Imagery Use in Sport: A Literature Review and Applied Model

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Kathleen A. Martin McMaster University

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Sandra E. Moritz University of Rhode Island

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Craig R. Hall University of Western Ontario

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Research examining imagery use by athletes is reviewed within the context of an applied model for sport. The model conceptualizes the sport situation, the type of imagery used, and imagery ability as factors that influence how imagery use can affect an athlete. Three broad categories of imagery effects are examined: (a) skill and strategy learning and performance, (b) cognitive modification, and (c) arousal and anxiety regulation. Recommendations are offered for the operationalization and measurement of constructs within the model, and suggestions are provided for how the model may guide future research and application.

Kathleen A. Martin is with the Department of Kinesiology at McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada, L8S 4K1. Sandra E. Moritz is with the Department of Physical Education & Exercise Science at the University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI02881-0810. Craig R. Hall is with the School of Kinesiology at the University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6A 3K7.

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