Previous research (e.g., Barr & Hall, 1992) suggests that imagery is used differentially throughout an athlete’s competitive season. The influence of time of season (early vs. late) and type of sport (team vs. individual) on athletes’ use of imagery was examined. Male and female varsity athletes representing 10 sports completed the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, in press) early and late in a competitive season. Results indicated that cognitive specific (CS) imagery significantly increased for fencing, field hockey, rugby, soccer, and wrestling. Motivational Specific (MS), Motivational General-Mastery (MG-M), and Motivational General-Arousal (MG-A) imagery showed a significant increase from Times 1 to 2 for rugby, soccer, and wrestling. Most sports demonstrated a significant increase in MS imagery. For all sports, except badminton, cognitive general (CG) imagery increased. Results indicate that imagery use changes during the competitive season, but this depends on the sport.
Krista Munroe, Craig Hall, and Sharon Simms are with the School of Kinesiology at the University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, N6A 3K7. Robert Weinberg is with the Department of PHS at Miami University, Phillips Hall, Oxford, OH 45056.