The Effect of Imagery Function and Imagery Direction on Self-Efficacy and Performance on a Golf-Putting Task

Click name to view affiliation

Sandra E. Short University of North Dakota

Search for other papers by Sandra E. Short in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jared M. Bruggeman University of North Dakota

Search for other papers by Jared M. Bruggeman in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Scott G. Engel University of North Dakota

Search for other papers by Scott G. Engel in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Tracy L. Marback University of North Dakota

Search for other papers by Tracy L. Marback in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Lori J. Wang University of North Dakota

Search for other papers by Lori J. Wang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Anders Willadsen University of North Dakota

Search for other papers by Anders Willadsen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Martin W. Short University of North Dakota

Search for other papers by Martin W. Short in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

This experiment examined the interaction between two imagery functions (Cognitive Specific, CS; and Motivation - General Mastery, MG-M) and two imagery directions (facilitative, debilitative) on self-efficacy and performance in golf putting. Eighty-three participants were randomly assigned to one of 7 conditions: (a) CS + facilitative imagery, (b) CS + debilitative imagery, (c) MG-M + facilitative imagery, (d) MG-M + debilitative imagery, (e) CS imagery only, (f) MG-M imagery only, (g) no imagery (stretching) control group. A 3 (imagery direction) X 3 (imagery function) X 2 (gender) ANCOVA with pretest scores used as the covariate was used. Results showed a main effect for performance; means were higher for the facilitative group compared to the debilitative group. For self-efficacy, there was a significant imagery direction by imagery function by gender interaction. These findings suggest imagery direction and imagery function can affect self-efficacy and performance and that males and females respond differently to imagery interventions.

The authors are with the Motor Behavior Laboratory at the University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND.

Please address all correspondence concerning this manuscript to Sandra E. Short, Faculty of Physical Education and Exercise Science, University of North Dakota, Box 8235, Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202. Email: <Sandra_moritz@und.nodak.edu>.
  • Collapse
  • Expand