Imagery plays important cognitive and motivational roles in many areas of life, including sport (Paivio, 1985) and exercise (Hausenblas, Hall, Rodgers, & Munroe, 1999). The purpose of the present paper was to examine how the cognitive and motivational roles of exercise imagery vary with gender, frequency of exercise, and activity type. Participants (n = 577) completed the Exercise Imagery Questionnaire (Hausenblas et al„ 1999) which measures appearance, energy, and technique imagery. Participants, regardless of gender, frequency of exercise, or activity type, used appearance imagery most frequently, followed by technique and energy, respectively. Men used significantly more technique imagery than women did, while women used significantly more appearance imagery than men did. In addition, high frequency exercisers (3 or more times per week) used all types of imagery more frequently than low frequency exercisers (2 or fewer times per week). Finally, imagery differences existed based on type of activity.
Kimberley L. Gammage is with the School of Kinesiology at the University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7. E-mail: <firstname.lastname@example.org>. Craig R. Hall is with the School of Kinesiology at the University of Western Ontario; Wendy M. Rodgers is with the Faculty of Physical Education & Recreation at the University of Alberta, Edmonton.
The research was supported by a grant from the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada to Craig. R. Hall and Wendy M. Rodgers.