301313. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhan, M. (2001). Does it take a miracle? Negotiating knowledges, identities, and communities of traditional Chinese medicine. Cultural Anthropology, 16(4), 453480. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, P. (2019, January 6). Chinese health product firm Quanjian scandal widens as public anger grows. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/2180749/chinese-health-product-firm-quanjian-scandal-widens-public-anger

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, T., & Silk, M.L. (2006). Recentering Beijing: Sport, space, and subjectivities. Sociology of Sport Journal, 23(4), 438459. doi:

  • Zhang, Z., Wang, M., & Teng, J. (2019, January 24). Inside Quanjian: The alleged pyramid scheme blamed for a toddler’s death. Caixin Global. Retrieved from https://www.caixinglobal.com/2019-01-24/inside-quanjian-the-alleged-pyramid-scheme-blamed-for-a-toddlers-death-101374055.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, R. (2016, August 13). TCM firm announces first direct sales product. China Daily. Retrieved from https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2016-08/13/content_26458517.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, X., & Belk, R.W. (2008). Politicizing consumer culture: Advertising’s appropriation of political ideology in China’s social transition. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(2), 231244. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, Y. (2018, December 28). Child’s death sparks regulation of TCM. Global Times. Retrieved from http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1133969.shtml

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zheng, J., Tan, T.C., & Bairner, A. (2019). Responding to globalisation: The case of elite artistic gymnastics in China. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 54(5), 536556. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zito, A., & Barlow, T.E. (Eds.). (1994). Body, subject, and power in China. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

  • Zuo, M. (2019, January 9). Chinese police arrest Quanjian chief on suspicion of false marketing and running pyramid sales scams. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/2181050/chinese-police-arrest-quanjian-chief-suspicion-false-marketing

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 148 148 60
Full Text Views 6 6 4
PDF Downloads 1 1 1