This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy, wrestling performance, and affect prior to competition. 15 minutes prior to competition, 70 male high school wrestlers (M = 16.03 years) completed a self-efficacy assessment, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), and the Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety Inventory-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990). Self-efficacy was found to be significantly associated with positive and negative affect and cognitive and somatic anxiety. Consistent with social cognitive theory, self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of performance when the measure was process oriented rather than win-loss. The findings suggest that confusion and equivocality in the literature could be removed if researchers assessed self-efficacy in a microanalytical fashion. Future research investigating the affective antecedents of performance should go beyond merely assessing negative states and recognize the potential role positive affect may play in sport behavior.
Darren C. Treasure is with the Department of Health, Recreation, and P.E. at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, Vadalabene Center, Edwardsville, IL 62026-1126. Jeffrey Monson is with the Department of Psychology and Mental Health at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN 55812-2496. Curt Lox is with the Department of Physical Education at Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115-2854.