Application of the Transtheoretical Model to Psychological Skills Training

in The Sport Psychologist
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  • 1 Oklahoma State University
  • 2 Pacific Research and Evaluation
  • 3 University of Arizona
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In an effort to apply the transtheoretical model of change to the area of psychological skills training, questionnaires measuring stage of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy were developed and cross-validated on two samples of NCAA Division I intercollegiate student-athletes. The measures showed good internal reliability and construct validity and exhibited hypothesized functional relationships with each other. In addition, the stage of change measure predicted sport psychology consultations initialed by athletes during the year following questionnaire administration and may prove to be a useful tool in predicting subsequent initiation of individual sport psychology consultation. Several potentially useful lines of research are discussed and recommendations are made regarding the development of sport psychology interventions tailored according to athletes’ stage of change.

Thad R. Leffingwell is with the Department of Psychology, Oklahoma State University, 215 North Murray, Stillwater, OK 74078. E-mail: <>; Steven Rider is with Pacific Research and Evaluation, Beaverton, OR; Jean M. Williams is with the Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

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